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Title: Effect of Activation Parameters on Conversion in Clay- Catalyzed Esterification of Acetic Acid
Author(s): Igbokwe, P. K Olebunne, F. L., Nwakaudu, M. S.
Pages: 1-6 Paper ID: 110405-7272-IJBAS-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: The effects of clay activation method, strength of the activating acid, activation duration and temperature on conversion in esterification reaction were studied using Nigerian montmorillonite clay. The results indicated that acid activation is the best. Activating with 1M acid strength gave the highest conversion of 78.29% at 200oC activation closely followed by 0.5M with its highest conversion of 74.29% also at 200oC. This makes 0.5M the better option from economic point of view. Longer activation time gave higher conversion during the medium temperature activation but at high activation temperature, conversion decreased with longer activation duration. From the statistical analysis using ANOVA, the strength of the activating acid had the highest significance while the effects activation temperature and duration were less significant.
Keywords: Esterification, clay-activation, clay-catalysis.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 329 KB
Title: Design and Development of Dried Chilies Seed Separating Machine
Author(s): Z. Shayfull, M. Fathullah, N. A. Shuaib, S. M. Nasir
Pages: 7-10 Paper ID: 110905-8686-IJBAS-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Dried Chilies Seeds Separating Machine (DCSSM) is designed to separate seeds from dried chilies in high volume particularly to help chili-based industries to optimize productions. Conventional method requires operators to cut chilies into small pieces and then squeeze manually by bare hands to remove the seeds. The chilies are boiled for 1 hour before undergoing grinding processes twice to make sure all chilies seeds are crushed appropriately. DCSSM can operate at 99% efficiency and eliminates 1 grinding process and reduces 40 minutes of boiling time and therefore it offers chilies seed separating process with lower cost and easy maintenance. DCSSM also assists people to obtain dried chilies without seeds instantly for several applications such as personal-home use, catering services as well as for reselling purposes. The design of this machine is simple but capable to separate seeds at the rate of 40-50kg per hour.
Keywords: Design and Development, Dried Chilies Seeds.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 529 KB
Title: A Mathematical Model to Compute the Crucial Roles of Water Vapor in Global Warming
Author(s): Md. Hamidul Islam, Md. Abdus Salam
Pages: 11-13 Paper ID: 111305-8686-IJBAS-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Scientific evidences, personal as well as societal experiences have confirmed that our world has been getting warmer over the years, slowly at the start of the industrial revolution and appears to be much faster over the past three decades. CO2 is mainly responsible for that, along with other man-made gases such as methane, nitrous oxide, fluorocarbons etc. Water vapor has been hitherto neglected in greenhouse gases budget. According to physical law, warmer atmosphere can hold more water vapor before precipitation, which could make the Earth even warmer. A mathematical model is presented in this paper to show the actual effect of water vapor (WV) in global warming, in addition to the well known effects of carbon dioxide.
Keywords: Greenhouse gas, Effects of water vapor, Greenhouse effect, Global warming.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 416 KB
Title: Potential of Conductance Measurement for Lard Detection
Author(s): Sucipto, Irzaman, Tun Tedja Irawadi, Anas Miftah Fauzi
Pages: 14-18 Paper ID: 114805-9696-IJBAS-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Relative cheapness of lard cause it is often mixed to reduce production cost in the food industry. Therefore, it is important to purpose a detection lard contamination. In this paper, we evaluate the potential and some limitation of conductance measurement for lard detection. The study was focused to identify frequency of the edible fats adulteration. Beef tallow, chicken fat, goat fat, and palm oil were mixed with different proportions of lard. These samples were analyzed by the method of dielectric spectroscopy in range 1.0-5.0 MHz. Frequencies of measurement range from 3.8-5.0 MHz in room temperature (26-27oC) shown difference of conductance between edible fats. This technique can be developed to rapid detection of lard in food industry.
Keywords: Conductance measurement, lard detection, resonance frequency.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 375 KB
Title: Study on Characteristics of Residual Water Level in Jakarta, Semarang, and Surabaya Waters – Indonesia and Its Relation to Storm Events in November 2007
Author(s): Nining Sari Ningsih, Wisaksono Suryo, Suci Dewi Anugrah
Pages: 19-25 Paper ID: 116205-7474-IJBAS-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Residual water level (non astronomic tide) obtained by removing astronomic tides from the observed tidal data and its relation to storm events have been studied in Jakarta, Semarang, and Surabaya waters, which are located along northern coasts of Java – Indonesia. The residual time series was analyzed with the occurrence of storms in the Western Pacific Ocean, namely Cyclones Peipah, Hagibis, and Mitag in November 2007. It was found that the highest surge occurred after the Cyclone Peipah event on November 9, 2007. It was of about 38 cm in the Jakarta waters, 20 cm in the Semarang waters, and 21 cm in the Surabaya waters. In general, although the storm surge heights on November 9, 2007 were maximum, the total sea level still fell below the mean sea level (MSL) in the Jakarta and Surabaya waters, while it only rose to 5 cm above MSL in the Semarang waters because the surges were associated with the ebb condition of the astronomic tide. Therefore, the impact of storm surge height induced by the Cyclone Peipah was not significant. On the other hand, although the storm surge height (± 10 cm) of the Cyclones Hagibis and Mitag on November 25, 2007 was not as high as that of the Cyclone Peipah (± 38 cm), in the Jakarta waters the total sea level rose up to 75 cm above the MSL coincided with the spring flood condition of the astronomic tide as well as perigee position of the moon. The total impact of the Cyclones Hagibis and Mitag was significant causing flooding along the northern land of Jakarta. Meanwhile, in the Surabaya Waters, the storm surge height induced by the Cyclones Hagibis and Mitag was of about 17 cm and had a significant contribution to the increasing of total sea level of about 35 cm above the MSL.
Keywords: Astronomic tide, residual water level, storms, storm surges, storm tide.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 928 KB
Title: Electrical Energy Crisis in Pakistan and Their Possible Solutions
Author(s): M. Arshad Javaid, Sarfraz Hussain, Abdul-Maqsood, Zeba Arshad, M. Awais Arshad , Majid Idrees
Pages: 26-35 Paper ID: 110505-9393-IJBAS-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: This work presents the dilemma of shortfall in the supply of electrical energy that is currently faced by Pakistan. The root cause of this shortage in the supply of energy is mentioned in this work. An abridged history as well as the present situation of the electricity production and its consumption in the country is discussed. The electricity generation potential of Pakistan in different sectors to produce energy is viewed. The importance of utilization of coal resources and water resources for the production of electric power is discussed. Pakistan has been blessed with rich and vast renewable energy (RE) resources. These renewable energy resources can play effective and considerable role in contributing towards energy security and energy independence of the country. Some predictions are made on the basis of empirical data and preliminary observations. An estimated forecast of demand and supply of electricity for the next twenty years is also projected in this article.
Keywords: Electrical Power energy, energy crisis, electricity generation, renewable energy resources.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 239 KB
Title: Calculation the eigenvalues of the power-law and logarithmic potentials using the J-matrix method
Author(s): Afaf Abdel-Hady
Pages: 36-40 Paper ID: 113705-8282-IJBAS-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: The eigenvalues of the power-law and logarithmic potentials are calculated using the J-matrix method. The calculations are carried out for states with arbitrary quantum numbers n and . Comparisons are made with the available literature data and excellent agreement is observed. In all the cases, the current method yields considerably improved results over the other existing calculations. Some new states are reported for guiding future comparisons.
Keywords: J-matrix method, Complex rotation, eigenvalues, power-law potential, logarithmic potential. Pacs number: 03.65.Ge, 31.15.Bs, 02.30.Mv
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 351 KB
Title: Growth Responses of Chromium (vi) Tolerant Bacteria to Different Concentrations of Chromium
Author(s): Anyanwu, C. U., Ezaka, E.
Pages: 41-44 Paper ID: 115705-8484-IJBAS-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Chromium (vi) – tolerant bacterial strains, namely, Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus sp. were isolated from the oxidation ditch of a sewage treatment plant. All the isolates tolerated high concentrations of up to 500 µg/ml chromium (vi) in nutrient broth. The growth responses of the bacterial isolates to different concentrations of chromium (vi) were carried out in this study. The responses of the bacteria were dependent on time of incubation and chromium (vi) concentration. The analysis of the results showed that there was significant difference (P ? 0.05) in the growth of the isolates at different concentrations of hexavalent chromium. As the concentration of chromium increased, the growth of the bacterial isolates decreased. The growth of the isolates was slightly inhibited at hexavalent chromium concentration of 200 µg/ml and highly inhibited at 500 µg/ml when compared to other lower concentrations such as 50, 100 and 150 µg/ml. The present study revealed the capacity of the bacterial isolates to grow at different concentrations of Cr (vi) and such bacteria can be used to remove Cr (vi) from the environment.
Keywords: Chromium, tolerance, bacteria, remediation, growth response.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 363 KB
Title: Invitro Effect of Papaverine on Lipid Peroxidation in Sickle Cell Anaemia
Author(s): Njoku, U. O., Nwodo, O. F. C., Agu, C. V.
Pages: 45-48 Paper ID: 116405-9292-IJBAS-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Disruption in erythrocyte membrane Ca2+ATPase activity in sickle cell anaemia is linked to increase in lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA). Some drugs are known to inhibit the Ca2+ATPases therefore, the study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of Papaverine a known Ca2+ channel inhibitor on the level of MDA and plasma calcium in sickle cell anaemia. The MDA concentrations of the sickle cell homozygous group before and after incubation (17.00±0.30nmol/l and 11.20±0.39nmol/l respectively) were significantly higher (p<0.05) when compared to groups AA (13.30±0.32nmol/l and 6.66±0.42nmol/l) and SS (11.20±0.39nmol/l and 6.80±0.44nmol/l). MDA concentration decreased significantly in all the groups after incubation with Papaverine. The SS group showed the least inhibition (35.29±0.36%) with Papaverine which is significant (p<0.05) when compared to groups AA (49.92±0.38%) and AS (39.29±0.40%). Plasma calcium concentrations before and after incubation with Papaverine were significantly higher (p<0.05) in SS group (12.8±0.42mg/dl and 9.00±0.14mg/dl respectively) when compared to groups AA (11.45±0.49mg/dl and7.14±0.21mg/dl) and AS (8.25±0.35mg/dl and 6.15±0.07mg/dl).
Keywords: Papaverine, erythrocyte, lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde, calcium, ATPases.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 161 KB
Title: Risk Analysis Method: FMEA/FMECA in the Organizations
Author(s): Lefayet Sultan Lipol, Jahirul Haq
Pages: 49-57 Paper ID: 117705-3535-IJBAS-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: This is a report on the FMEA/FMECA risk analysis method in industries. We have visited at Parker Hannifin, Boras to know their techniques to implement it and found that the company is familiar with Design and Process FMEA only and organization’s FMEA software is based on MS Excel sheet to put all of the data’s of FMEA team’s risk analysis investigation. The company follows a limit of RPN’s 200 and any value beyond this limit and equal to this is marked red. The software presents a graph of RPN’s of before action taken and after action taken. The industry is not so familiar with FMECA but using qualitative part of criticality analysis (criticality matrix of severity on Y-axis and occurrence on X-axis). We tried to find some differences of FMEA and FMECA. The company is making risk analysis if they are asked to do so by the top management. It is helping the company to avoid accident, re-design and making a reliable design or process.
Keywords: FMEA, FMECA, RPN, APQP, Criticality Matrix, Cpk, Ppk [FMEA= Failure Mode and Effects Analysis. FMECA= Failure Mode Effect and Criticality analysis. RPN= Risk Priority Numbers. ASAP= As early as possible. APQP= Advanced Product Quality Planning and Control Planning].
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 590 KB