|Title: Economic and Financial Turmoil: Special Case for Pakistan in the Current Scenario|
|Author(s): Usman Khurshid, Khalid Zaman, Waseem Ikram|
|Pages: 1-5||Paper ID: 1905091-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: October, 2009|
Abstract: Human nature leads to comfort and thus they cross our barriers and limitations, and ultimately they loose every thing peace, comfort, assets and even life. Then either they are crusader of 1099, pharaoh of Hazrat Musa or the world of today. The objective is to make awareness among masses about the current economic and financial turmoil. The motivation of this study is to find many queries about this turmoil, its history and how the world and especially Pakistan can avoid further loss of credit and assets. It also includes the favorable policies that can be implemented to wipe off the current financial crisis along with the Islamic perspective and a solution to current scenario of financial crisis. It help to understand that how a single economy on the nation can create a turmoil and to get more accurate how some financial institutes can create a turmoil, a turmoil that have ability to shake even the most power full economies of the world. This paper provides basic knowledge and ideas to the reader about the current financial crisis and it is a duty of a loyal Pakistani citizen to contribute in the solution of the crisis that is being faced by Pakistan.
|Keywords: Economic Crises, Friends of Pakistan, Financial Institutions, Islam, Economic Policies.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 265 KB|
|Title: Modeling Uncerainty and Investment as Determinent Of Returns From Pakistani Insurance Companies|
|Author(s): Muhammad Ayub Siddiqui|
|Pages: 6-10||Paper ID: 199091-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: October, 2009|
Abstract: This paper tests pair-wise causal relationships between uncertainty, returns and investment using unbalanced panel data of the 13 insurance companies listed in the KSE for the period from 1790 to 2008. Volatility of returns from the daily stock was measured using the GARCH (p, q) for appropriate values of p and q. The study applied panel data models in the lines of common constants, fixed effects and random effects in order explore effects of uncertainty and investment on returns. The results show significant positive effect of uncertainty on the returns from investment. This subsequently recommends that investment under volatile conditions might prove a blessing for the investors of the insurance stocks. These findings are contradictory to the results of some of the previous studies. For most of the stocks, hypothesis of “investment (I) does not Granger cause uncertainty (H)” or “uncertainty (H) does not Granger cause investment (I)” could not be rejected. The study finds that change in returns from securities definitely brings about changes in the risk and uncertainty. JEL classification: C1, C13, G2
|Keywords: Investment; Stock market volatility; Uncertainty, Returns, Insurance, KSE, Pakistan.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 215 KB|
|Title: Crisis of Electrical Energy in Pakistan and Future guideline for Policy makers|
|Author(s): Sifat Shah, M. K. L. Bhatti|
|Pages: 11-15||Paper ID: 191209-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: October, 2009|
Abstract: This paper analyses the problem of shortfall in the supply of electrical energy that is presently being faced by Pakistan. The root causes of the shortfall in supply are mentioned. A forecast for next 10-12 years has been made using empirical data and preliminary calculations. A brief review is given about the potential of Pakistan to produce electricity and energy sources it has. Importance of utilizing coal resources of Pakistan also discussed in it. Also potential of water resource for construction of hydro-electric power station is described with mentioning the importance of run of river power station. Short and long term solutions to overcome this crisis are also given. Importance of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power is discussed in this article. This article provides a brief review of energy crisis in Pakistan and the main area to be focused to minimize shortfall of electricity in Pakistan.
|Keywords: Energy Crisis, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 362 KB|
|Title: Dynamic and Static Softening Behaviors of AA2024 Aluminum Alloy Under Hot Deformation Applications|
|Author(s): H. Arabshahi|
|Pages: 16-18||Paper ID: 191409-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: October, 2009|
Abstract: The dynamic and static softening behaviors during multistage hot deformation of aluminum alloys have been studied by double-hit compression testing in the temperature range of 300-400 ºC. The interrupted deformations were conducted with delay times varying between 30 and 120 seconds after achieving a strain of approximately 0.4 in the first stage. It was indicated that the considerable dynamic softening and exceptional softening associated with a structure softening exist in alloy deformation at 400 ºC, leading to an initial flow stress value at the second deformation lower than that at the first deformation. For all alloys studied, the static softening increases with increasing deformation temperature and holding temperature and delay times.
|Keywords: Dynamic softening, work softening, work hardening, dynamic precipitation .|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 273 KB|
|Title: Theoretical Calculation of Atom Displacement Damage in Wurtzite GaN Crystal Structure by Fast Neutron Radiation|
|Author(s): H. Arabshahi, M. Gholizadeh, F. Shalian|
|Pages: 19-21||Paper ID: 1918091-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: October, 2009|
Abstract: In this research, the amount of neutron energy deposition in GaN crystal of different sizes and at different distances from a neutron source has been evaluated by using MCNP code. Then, the rate of atoms displacement in the crystals has been calculated using a Fortran program that was written based on NRT Model. The damage to crystal is proportional to the energy deposition of neutron directly. Results show that number of atoms displacement in the crystal is related to the neutron radiation damage and increased by enlarging of crystal size.
|Keywords: Neutron energy; crystal size; atom displacement; NRT model .|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 81 KB|
|Title: Effect of Temperature on Ceramic from Rice Husk Ash|
|Author(s): M. M. Haslinawati, K. A. Matori, Z. A. Wahab, H. A. A. Sidek, A. T. Zainal|
|Pages: 22-25||Paper ID: 1924091-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: October, 2009|
Abstract: Two forms of crystal phase, cristobalite and tridymite contained in RHA ceramic presented in this paper. Raw material (RHA) was going through with thermal treatment in order to produce white ash powder. Later the powder was pelletized using hydraulic press. Then disc shape pellets were sintered at certain temperature (1000-1400°C) in order to observed the effect of sintering temperature on the RHA ceramics. XRD analysis was performed to characterize the phase changing in the RHA ceramics due to their temperature. The results showed that the RHA ceramic sintered at 1000°C contained high percentage of cristobalite and this continues decreasing as the temperature increasing. It seems to be different for tridymite phase where it become greatly appears at higher sintering temperature. This crystal phase can be confirm by their microstructure that performed by SEM.
|Keywords: Microstructure, Phase formation, Rice husk ash, X-ray diffraction.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 240 KB|
|Title: Characteristics of Fractional Order Derivatives of Function With Independent Variables Values|
|Author(s): Shaikh Tajud Din Nizami, Nasirud Din Khan|
|Pages: 26-29||Paper ID: 1926091-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: October, 2009|
Abstract: The notion of fractional order derivatives is not new. It is about 300 years ago, when French nobleman Marquis de’L Hospital (1661-1704),asked the question German Gottfried willhelm Leibniz (1648-1716) , ”what if n be ) ? “. During the last two decade some mathematicians carried forward their deep investigation into area of fractional calculus. This paper is concerned with concept and characteristics of fractional order derivatives of function with independent variables values and to show how these relation may be used to solve several applied sciences and engineering problems.
|Keywords: Fractional Calculus, fractional differentiation, Fractional order derivatives|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 302 KB|
|Title: Fabrication and Characterization of Y3.0-XLaXFe5O12 - PVA Composite as EM Waves Detector|
|Author(s): Noorhana Yahya, Muhammad Kashif, Hanita Daud, Hasnah Mohd Zaid, Afza Shafie, Nadeem Nasir, Alex See|
|Pages: 30-33||Paper ID: 1927091-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: October, 2009|
Abstract: This is our initial response towards fabricating a magnetic filled polymer composite samples potentially used as electromagnetic waves detector. Samples of lanthanum yttrium iron garnet Y3.0-XLaXFe5O12 (where x = 0, 0.5 ,1.0, 1.5 , 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 ) were synthesized by conventional solid state technique. We used simple casting technique to fabricate the Y3.0-XLaXFe5O12-PVA composite. The samples were mixed with PVA solution to form composite suspension. The single phase of the yttrium iron garnet and lanthanum iron garnet were identified by using X-Ray diffraction analysis. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) revealed that the lanthanum based garnet have much smaller grains when compared to the yttrium based garnets. The 0.5 mole fraction of lanthanum substitute in the dodecahedron sub-lattices were found to be exhibit the highest initial permeability values. the highest Q-factor value occurs from the sample Y2.0La1.0Fe5O12. Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) was used to observe the surface morphology of the composite samples. The relative permittivity was measured for YIG-PVA composite with different weight ratio of the YIG, the results shows that relative permittivity decreases with increasing frequency. The YIG-PVA composite was used as an electromagnetic detector to detect EM waves emitting from a transmitter. The composite with 0.6g weight ratio show high voltage detection at 15 MHz frequency.
|Keywords: Conventional solid state, X-ray diffraction, grain size and initial permeability.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 477 KB|
|Title: The Production of High Purity Hexagonal MoO3 through the Acid Washing of As-prepared Solids|
|Author(s): R. Irmawati, M. Shafizah|
|Pages: 34-36||Paper ID: 19100091-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: October, 2009|
Abstract: Highly pure and crystalline h-MoO3 nanocrystals in the form of well-faceted straight hexagonal rods were successfully synthesised from an acid-base titration method. The formation of metastable h-MoO3 was due to the addition of a high H+ concentration to a basic molybdenum solution. Precipitates were formed at a pH range of 1.95-2.10. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that the obtained solids were hexagonal MoO3, while their morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fabricated rods have a BET total surface area of ~3m2g-1, with crystallite sizes ranging from 33 to 46 nm.
|Keywords: Hexagonal MoO3, acid-base titration, precipitation|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 354 KB|
|Title: Structural and Magnetic Characterizations of Nano Structured Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 Prepared By Self Combustion Method|
|Author(s): Majid Niaz Akhtar, Noorhana Yahya, Patthi Bin Hussain|
|Pages: 37-40||Paper ID: 1928091-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: October, 2009|
Abstract: NiZn ferrite with composition Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 was prepared by the self combustion technique. The samples were sintered at 750 °C and 950 °C and characterized by XRD, SEM and Raman spectroscopy. From the analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns, the single phase and good nanocrystalline of Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 particles were obtained at sintering temperature of 950 °C. The particle size ranges from 25 to 36 nm was observed by XRD and SEM. Raman results show the confirmation of spinel structure. It was found that grain size increases as the sintering temperature increased from 750 °C to 950 °C. The cubical shape microstructure of Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 was observed at sintered temperature of 950 °C. The ferrite powder was also characterized for permeability, relative loss factor and Q-factor. The initial permeability was found to increase and relative loss factor decreased at high frequency. The powder sintered at 950 °C can be used for high frequency application and multilayer chip inductor due to low temperature sinter ability and low loss at high frequency.
|Keywords: Self combustion, Ni-Zn ferrite, Nano particles, XRD, Raman spectra, Scanning electron microscopy, Initial permeability.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 379 KB|
|Title: Effect of Zinc on the Elastic Behaviour of (TeO2)90(AlF3)10-x(ZnO)x Glass System|
|Author(s): H. A. A. Sidek, S. Rosmawati, Z. A. Talib, M. K. Halimah, S. A. Halim|
|Pages: 41-44||Paper ID: 1939091-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: October, 2009|
Abstract: Systematic of ternary oxyfluotellurite tellurite glasses in the form (TeO2)90(AlF3)90-x(ZnO)x have been successfully prepared. Both longitudinal and shear ultrasonic velocities were measured in different compositions of the glass system by using the MBS8000 Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System at 10 MHz frequency and at room temperature. The elastic properties of ternary telluirte glasses (TeO2)90(AlF3)90-x(ZnO)x were measured as a function of composition. The ultrasonic velocity data, the density, the calculated elastic moduli and micro-hardness depend on the glass composition. The composition dependence was discussed in terms of ZnO modifiers that were expected to change the physical properties of oxyfluotellurite glasses.
|Keywords: Tellurite glasss, elatic modulus, ultrasonic characterization,|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 222 KB|
|Title: Engineering of Tire Pressure Controlling Device: An Invention Towards Successful Product Development|
|Author(s): Sivarao, T. J. S. Anand, M. Warikh|
|Pages: 45-48||Paper ID: 1952091-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: October, 2009|
Abstract: Tire pressure plays an important role in ensuring safe and economical driving. Even then, many vehicles with under inflated tires are observed to be on the road due to the unawareness of the fact that properly inflated tires can safe tire life up to 20% which is nine months more of its life span. It can also save fuel from 4% to 10%, increase braking efficiency up to 20%, lightens steering system and ease self steer. Improper maintenance and operation failure of air pressure kiosks are the main reason why users seldom inflate their tires at the gas stations. Besides that, long awaiting queue at the kiosk and not knowing the exactly required tire pressure of their own vehicle is another cause for tires running with improper pressure. Therefore, a method of how to ease the users to inflate their tires is engineered and invented. Automatic Tire Pressure Controller (ATPC) has been idealized to ensure correct pressure is inflated into the tires regardless of the setting on the pressure source: e.g. kiosk, compressor, foot inflator, etc. The device will alert the user upon reaching the appropriate pressure by a hissing sound. This product attracts many users especially ladies who often being the second driver who are always unsure of the pressure of their tires.
|Keywords: Automatic Tyre Pressure Controller, Automatic pressure regulator, tyre pressure limiting device.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 453 KB|