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Title: Constructing Twisted Anomalous Elliptic Curves
Author(s): Intan Muchtadi-Alamsyah, Fajar Yuliawan, Ahmad Muchlis
Pages: 1-4 Paper ID: 100506-3939-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: Huhnlein et al showed that for totally non-aximal imaginary quadratic orders, the discrete logarithm problem can be reduced to the discrete logarithm problem in some finite fields. In previous work we showed that for twisted anomalous elliptic curves, the logarithm problem can also be reduced to the logarithm problem in some finite fields. In this work we present an algorithm to construct this class of elliptic curves.
Keywords: Discrete logarithm problem, imaginary quadratic order, elliptic curve, anomalous curve.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 369 KB
Title: Preparation and Characterization of Sulfated Titania Catalysts for the Isomerisation of Citronellal
Author(s): S. N. Aisyiyah Jenie, Dona S. Kusuma, Anis Kristiani, Joddy A. Laksmono, Silvester Tursiloadi
Pages: 5-10 Paper ID: 106206-3838-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: Mesoporous sulfated titania xerogels with structural and catalytic properties were prepared by the modified sol-gel method using surfactant as templates. The sulfate loading of these catalyst materials were varied in the range of 0 to 50 wt% SO42-. Characterization of the sulfated titania were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption and X-ray diffraction. The addition of sulfate has decreased the crystalline size and induces the structural transformation from rutile to anatase. The best sample catalyst was attained at TS5 containing 5 wt% of sulfate and having equal strength of both Brønsted and Lewis acid site. Sulfated titania show good activity towards citronellal isomerization at 95°C using toluene as solvent. Conversion of citronellal correlates with the the surface acidity of the catalyst and the use of toluene as solvent in the reaction, while the selectivity towards (-)-isopulegol depends on the corresponding acid site strength.
Keywords: CATALYST, CITRONELLAL, ISOPULEGOL, SULFATED TITANIA.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 387 KB
Title: Some Dirichlet Forms and Pseudo Differential Operators with Conditionally Exponential Convex Function
Author(s): Fatma. M. Kandil
Pages: 11-15 Paper ID: 100706-8181-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: In this paper, we present a concept of conditionally exponential convex functions and we prove that under suitable assumptions it is possible to define a Dirichlet forms constructed by a class of pseudo differential operators with symbols defined in terms of conditionally exponential convex functions.
Keywords: Pseudo differential operators –Dirichlet forms-conditionally exponential convex function.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 308 KB
Title: Study on the Magnetic Field Dependence of the Nematic-Isotropic Phase Transition of Liquid Crystals : A Monte Carlo Study by Employing the Wang-Warner Simple Cubic Lattice Model
Author(s): Warsono, Kamsul Abraha, Yusril Yusuf, Pekik Nurwantoro
Pages: 16-20 Paper ID: 102906-7575-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: We have used Monte Carlo technique by employing the Wang-Warner simple cubic lattice model to study the influence of magnetic field on nematic-isotropic phase transition of liquid crystals. This is shown in phase diagrams involving energy per site, orientational order parameter and specific heat as function of temperature. We find that in the absence of magnetic field, the nematic-isotropic phase transition is a strong first order transition. Upon increasing the strength of magnetic field, the jump of first order phase transition becomes small and in a critical magnetic field ( ), the phase transition changes becoming the second order. For fields larger than there is no phase transition and the nematic and paranematic phases are indistinguishable.
Keywords: Phase transition, liquid crystal, magnetic field, Monte Carlo technique, Wange-Warner simple cubic lattice.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 762 KB
Title: The Challenges of Biofuel Implementation in Indonesia: Environmental Prospect
Author(s): Muhammad Kismurtono, B. Paul Naiola
Pages: 27-31 Paper ID: 106106-0505-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: Biofuel production in Indonesia in 2025 could reach 15,9 billion liters and 16.5 billion liters per year of ethanol and biodiesel, respectively. If the technology is still depended on the first generation biofuels, the land dedicated to biofuels would be in the range of 6.6 to 11.6 million hectares. Therefore, it is no wonder that there are widespread concerns that biofuels could end up causing more problems than they solve. Several LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) studies reported that the effects of first generation biofuels as fuel can reduce green house gases (GHG) and produce a higher total energy amount than that of fossil fuels. However, recent and more comprehensive studies indicated that if the land use conversion were accounted for, biofuel resulted a much higher of GHG emissions, especially if it was included the rainforest destruction, or conversion of peat lands. For the above reasons, in the near term, the policy priority should be to find ways to promote sustainable production methods for biofuel feedstock, especially how to avoid direct and indirect destruction of the Indonesian primary forest. Moreover, policy finance should focus on research and development to promote sustainable production methods, especially on second generation biofuels, and not on increased production of first generation biofuels.
Keywords: Biofuel, environment, green house gases emission, land use conversion, production of second generation biofuel.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 255 KB
Title: Investigating the S Wave Velocity Structure Beneath Southwest North America through Seismogram Comparison of C052297B Earthquake
Author(s): Bagus Jaya Santosa
Pages: 32-42 Paper ID: 103506-9696-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: In this research the investigation concerning the earth structure beneath the Southwest North America landmass is carried out, which covers a small area, i.e. between Mexico and California. S speed models for this area are obtained by carrying out seismogram fitting in time domain and three simultaneous Cartesian components. Seismogram data are the effect of earthquake C052297B in Guererro, Mexico, and seismogram fitting between observation and synthetic at the stations of the property of seismic network TS. Synthetic seismogram is calculated using the GEMINI program, where the initial input is earth model IASPEI91 (iasp) and PREMAN. To both real and synthetic seismograms a low-pass filter with the frequency corner at 20 mHz is imposed. Results of waveform analysis show the very unsystematic and strong deviation, which are observed from the waveform comparison, where the deviations cover waveform, arrival time, oscillation's amount and amplitude height. Such discrepancies are met on S wave, Love and Rayleigh surface wave, and ScS wave, where the stations epicentral distances are below 300. With this method we can see how sensitive the waveform to structure of earth layer is. To accomplish the discrepancies a correction to the earth structure is needed, which covers the earth crust thickness, speed gradient of ?h and coefficient for the ?h and ?v in upper mantle for the fitting at surface wave, and a little change of S speed structure at layer under upper mantle as deep as 771 km for the waveform fitting of S wave, and a little change at base mantle layers, for the fitting of ScS wave. At some stations, fitting of P wave is also achieved by means of correction at S speed structure. The result of this research indicates that the 1-D earth model obtained by fitting seismogram at every couple of hypocenter and observation station is unique. This shows the heterogeneity of the S speed structure beneath Southwest North America
Keywords: Seismogram Fitting, S speed structure Upper Mantle - CMB.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 390 KB
Title: Incidence of Arsenic Resistant Bacteria Isolated From a Sewage Treatment Plant
Author(s): Anyanwu, C. U., Ugwu, C. E.
Pages: 43-47 Paper ID: 100106-3737-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: This study was carried out to assess the incidence of arsenic resistant bacteria from a sewage treatment plant receiving various waste effluents from a university community. Twelve arsenic resistant bacteria were isolated from the oxidation ponds and sewage sludge by growing them on nutrient agar medium amended with high concentrations of arsenic. The isolates were studied based on their cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics and were identified as strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3), Bacillus spp (3), Flavobacterium spp (2), Escherichia coli (2), Klebsiella sp (1) and Staphylococcus aureus (1). Further study of the twelve isolates showed that six of them exhibited resistance to arsenic concentration of 200 ppm and above. Co-resistance of the six isolates to some heavy metals, namely, Cd2+, Cu2+, and Cr6+ was studied and all the six isolates showed high resistance to the heavy metals with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the heavy metals ranging from 100 to 400 ppm. The bacterial isolates obtained in the present study could be successfully exploited biotechnologically for the bioremediation of arsenic and heavy metal contaminated ecosystem.
Keywords: Arsenic, heavy metal, resistance, bacteria, sewage.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 342 KB
Title: Estimation for Multivariate Linear Mixed Models
Author(s): I Nyoman Latra, Susanti Linuwih, Purhadi, Suhartono
Pages: 48-53 Paper ID: 109406-8484-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: This paper discusses about estimation of multivariate linear mixed model or multivariate component of variance model with equal number of replications. We focus on two estimation methods, namely Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and Restricted Maximum Likelihood Estimation (REMLE) methods. The results show that the parameter estimation of fixed effects yields unbiased estimators, whereas the estimation for random effects or variance components yields biased estimators. Moreover, assume that both likelihood and ln-likelihood functions hold some of regularity conditions, it can be proved that estimators as a solutions set of the likelihood equations satisfy strong consistency for large sample size, asymptotic normal and efficiency.
Keywords: Linear Mixed Model, Multivariate Linear Model, Maximum Likelihood, Asymptotic Normal and Efficiency, Consistency.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 710 KB
Title: A Two Phase Approach for Solving Linear Programming Problems by Using Fuzzy Trapezoidal Membership Functions
Author(s): I. U. Khan, T. Ahmad, N. Maan
Pages: 54-59 Paper ID: 106906-7575-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: The two well known methods for solving the linear programming problems are, i) Converting the problems to its crisp equivalent and ii) Solving the problem without converting it to its crisp equivalent using the fuzzy arithmetic. In this work we use fuzzy trapezoidal membership functions for the objective function and the constrained resources of the linear programming problem and solve it by converting the problem to its crisp equivalent. The degree of uncertainty in trapezoidal fuzzy numbers is greater than the triangular fuzzy numbers. Trapezoidal membership functions can be effectively used in situations where the decision maker is equally satisfied at different points in the acceptable ranges for the constrained resources. The two phase approach maximize-s/minimizes the degree of membership in the objective function for the different cases arising due to the use of the fuzzy trapezoidal membership functions. The proposed method presents a complete model for optimization of constrained multiple objective linear programming problems to the decision maker. A counter numerical example is used to elaborate our assertions.
Keywords: Fuzzy Linear Programmi-ng, Decision Analysis, Fuzzy Trapezoid-al Membership Function
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 359 KB
Title: Effects of Polyetherimide Pyrolysis Temperature on CMS Membranes: Study on CO2 Permeance and CO2/CH4 Permselectivity
Author(s): Mohd Azmier Ahmad, Noor Khalilah Abdul Rashid, Wan Hafiz Faizal Wan Harun, Bassim H. Hameed
Pages: 60-63 Paper ID: 108206-9696-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: In this work, carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes were prepared for CO2 permeance and CO2/CH4 permselectivity study. The membrane support was prepared by blending fine carbon sieve particles with phenolic resin. Meanwhile the coating solution was prepared by polyetherimide diluted in N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP). The solution was coated onto the support by dip coating method. The sample was pyrolysis at different temperatures (700-900oC) under inert condition. Results showed that the pyrolysis temperature played an important role in determining the CMS membrane performances. The CO2/CH4 permselectivities of 4.94, 4.19 and 3.72 respectively were attained by CMS membranes prepared at pyrolyzed temperature of 700, 800 and 900°C.
Keywords: Carbon molecular sieve membrane, Permeation, Polytherimide, Pyrolysis.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 523 KB
Title: Relationship Between Universal Religious and Moral Norms and Attitudes Towards Ecological and Demographic Development Aspects (Selfstatement of Students in Zenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Author(s): Edina Vejo, Nataša Mirolovic-Vlah
Pages: 64-69 Paper ID: 103806-1414-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: This paper scientifically discusses the possible connection between religious norms and decision-making processes and behaviors related to environmental quality.This research belongs to the modern trend of changes in the study of religion, which examines the correlates of religiosity.Theoretical basis of research is the idea of environmental ethics, the theory of sustainable development and concept of value-rational morality. The goals were: first, to determine whether there is a connection between universal religious norms partialisation influence age and sex, and second, whether there is a correlation between attitudes towards ecological and demographic aspects of the development of religious and moral norms. The sample was stratified, second year students at the University of Zenica, distributed by age, sex and study section of respondents. Measuring instruments used in research are a set of variables according to some aspects of social and ecological development (1) and questionnaire for students of socio-developmental, ethical, and interpersonal relations. The study results confirmed the hypotheses and the open question of the character of religious education in Bosnia and Hercegovini.This research initiates further research which should explore the conceptual and methodological possibilities of developing religious education in order to support the person's intrinsic religiosity.
Keywords: Religiosity, Universal Religious and Moral Norm
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 262 KB
Title: Effect of Experimental Parameters on the Morphology of Electrospun Nylon 6 fibres
Author(s): Mohammad Chowdhury, George Stylios
Pages: 70-78 Paper ID: 100906-2323-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: Electrospinning is a unique way to producing novel polymer nano fibres with diameter typically in the range from 10 nm to 1500nm. Large length to diameter ratio and small mass to volume ratio of these nano- sizes fibres widens the areas of their application to many industrial uses. Nylon 6 nanofibres with diameter ranging from 150nm to 1300 nm were produced by the electrospinning process. The fibre diameter was varied by adjusting the concentration of the polymer solution between 15wt%-25wt.% in formic acid. The fibres were obtained by electrospinning from solutions in formic acid at various concentrations. Polymer concentration, viscosity, surface tension, electrical conductivity of the solution was found as the dominant parameter to control the fibre formation. The morphology of the processed fibres has been examined by microscopic techniques (SEM) and optimized by changing process parameters.
Keywords: Electrospinning, nanofibres, process optimization.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 812 KB
Title: Process Optimization for Zn (II) Removal by Activated Carbon Prepared from Rice Husk using Chemical Activation
Author(s): Nasehir Khan E. M. Yahaya, Muhamad Faizal Pakir Mohamed Latiff, Ismail Abustan
Pages: 79-83 Paper ID: 108806-1919-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to obtain optimal activation conditions for activated carbon prepared from rice husk (RHAC) using response surface methodology (RSM). Central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the effects of the three preparation variables; activation temperature, activation time and ZnCl2: char impregnation ratio (IR) on RHAC yield and percentage of Zn (II) removal. Based on the CCD, two quadratic models were developed for both responses. The most influential factor on each experimental design response was identified from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimum conditions for RHAC were activation temperature of 500oC, activation time of 1.71 h and IR of 1.04 resulting in 34.21 % RHAC yield and 40.87 % Zn (II) removal.
Keywords: Activated carbon, Central composite design, Optimization, Rice husk, Zinc (II) removal.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 468 KB
Title: Quality of Information Supplied to Board of Directors: a Case Study on a Malaysian Higher Learning Institution
Author(s): Mohd Yussoff Ibrahim, Azrai Abdullah, Khalidah BT Khalid Ali, Abu Bakar Sedek B. Abdul Jamak
Pages: 84-95 Paper ID: 106706-2929-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: Board of Directors (BOD) of corporations is responsible for the company’s operational and financial performance apart from its fiduciary duty to fulfill the needs of all stakeholders. In executing their responsibilities, Board members have to make strategic decisions on a broad spectrum of business issues to survive in today’s challenging global environment. The efficiency of BOD and effectiveness of their decisions truly depend on the nature and quality of information provided by the Management as they are not the implementers but “overseers” in the management process. Much as the information and communication technology (ICT) has facilitated the flow of information in general, the extent, nature and quality of information provided to BOD have often been in question. This paper seeks to develop a research tool to measure the adequacy of the internal reporting system that provides information to companies’ BOD based on seven dimensions; Relevant, Integrated, In perspective, Timely, Reliable, Comparable and Clear. The efficiency and effectiveness of the internal reporting system are evaluated by measuring the gap between the levels of satisfaction that directors have on each of the characteristics with that of the preparers’ perception. The instruments to measure those constructs were developed and tested based on a pilot study performed at a Malaysian higher institution of learning. The result will be used to develop measurement tools for evaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of an internal reporting system of corporations.
Keywords: Board of Directors, Malaysia, management, quality of information, internal reporting system, efficiency, effectiveness, level of satisfaction.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 517 KB
Title: Model of Vertical Resistivity Distribution of Rock Layers in Jeneberang watershed
Author(s): Muh. Altin Massinai, Syamsuddin, Makharani
Pages: 96-103 Paper ID: 104106-5757-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS) or Watershed is the accumulation of material from Jeneberang debris avalanche of Mount Bawakaraeng. The Resistivity material from several types of rock settling needs to be identified by using the geoelectric geophysical studies. Geoelectrical resistivity method used in this study aims to map the vertical layers of rock in the upstream and downstream of Jeneberang watershed. The results shows that resistivity values in the upstream of Jeneberang watershed is relatively high at around 300 - 2000 ohmmeter. This price indicates the value of plutonic rock of resistivity type. Around the downstream watershed of Jeneberang, resistivity value is relatively low, ie below 300 ohmmeter. This value indicates that in the downstream of watershed sediment rocks have experienced weathering.
Keywords: Avalanches, Jeneberang river, resistivity type, plutonic rocks.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 364 KB
Title: Mathematical Description of the Implementation of the Adaptive Newton-Raphson Method in Compositional Porous Media Flow
Author(s): Akmal Aulia, Noaman El-Khatib
Pages: 108-115 Paper ID: 108406-7373-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: Models for multiphase-multicomponent ?ow in porous media are described in systems of PDEs. Solving them using ?nite difference discretization method can be of three ways; explicit, semi-implicit, and fully implicit. In this study, we present the implementation of an adaptive Newton-Raphson method in the context of IMPECS (Implicit Pressures Explicit Concentrations and Saturations) method of solution.
Keywords: Reservoir Modeling, Adaptive Newton-Raphson, Compositional Model, Fluid Flow in Porous Media, Finite Dif- ference, Conjugate Gradient.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 833 KB