|Title: Historical Review of Classical Hadith Literature in Malay Peninsula|
|Author(s): Abdur-Rahman M. A., Abdul Mutalib Embong, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim Abdullah, Mashitah Sabdin, Raja Ahmad Iskandar Raja Yaacob, Mohd Pisol Mat Isa|
|Pages: 1-6||Paper ID: 110702-9494 IJBAS-IJENS||Published: April, 2011|
Abstract: Malay Peninsula had become one of the important Muslim education centers during 15th to 16th century in Malacca. It produced many classical Islamic manuscripts including hadith (tradition of the prophet) literature. This study provided the discussion and review about important hadith literature which were written in Malay Peninsula before the independence of Malaya in 1957. It revealed how the literature developed century by century, starting from 15th century until 20th century. The names of the literatures and the authors were identified from the original literature itself and various printed materials related. In addition, for some important literature, the content of it was also discussed. As a result of this study, it was found that the number of hadith literature in Malay Peninsula was very low compared to the other fields in Islam. As a consequence, Muslim scholars who were involved in this field became unknown and their contributions were not appreciated. Thus, it was recommended that the Malay classical hadith literature must be studied and introduced to the society by editing and reproducing it in a modern way.
|Keywords: Classical Malay Literature, Classical Hadith Literature, Hadith, Malay Manuscripts, Malay Hadith Scholars.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 313 KB|
|Title: Integrating Performance Characterization with Software Development|
|Author(s): Reheb A. El-kaedy, Ahmed Sameh|
|Pages: 7-12||Paper ID: 111302-6464 IJBAS-IJENS||Published: April, 2011|
Abstract: The importance of integrating performance considerations into the early stages of the software development process triggers a need to bridge the gap between the fields of software engineering and performance analysis. Failure to detect performance pitfalls in a system at its earliest stages of development could turn up very costly, especially with complex and performance critical systems. Performance engineering strategies and analysis techniques could be used at the design time of the system to avoid such cost. The proposed Integrated Model-based Performance Analysis and Characterization Tool developed attempts to combine already existing standards and proposed frameworks into an automated unified easy-to-use tool. The tool aims to empower the software engineering process and make performance engineering an integral part of the software development cycle.
|Keywords: Management, Performance, Design, Experimentation, Standardization, Verification, Software performance engineering, UML, MARTE profile, performance analysis, MDA, model-to-model transformation, QVT relations, LQN.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 358 KB|
|Title: Video Games in Children’s Learning of Mathematics|
|Author(s): Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim Abdullah, Zulqarnain Abu Bakar, Razol Mahari Ali, Ibrahima Faye, Mohd Hilmi Hassan, Am Zairi bin Amar, Raja Ahmad Iskandar Raja Yaacob|
|Pages: 13-16||Paper ID: 110902-0707 IJBAS-IJENS||Published: April, 2011|
Abstract: This paper describes a research project in its early stage of implementation: Year 3 primary school students in Malaysia use computer-based video game to enhance learning of multiplication facts (tables) in the Mathematics subject which focus on the impact to their key learning outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether computer-based video games facilitate children’s cognitive learning of Mathematics specifically in the retention of multiplication facts and application of the facts in multiplication. The motivation of the study is the mixed and contrastive opinion and attitudes among the academics, educators, education stakeholders, parents, and society as a whole towards using computer games in learning as revealed in the literature. Whether the communities accepts or reject the use of video games in formal education, the high appeal of computer games on children is undeniable and significant. The additional fact that a child could spend hours focusing their attention to video games in contrast to their short attention span in formal classroom learning, commands further and in depth study in the impact and potential of video games in children’s learning. Hence this study attempts to investigate whether video games would actually contribute to positive effect on children’s learning or otherwise. In conducting this study, the researchers assume a neutral stand in the investigation as an unbiased outcome of the study would render reliable response to the impact of video games in education which would contribute to the literature of technology-based education as well as impact to the pedagogical aspect of formal education. In order to conduct the study, a subject (Mathematics) with a specific topic area in the subject (multiplication facts) is chosen. The paper describes the background of the study which rationalizes the investigation, the research methodology, expected outcomes of the study, and how the findings of the study could contribute to the impact of video games in formal learning. The researchers hope to continue such research in order to find the most effective teaching method that will appeal to most students and to incorporate characteristics such as goals and both artificial and human interaction in order to create learning that is both educational and fun.
|Keywords: COMPUTER-BASED VIDEO GAMES, DIGITAL MEDIA, COGNITIVE LEARNING, MULTIPLICATION, MEMORIZATION.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 304 KB|
|Title: Transformation of EEG Signals Into Image Form During Epileptic Seizure|
|Author(s): Muhammad Abdy, Tahir Ahmad|
|Pages: 17-22||Paper ID: 113002-7575 IJBAS-IJENS||Published: April, 2011|
Abstract: Electroencephalogram (EEG) is a recording of electrical activity of the brain and it contains valuable information related to the different physiological states of the brain. A quantitative EEG analysis has been developed over the years that introduce objective measure, reflecting not only the characteristics of the brain activity itself but also giving clues concerning the underlying associated neural dynamics. In this paper, the EEG signals during epileptic seizures are transformed into image form. The transformation is conducted at flat EEG (fEEG). fEEG is a new method to map high dimensional EEG signal into low dimensional space. The transformation of the signals consists of three steps. Initially, fEEG is divided into pixels and each of the pixels is determined its membership value in a cluster center. Then, membership value of the pixels at fEEG is determined by using maximum operator of fuzzy set. Finally, the membership degree of the pixels is transformed into image data.
|Keywords: EEG signals, flat EEG, Fuzzy Neighborhood, Fuzzy Region, Image.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 580 KB|
|Title: Toward Social Change in Islam|
|Author(s): Sumaya Mohamed, Shadiya Baqutayan|
|Pages: 23-33||Paper ID: 113302-6767 IJBAS-IJENS||Published: April, 2011|
Abstract: Islam is a way of life that guides human beings to the right way, which satisfies their spiritual as well as material needs. Along with human beings is the fundamental factor in social change and development. Accordingly, this paper discusses about the social change in Islam. The purpose is to understand how Islam concerns about the social, political, and economic life as well as the morality and ethics of Muslim’s Umah. Hence, this paper aims to reform humanity and change them in accordance to Quran and Sunnah, so that they succeed in both, this world and the Hereafter.
|Keywords: Islam, Religion, Social Change, Sociology.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 629 KB|
|Title: Knowledge Sharing in Organizations: Issues of Society and Culture, Problems and Challenges|
|Author(s): Raja Ahmad Iskandar Raja Yaacob, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim Abdullah, Raja Abdullah Raja Yaacob, Abdur-Rahman Mohamed Amin, Zulqarnain Abu Bakar, Azelin Mohamed Noor, Azrai Abdullah|
|Pages: 34-38||Paper ID: 111002-3838 IJBAS-IJENS||Published: April, 2011|
Abstract: The survival of almost all businesses is dependent upon the creation and utilization of new knowledge and it is therefore inevitable that knowledge needs to be shared. Knowledge sharing can be described as a series of processes that are adopted in order to help improve the overall performance of a community – whether corporate, small enterprise or local-based structures. The essence of knowledge sharing is to improve shared dialogue and communication between people within that community in order to encourage a more holistic approach which will consequently increase productivity. However, the sharing of information constitutes a major challenge in the field of knowledge management. One of the issues would be the existence of members of the community who do not share a common interest in sharing with others. This paper discussed some of the issues, problems and challenges pertaining to knowledge sharing in organizations. In doing so, this paper began the discussion with the background of the study in the introduction which briefly describe the nature of knowledge sharing and distribution in organizations. This was followed by discussions on benefits and the importance of knowledge sharing to justify the need to highlight the discussion on the issues within the organization communities, problems and challenges in knowledge sharing in the following section before concluding.
|Keywords: Knowledge sharing, knowledge distribution, knowledge management, ICT in organizations.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 233 KB|
|Title: Statistical Investigation of Prevalence of Smoking Among Rural Primary and Secondary School Students in Aflaj Area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia|
|Author(s): M. M. Selim, R. M. Al-Rushood|
|Pages: 39-45||Paper ID: 113402-8585 IJBAS-IJENS||Published: April, 2011|
Abstract: A school survey was conducted in twelve preparatory and secondary schools in Aflaj governorate , Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the academic year 2005-2006 in order to assess the students’ knowledge, attitudes and practice toward smoking. Methods An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used. A total of 1696 students were interviewed. Results The response rate was 100%. The prevalence of ever tried cigarette was 10% (154 students) with a median age of initiation at 17 years of age. About 4%(63 students) from the smoker's students have stopped smoking. This study examined how perceptions of student smoking in the school environment and the actual smoking rate among senior students at a school are related to smoking onset. Multilevel Logistic Regression analysis was used to examine correlates of ever smoking in the sample. The influence of family members, teachers and neighbors on smoking status was studied. Fathers’, mothers’ and brothers’ smoking was found not to be significantly related to students smoking status. On studying the effect of having a smoker teacher or neighbor on students smoking, having a smoker neighbor increases the risk of student one and half time (OR=1.63, 95%CI=1-2.4) while students having a teacher smoking have almost one the risk of smoking than the others students (OR= 1.2, 95% CI=0.8-1). Conclusions This investigation show most of students (83%) thought that smoking has health, economic and social harmful. Also, 84% of students thought that there is a relation between smoking and drugs and fire as well.. The religious factor play an important role to reduce the prevalence rate of smoking between students in the study area.
|Keywords: Preparatory and secondary schools in Aflaj governorate, self-administered questionnaire, the prevalence of ever tried cigarette, Multilevel logistic regression analysis, Aflaj area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia .|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 378 KB|
|Title: Buckling of a Migmatized-Gneiss at Ago-Sunmonu, Southwestern Nigeria|
|Author(s): Omosanya, K. O., Ajibade O. M, Akintola, A. I, Adio. N|
|Pages: 46-55||Paper ID: 113602-2727 IJBAS-IJENS||Published: April, 2011|
Abstract: The Migmatised-Gneiss outcrop at Ago Sunmonu has undergone different phases of deformation, as evident by the numerous folds found on it. Folds generally are formed through three (3) basic mechanisms buckling, passive folding and bending; this work was done to classify, and investigate the mechanisms responsible for the formation of the folds found in this rock exposure. Biot’s buckling hypothesis was tested on four hundred and ninety-eight different (498) folds and ten (10) fold groups found in the study area; parameters measured include wavelength (?), thickness (t), Amplitude (A), and the interlimb angle (i). The folds in this rock were formed as a result of compression of the foliations; they have high, intermediate, and low competence contrasts, and were categorised as disharmonious Gentle fold based on their interlimb angles and vergence towards the N, NE, and NW direction; minor occurrences of Open, Close and Tight folds were recorded. The relationship between the measured parameters corroborates results from Biot’s experiment and previous workers. The buckling hypothesis thus accounts for the folds found in the Migmatized Gneiss in Ago-sunmonu and invariably provide impetus for investigating buckling of folds in other mixed rocks (igneous and metamorphic).
|Keywords: Folds, Buckling, interlimb angle, competence contrast.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 1,197 KB|
|Title: Revival Structure of High-order Harmonic Generation Signals from Adiabatic and Switched-off Aligned Molecules|
|Pages: 56-61||Paper ID: 114102-7575 IJBAS-IJENS||Published: April, 2011|
Abstract: It is believed so far that the high harmonic generation (HHG) signal of adiabatically aligned molecules does not show any revival structure. This paper demonstrates the existence of revival structure of HHG signals of molecular ensemble aligned by using adiabatic as well as switched-off schema. The results are presented in the externally available control parameters – the delay-time, , between the pump and the probe pulse, for various relative angle, a, between their polarizations. The dynamic signals show a revival structure, similar to that of non-adiabatic alignment. To get more comparison, the signals are also presented in frequency domain, where they show similar series as those observed in non adiabatic alignment schema. These similarities suggest that the HHG of adiabatic and switched-off aligned molecules can be used to determine some molecular properties, as powerful as non-adiabatic signal.
|Keywords: Revival structure, HHG signal, adiabatic alignment, switched-off alignment.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 757 KB|
|Title: Numerical Solution of The Korteweg de Vries Equation|
|Author(s): Jamrud Aminuddin|
|Pages: 62-67||Paper ID: 114502-9292 IJBAS-IJENS||Published: April, 2011|
Abstract: The dynamics of solitary waves is modeled by the Korteweg de Vries (KdV) equation. In this work, we seek the solution of the KdV equation no perturbation term. We start by discreetizing the KdV equation using the finite difference method. The discreet form of the KdV equation is put into a matrix form. The solution the of matrix is determined using the Gauss-Jordan method. The plot of the set of the numerical solution shows a wave envelope, which represents the dynamics of the solitary wave. As the wave envelope ?(?,t) moves away, its amplitude (?) is found to be distorted after a certain period of time (t). This distortion indicates that such a wave packet is not stable.
|Keywords: Solitary waves, Korteweg de Vries, Finite difference, Gauss-Jordan.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 628 KB|
|Title: A Proposed Least Cost Framework of Irrigation Control System Based on Sensor Network for Efficient Water Management in Pakistan|
|Author(s): Sultanullah Jadoon, Salman Faiz Solehria, Mubashir Qayum|
|Pages: 68-72||Paper ID: 114902-7676 IJBAS-IJENS||Published: April, 2011|
Abstract: Almost seventy percent of the Pakistan’s economy is based on agriculture. Due to mismanagement the country faces immense problem of water shortage. One of the viable solution to overcome this problem is that we should have some machine based (IT Based) irrigation control system that could deal with the proper monitoring and distribution of water etc. for the said purpose we propose a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) application for Irrigation control which will be low cost, will ensures proper monitoring of the fields, less involvement of human, instantaneous and accurate decision making. Sensors of different kind will be deployed throughout the desired area which will collect the required data and then that will be then processed and analyzed. No one denies the fact that there exists a direct relationship between irrigation and growth per yield of agriculture. The high demand of water in the country is directly proportional to scares water resources. The cry of the day is that, the efficient management and maintenance of water resources and controlling the water wastage which are indeed the most important factor in the growth of agriculture. The proposed Wireless Sensor based paradigm will monitors many environmental parameters like temperature, humidity, soil moisture, etc.
|Keywords: Agriculture, Irrigation, Wireless Network, Sensors, Actuator.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 265 KB|
|Title: Shariah on Direct and Indirect Cost in Murabahah|
|Author(s): Muhammad Pisol B Mat Isa, M Yusof Ibrahim, Hezlina Bt M Hashim|
|Pages: 73-79||Paper ID: 111202-7575 IJBAS-IJENS||Published: April, 2011|
Abstract: Murabahah contract is an unconditional contract of sale between the seller and buyer, where the goods, cost price, markup and payment date are clearly defined, agreed and documented. The important element is that the price in murabahah should be mutually agreed upon based on the cost and margin. This paper aims to discuss the above costs (direct and indirect) from shariah point of view and recommend the opinion which can be applied in modern murabahah transaction. This paper is a concept paper where the data from the views of shariah was gathered regarding to cost used in trading and comparison with the conventional financial cost has been made to show the direct and indirect cost in murabahah financing is accepted on unaccepted by the Shariah. The study found that the direct and indirect cost in murabahah financing is accepted by the Shariah, however it is only recommended for the cost which contributes to the product.
|Keywords: Murabahah, shariah point of view|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 242 KB|
|Title: The Barriers of the Indonesian Extension Workers in Disseminate Agricultural Information to Farmers|
|Author(s): Tri Margono, Shigeo Sugimoto|
|Pages: 80-86||Paper ID: 117302-4747 IJBAS-IJENS||Published: April, 2011|
Abstract: Agriculture plays an important role in both poverty reduction and economic growth. The technology of agriculture in the developing world should change continuously to keep pace with rising populations and rapidly changing social, economic, and environmental conditions. The role of agricultural extension services to disseminate appropriate information to farmers in Indonesia is very important. In this country, the agricultural extension service to disseminate useful information to farmers on one hand has not been effective due to weak linkages between government and extension workers. On the other hand, not all of the existing information collections at the central agricultural libraries are accessible to all potential users. Based on this understanding of the current circumstances, this research was conducted to identify the barriers issue between the Indonesian government and the extension workers based on a literature review and a survey by questionnaires and interviews. The study revealed that a total of 47% of the respondents said that although secondary information resources were accessible, this was not the case for primary information. Concerning the issue related to information content, extension workers need a portal where they can access the primary information well and information centers should provide access for extension workers to the online catalog database. The cross-institutional interoperability of databases and repositories are crucial issues in providing agricultural information portal.
|Keywords: Agriculture, Information dissemination, Extension workers, Gap issue, Indonesia|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 304 KB|
|Title: Qualitative Analysis of SIR Epidemic Models in two Competing Species|
|Author(s): Sumayyah A. Batwa, Sarah A. Al-Sheikh|
|Pages: 87-95||Paper ID: 117602-9393 IJBAS-IJENS||Published: April, 2011|
Abstract: Almost all mathematical models of infectious diseases depend on subdividing the population into a set of distinctive classes dependent upon experience with respect to the relevant disease. In our work we will classify individuals as either a susceptible individual S or an infected individual I or a recovered individual R. Two SIR epidemic models in two competing species are formulated and analyzed. The two species are both subject to a disease. We analyze two different types of incidence, standard incidence and mass action incidence. Thresholds are identified which determine the existence of equilibria, when the populations will survive and when the disease remains endemic. Also stability results are proved. Using Hopf bifurcation theory some results of complicated dynamic behavior of the models are shown. With the interinfection rate of disease between the two species as a bifurcation parameter, it is shown that the model exhibits a Hopf bifurcation leading to a family of periodic solutions.
|Keywords: Competition model, Hopf bifurcation, Routh-Herwitz criterion, SIR.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 569 KB|
|Title: Sound Profile for White Seabass (Cynoscion nobilis) Habitat in the Brackish Water|
|Author(s): Sunardi, Anton Yudhana, Jafri Din, Saberi Mawi|
|Pages: 96-100||Paper ID: 117802-8585 IJBAS-IJENS||Published: April, 2011|
Abstract: The objective of this research is to formulate a characterization sound profile of brackish water for White Seabass (Cynoscion nobilis) habitat in the aquaculture environment. The expected outcome is a method of improvement of White Seabass breeding and productivity using sound stimuli. Total of 6 paddle wheels are distributed in the edge of breeding farm (25m x 100m) in order to circulate of water. Two cages which size 8 x 8 x 4 ft are used for life fish habitat which placed near from paddle wheel (edge cage) and far from paddle wheel (center cage). Sound profile has been analysis regarding time series, spectrum frequency, and phase based on time of measures (morning, noon, evening), cages (edge, center), and points of measurement in the cages (four corners, center) position using Cetacean Hydrophone C304 and SpectraLab software. Signal parameter of PF, PA, TP, THD, THD+N, IMD, and SNR has been analysis. PF at noon is always higher than at morning and evening for both cages and points of measurement. PA and TP at noon are highest and consistent on positive value. Evening is lowest and morning is highest value for THD. Profile of THD+N and IMD are no consistence. SNR in the center cage (ten times) higher than edge cage (five times). This data is occurred for the morning, noon, and in the evening.
|Keywords: Brackish Water, Sound Profile, Sound Stimuli, White Seabass.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 422 KB|
|Title: Derivation of the Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation by The Derivative Perturbation Expansion Method|
|Author(s): R. Farzand Abdullatif, Robert L. Dewar|
|Pages: 101-105||Paper ID: 118802-3030 IJBAS-IJENS||Published: April, 2011|
Abstract: The Zonal flow is an important phenomenon in the physics of plasma fusion. Due to its shearing property, it suppresses turbulence in plasma and thus enhance its confinement. This enhancement in confinement time increases the likelihood of a feasible fusion reaction. One possible candidate for the generation of the zonal flow is the modulational instability of parental drift-waves. In this work we derive the Nonlinear Schrödinger equation from the Hasegawa-Mima equation, an equation for drift-waves, using the derivative perturbation expansion method. Stability analysis on the Nonlinear Schrödinger equation yields the condition for the occurrence of modulational instability.
|Keywords: Zonal Flow, Drift-wave, Modulational instability, Multiple-scale Perturbation, Derivative Perturbation Expansion, Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 479 KB|
|Title: Direct Spectrophotometric Determination of L-Ascorbic acid in Pharmaceutical Preparations using Sodium Oxalate as a Stabilizer|
|Author(s): Amra Selimovic, Mirsad Salkic, Amel Selimovic|
|Pages: 106-109||Paper ID: 118902-7373 IJBAS-IJENS||Published: April, 2011|
Abstract: A simple and highly sensitive direct spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of L-ascorbic acid. Sodium oxalate (0,0056 mol/dm3) was used to stabilize L-ascorbic acid in aqueous medium. The molar absorptivity of the proposed method, which does not require an extraction procedure, was 1.42x104 dm3 mol-1 cm-1 at 266 nm. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 0.857 – 12.0 µg ascorbic acid/cm3. The relative standard deviation was 0.81 % for the determination of 8.0 µg ascorbic acid/cm3 (n = 7). The substances commonly found in vitamin C products do not interfere with the determination of ascorbic acid. Other vitamins, Ca(II) and benzoate interfere. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of ascorbic acid in pure form and vitamin C preparations.
|Keywords: Spectrophotometry, L-ascorbic acid, sodium oxalate, stabilizer.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 228 KB|
|Title: The Sustainability of Utilizing the Authentic Materials in English Classroom: From the Perspective of the Theory of Learning|
|Author(s): Abd Mutalib Embong, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim Abdullah, Raja Ahmad Iskandar Raja Yaacob, Azelin Mohamed Noor, Azrai Abdullah|
|Pages: 110-112||Paper ID: 111402-3737 IJBAS-IJENS||Published: April, 2011|
Abstract: This article analyzed the effectiveness of using authentic materials in the teaching of English Grammar in the classroom in line with the elements of the Learning Theory. The article will try to find the answer for the objective that is (i) Will students who were taught using authentic materials be able to learn grammar more effectively then students who were not? The quasi experimental method will be used in this study. In the study, the authentic materials will be adopted in the experimental group whereas conventional methods will be used in the control group. The findings have shown that the extreme importance of perceiving the role of authentic materials as a tool for improving grammar performance among the students.
|Keywords: Authentic materials, Authenticity, Learning, Grammar, Classroom learning.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 361 KB|
|Title: Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Content in Smoked C. Gariepinnus and T. guineensis Fish Species Available in Western Nigeria|
|Author(s): Olabemiwo, O. M., Alade, A. O., Tella, A. C., Adediran, G. O.|
|Pages: 113-118||Paper ID: 1110002-8989 IJBAS-IJENS||Published: April, 2011|
Abstract: The presence and concentration of sixteen Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in Claris gariepinnus and Tilapia guineensis fish that form part of delicacy in Western Nigeria. The smoked fish were obtained from major sales depots in five selected cities within the region and analyzed. A representative potion equivalent to about 5g sample (on dry basis) was taken from pulverized sample, soxhlet-extracted with hexane: dichloromethane (3:1 v/v) at 50?C for 6h and the aromatic containing portion of the eluants was subsequently analysed using gas chromatography (GC/FID). The results showed that the limits of detection (LOD) for the individual fifteen PAHs found in the samples ranged from 0.009 - 0.293µg/kg while Ben(a)pyrene [B(a)P] was not detected in all the fish samples except tillapia sample obtained from Ibadan.The sum of all PAHs found in smoked C. gariepinnus and T. guineensis ranged from 0.497-0.814µg/kg and 0.519–0.772µg/kg, respectively, while their control samples had 0.347µg/kg and 0.264µg/kg, respectively. 3-ring PAHs was predominantly high in all the smoked samples of the two fish species. The ratios of phenathrene to anthracene ranged from 1.86 to 8.4 and 1.16 to 3.14 for C. gariepinnus and T. guineensis, respectively, which suggests that the PAHs are from combustion source. Similaly the ratios of Flouranthene to Pyrene which range from 1.11 to 4.3 and 1.00 to 4.78 suggest that C. gariepinnus and T. guineensis are contaminated with PAHs from pyrolytic origin respectively. Thus, the relatively high concentration of PAHs in the sampled fish species may be attributed to the smoking process.
|Keywords: PAHs, Western Nigeria, Smoked fish, C. gariepinnus, T. Guineensis.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 343 KB|
|Title: Infants’ Weight Growth Model in Surabaya (Indonesia) By Using Weighted Spline Regression|
|Author(s): I Nyoman Budiantara, Jerry Dwi Trijoyo Purnomo|
|Pages: 119-123||Paper ID: 1110902-0808 IJBAS-IJENS||Published: April, 2011|
Abstract: Spline is a nonparametric regression model that become the center of attention in statistical modeling. Spline has several advantages, including flexible, have good statistical interpretation, according to data over that have no particular pattern, and very useful for modeling data that have changed pattern in sub-sub-intervals. The pattern of data between age and weight of infants in Surabaya (Indonesia) tends to change at a certain age. At less than 4 months of age, infants’ weight rise very quickly. At the age of 4 months to 14 months their weight remained increased but not as fast as less than 4 months of age. Whereas in more than 14 months of age infants’ weight rise slowly. Infants’ weight growth in Surabaya has unequal variance. The more rise of age of infants, the heavier weight of infants is obtained. Based on such of this pattern, weighted spline model is designed to model the relationships between infants’ weight and the age of infants in the city of Surabaya. Weighted spline model obtained is very suitable and has a coefficient determination of 99.56%.
|Keywords: Nonparametric Regression, Weighted Spline, Infants, Surabaya, Indonesia.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 536 KB|
|Title: Learning English through Website and Other Technological Methods in the Context of Khulna University of Engineering and Technology (KUET), Bangladesh: Perspective and Barriers|
|Author(s): Md.Shahinur Alam Sarker, Md. Zillur Rahman, Md. Hasan Imam|
|Pages: 124-132||Paper ID: 1111802-7474 IJBAS-IJENS||Published: April, 2011|
Abstract: This paper aims at discussing how the students of KUET, selected on random basis who already completed their English literacy course at English language laboratory spend time more in their practical life. The study also shows that the systems such as website and other technology based communicative methods provide them to build up their confidence, interests and motivation for learning English what finally will have the goal of E.E.P. (English For Engineering Purposes) effectively. With this drastic warm up we need such culture in education.
|Keywords: Learning English, Website, technological methods, KUET.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 300 KB|
|Title: Comparative Study of Minerals Content in Green and Ripe Bael (Wood Apple) Powder|
|Author(s): Md. Monarul Islam, Benajir Shams, Shajahan Siraj, Md. Kamrul Hasan, Shah Md. Masum, Jasim Uddin Chowdhury|
|Pages: 133-136||Paper ID: 1111602-9494 IJBAS-IJENS||Published: April, 2011|
Abstract: Bael (Aegle marmelos L) is a seasonal fruit and a good source of minerals. Bael in the form of bael shoot or bael powder is the most efficient method for preservation. The comparative study of minerals, fat and protein content in green bael and ripe bael powder was carried out by flame photometer, atomic absorption spectrometer, Soxhlet and Kjeldahl’s distillation apparatus. The analysis showed that concentration of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu (119, 4821, 92.9, 259, 1.69 and 1.34 ppm) in ripe bael powder is more than that of green bael powder (55.6, 1356, 78.9, 142, 0.66 and 0.67 ppm). Fe and carbohydrate is more in green bael powder (19.3 ppm, 93.73 %) than that of ripe bael powder (16.22 ppm, 90.33 %). Vitamin C is almost same in both types powder. Moisture, ash, protein and fat content in ripe bael powder (4.04, 1.10, 3.75 and 1.24%) are almost twice than that of green bael powder (2.64, 0.64, 1.75 and 0.67%).
|Keywords: Green Bael, Ripe Bael, Minerals, Flame photometer and Atomic absorption spectrometer.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 220 KB|