|Title: Synthesis, Spectral Behavior and Biological Activity of Some New Fused/Isolated Polyfunctionally Heterocyclic Compounds|
|Author(s): Abduallah Suliman Al-Ayed, Hussain Ali Soleiman|
|Pages: 01-09||Paper ID: 110206-9393-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: Synthesis and increase the degree sensitization of some new fused/isolated polyfunctionally heterocyclic compounds via interaction of 4,5-dihydro-2-ethylacetate-4-oxothiazole with aryl or alkyl cinnamonitrile, quinoline (isoquinoline) or pyridine and/or quinoline or α(γ)-picoline ethiodide .The structure of the synthesized compounds have been characterized on the basis of their elemental analysis in IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral data. The synthesized compounds have been screened in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.
|Keywords: Pyranopyridothiazole, Apocyanine, monomethine|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 365 KB|
|Title: Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acids Profile of Seed Oil of Telfairia occidentalis Hook, F.|
|Author(s): Muibat Olabisi Bello, Temitope Lorine Akindele, Deborah Olubunmi Adeoye, AbdulKabir Oladele Oladimeji|
|Pages: 10-13||Paper ID: 110306-4747-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: The seed oil of Telfairia occidentalis was analyzed to establish its physicochemical properties and fatty acids profile as part of an on-going screening process for plant constituents of nutritional and economic significance. Physicochemical characteristics showed that the light yellow oil had a specific gravity of 0.921 ± 0.020, refractive index of 1.462 ± 0.002, viscosity 60.20 ± 0.01(cSt) and a smoke point of 245.00 ± 1.75 0C. The iodine value was 115.60 ± 1.20mg iodine/g, saponification value was 179.04 ± 1.60 mg KOH/g, acid value was 3.48 ± 0.06 mg KOH/g, free fatty acid 1.74 ± 0.49 % and peroxide value 2.26 mEq/kg. The seed oil was found to contain high level of unsaturated fatty acids ; oleic acid (13.42%), linoleic acid (64.34%) and a high molecular weight fatty acid; eicosapentaenoic acid, (2.43)%. Nanoencapsulation of eicosapentaenoic acid, a constituent of the seed oil, could be a good source of essential fatty acid in food formulations.
|Keywords: Telfairia occidentalis, essential fatty acids, physicochemical properties.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 219 KB|
|Title: Efficiency Improvement in Tio2-Particle Based Solar Cells after Deposition of Metal in Spaces between Particles|
|Author(s): Sahrul Saehana, Rita Prasetyowati, Marina I. Hidayat, Pepen Arifin, Khairurrijal, Mikrajuddin Abdullah|
|Pages: 14-24||Paper ID: 110906-5454-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: We report the fabrication of solar cells employing TiO2 particles as the active light-absorbing material. The solar cells were prepared by depositing TiO2 particles on a transparent conducting electrode (ITO), followed by a polymer electrolyte and a counter electrode. Copper particles were deposited in the spaces between the particles prior to deposition of the polymer electrolyte, forming continuous copper bridges to quickly transport generated photoelectrons from the particle surfaces to the transparent electrode, reducing electron/hole recombination. Several metal deposition methods were used including sputtering, electroplating, and doctor-blade coating. This strategy resulted in significant enhancement of the solar conversion efficiency compared to a similar design constructed without the copper coating.
|Keywords: Metal-semiconductor junction, performance and solar cells.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 1087 KB|
|Title: Variation of b – Value in The Earthquake Frequency – Magnitude Distribution with Depth in The Intraplate Regions|
|Author(s): Emad A. M. AL- Heety|
|Pages: 25-31||Paper ID: 111506-8484-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: We map the earthquake frequency – magnitude distribution ( b value ) as a function o depth in the intraplate regions of the earth. About 590 well – located events in the different intraplate regions are selected for this analysis. The earthquake data sets are separated in 10 km zones from 0 to 40 km depth. The b-value of the intraplate regions ranges from 0.72 to 1.20. There is a clear tendency for decrease in b- value in Africa, Asia, North America and Globally, and increase in b-value in Australia and Europe . The low b-values and low seismicity at depth range of 20-30 km may be associated with low degree of heterogeneity and high rheological strength in the Crust. The result shows that the b-value increases below the depth range of 20-30 km in Africa, Asia, North America and Globally and decreases in Australia and Europe. We found that there is high seismicity below the depth range of 20-30 km. Such high seismicity with high b-values may be associated with high heterogeneity as well as with low strength in the crust.
|Keywords: Intraplate earthquakes; Frequency – magnitude relation; b-value; Seismicity|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 589 KB|
|Title: Assessment Of The Water Quality Index Of Euphrates River Between Heet And Ramadi Cities, Iraq|
|Author(s): Emad A. M. A L- Heety, Ahmed M. Turki, Eethar M. A. AL–Othman|
|Pages: 32-39||Paper ID: 112606-8585-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: The Water Quality Index (WQI) of Euphrates river between Heet and Ramadi cities was carried out using various water quality parameter from November 2008 to June 2009. Twelve water quality parameters namely Ph, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Turbidity, Total Dissolved Salts (TDS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Bicarbonate (HCO3-), Sulfate ( SO4=), Phosphate (PO4=), Total Nitrogen (TN), Chloride ( Cl-) and Fecal Coliform (FC) were considered to compute Water Quality Index (WQI) based on the Canadian council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index methodology (CCME WQI). We found that the water quality of Euphrates river in the study area is mostly rated as ״ marginal ״ ( CCME WQI is 45.17 ) for over all drinking aquatic uses in the study period. Generally, the water quality was ״ marginal ״ at the upstream and ״ poor ״ at the downstream throughout the study period. The deterioration of water quality in Euphrates river can be attributed to natural and anthropogenic sources.
|Keywords: Euphrates river, WQI, Water Quality, Physico–chemical parameters|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 1,060 KB|
|Title: Investigation of The Use of Ethyl Esters of Castor Seed Oil and Rubber Seed Oil as Corrosion Inhibitors|
|Author(s): Udiandeye, J.A., Okewale, A.O., Etuk, B.R., Igbokwe, P.K.|
|Pages: 40-45||Paper ID: 112806-9393-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: The inhibitive effect of the ethyl esters of rubber seed oil and castor seed oil have been studied in order to evaluate their effect on the corrosion of mild steel in HCl and petroleum - water mixtures at 303 and 333K in this work. The inhibition efficiency of the two inhibitors increased with an increase in concentration of inhibitor and decreased with temperature at all concentrations. Results obtained in this work showed that the adsorption of the ethyl esters on mild steel is by physical adsorption. At all concentrations of inhibitor and studied temperatures, the ethyl ester of rubber seed oil was found to have higher inhibition efficiency than the ethyl ester of castor seed oil. The negative effect of the reaction time from the 2m-1 fractional factorial design was attributed to the reduction in the effectiveness of the catalyst with time due to deactivation catalyst weight. The polynomial model obtained using regression analysis was deemed adequate for the description of the conversion of castor seed oil and rubber seed oil to the respective ethyl esters.
|Keywords: Factorial design, corrosion inhibitor, castor seed oil, rubber seed oil, ethyl esters, weight loss.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 270 KB|
|Author(s): Okeyode I.C, Rufai A. A|
|Pages: 46-57||Paper ID: 115206-8484-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: The elemental composition of copper, manganese, iron, zinc, lead, nickel magnesium and sodium in the soil samples from some selected dumpsites and 20m away from the dumpsites within Abeokuta metropolis in Ogun state, Nigeria, have been measured and determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. At dumpsites, the concentrations of iron, manganese, zinc, lead, nickel magnesium, sodium and copper ranged from 86.89 – 277.33 mg/l, 1.9731 – 5.6644 mg/l, 0.3299 – 4.847 mg/l, 0.4132 – 2.8137 mg/l, 0.0896 – 0.1376 mg/l, 1.9731 – 5.6644 mg/l, 0.9203 – 29.00 mg/l and 0.1645 – 5.4191 mg/l respectively, while at control sites (20m away from dumpsite), the concentrations ranged from 37.64 -109.94 mg/l, 0.5342 – 1.7910 mg/l, 0.1015 – 0.3692 mg/l, 0.2150 - 0.7595 mg/l, 0.0590 - 0.0881 mg/l, 0.0927 - 0.3976 mg/l, 0.4385 and 0.9876 mg/l and 0.004 and 0.416 mg/l respectively. The concentrations of metals in soils at the decomposed biodegradable wastes dumpsites and 20m away from dumpsites showed that there is an evidence of relative increase in concentrations of metals in soils at dumpsites compared to those 20m away from dumpsites. The results compared well with the values obtained from some parts of the country.
|Keywords: Dumpsites, Abeokuta, Heavy Metal, Elemental Composition|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 860 KB|
|Title: Design of Information Fusion Mold in Supply Chain: based on Low Cost RFID|
|Author(s): Wang Hua|
|Pages: 58-61||Paper ID: 115806-6565-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: Like many technologies, low-cost Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems will become pervasive in our daily lives when affixed to everyday consumer items as ”smart labels”. While yielding great productivity gains, RFID systems may create new threats to the security and privacy of individuals or organizations. Based on synchronous fusion demand of information flow and material flow in supply chain is being analyzed, this paper design a synchronous fusion mold between information flow and material flow, which includes barcodes of product and barcodes warehouse. We have developed a low cost RFID based logistical information and barcode reader, which can extract and decode the barcode sequence on an information mold.
|Keywords: Barcode, Information flow, Material flow, Synchronous fusion, Supply Chain, RFID|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 346 KB|
|Title: Corrosion Behavior of Mild Steel in Seawater from Two Different Sites of Kuala Terengganu Coastal Area|
|Author(s): W.B. Wan Nik, F. Zulkifli, M.M. Rahman, R. Rosliza|
|Pages: 62-65||Paper ID: 114405-06-7676-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: Corrosion behavior of mild steel in seawater from different sites was investigated by using weight loss method and potentiodynamic polarization test. Samples were immersed at two different sites near Kuala Terengganu coast and analyzed for its parameters. There is slight difference of corrosion behavior from both sites. Samples immersed in site 1 gave higher corrosion rate and corrosion current densities (icorr) while the value of corrosion potential, Ecorr for site 1 shifted to negative region which indicates the increasing of corrosion activity. Small differences of seawater parameters causes the corrosion behavior of mild steel from both sites to be same where all the plots recorded shows the same pattern.
|Keywords: Mild steel, Polarization, Seawater, Weight loss|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 399 KB|
|Title: Electromagnetic Coupling Analysis of Signal through Aperture Perforated in A Loaded Shielding Enclosure using Hybrid MOM/FEM|
|Author(s): Sibel Yenikaya, Gokhan Yenikaya|
|Pages: 66-71||Paper ID: 116806-3535-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: In this paper, we present an approach to determine the effect of the aperture size of a loaded enclosure with PCB(s) inside. A hybrid formulation in frequency domain combining Method of Moments (MoM) and edge-based vector finite element method (FEM) for electromagnetic field distribution inside a loaded enclosure with aperture is introduced. While MoM solves the surface integrals related with the aperture field components using equivalent surface currents, FEM calculates electromagnetic fields inside the enclosure. Numerical results have been presented to illustrate the capability and the accuracy of the hybrid method. Stored electrical energy and dissipated power on the load are examined by changing aperture size in the loaded shielding enclosure for EMC optimization.
|Keywords: Finite element method, method of moment, shielding effectiveness, dissipated power, stored electrical energy.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 564 KB|
|Title: Sleepiness Pattern of Indonesian Professional Driver Based on Subjective Scale and Eye Closure Activity|
|Author(s): Manik Mahachandra, Yassierli, Iftikar Z. Sutalaksana, Kadarsah Suryadi|
|Pages: 72-81||Paper ID: 117006-9393-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: Studies have concluded that sleepiness while driving is considered as one main cause of traffic accidents. This naturalistic study aimed to investigate sleepiness characteristics (pattern and changes) based on subjective sleepiness scale and eye closure activity (eye-blink frequency and microsleep frequency per minute). Sixteen professional drivers agreed to participate in this study. They drove a round trip of Bandung-Jakarta-Bandung for a shuttle service company for about seven hours with mostly highway. A set of surveillance system were installed at the dashboard to record video data continuously during driving for 4-6 consecutive days. Subset of video for 30 minutes of sleepiness incident were collected, together with the value of Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) as subjective sleepiness scale in every 5-minutes interval within the subset. Frequency of eye-blink and microsleep (as an overlong eyelid closure in certain duration of time) of each video subset were then computed and analyzed. Fifty-four video subsets considered as high sleepiness incidents were obtained. Results showed that sleepiness pattern were dominated by bilinear model (48%). The sleepiness changes became faster when drivers experience transition from alert to sleepy state (KSS level 5). This physiological state could be applied as the point of time when sleepiness detection needed. Sleepiness detection method showed high sensitivity in the 20% increment of eye-blink frequency per minute and the 0.5 sec duration of microsleep. These parameters, together with the other results were valuable in the development of sleepiness detection system based on eye closure activity in the future study.
|Keywords: Driver, eye-blink, microsleep, naturalistic study, sleepiness|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 448 KB|
|Title: On isomorphism in C*-ternary algebras for a Cauchy-Jensen functional equations|
|Author(s): S. Alsayyad, F. Kandil, A. Alghamdi|
|Pages: 82-91||Paper ID: 118606-9494-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
In this paper, we investigate isomorphisms between C*-ternary algebras by proving the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of homomorphisms in C*-ternary algebras and of derivations on C*-ternary algebras for the following Cauchy-Jensen additive mapping:
|Keywords: Cauchy-Jensen functional equation; C*-ternary algebra isomorphism; Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability; C*-ternary derivation.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 453 KB|
|Title: Use of filamentous alga Mougeotia sp. to Remove Lead Ions from Contaminated Water under Laboratory Conditions|
|Author(s): Ithar Kamil Al-Mayaly|
|Pages: 92-96||Paper ID: 111706-9494-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: The filamentous alga species Mougeotia sp was used to remove lead ions from contaminated water (under laboratory conditions), it was exposed to different concentrations of lead ( 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm) in order to measure its capacity to remove and tolerant this metal. The results revealed that the alga was able to remove this metal with higher percentage (91.66, 93, 93.57 and 93.5% ) for the concentrations 3, 5, 7, and 10 ppm respectively, and with higher percentage exceed 50% from the origin concentration for the other concentrations, where be 56, 63.5, 70.33, 77.75 and 82% for the concentrations 15, 20, 30,40 and 50 ppm respectively. According to these results it can use this alga in bioremediation programmer to treat the polluted water with lead ions because of its higher efficiency to tolerant and remove the metal.
|Keywords: Bioremediation, removal of heavy metals +algae|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 609 KB|
|Title: Relationship Pattern of Poverty and Unemployement in Indonesia with Bayesian Spline Approach|
|Author(s): I Nyoman Budiantara, Rita Diana, Purhadi, Satwiko Darmesto|
|Pages: 97-102||Paper ID: 119206-0404-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: Poverty is one of fundamental problems which become major concern of Indonesia Government. World Poverty Commission said that unemployment is one of the main causes of poverty. A lot of literatures state that there is a strong correlation between unemployment and poverty, but to prove it empirically, was not easy. To see the relationship pattern between poverty and unemployment in Indonesia, it can be used spline nonparametric regression model. Spline estimator in nonparametric regression can be obtained by Bayessian approach by using prior Gaussian improper and in order to choose the optimal smoothing parameter, Generalized Cross Validation (GCV) method is choosen. Relationship model of poverty and unemployment in Indonesia obtained in the form of a quadratic spline model with two optimal knots where percentage of poverty is in quadratic curve and rise in the stage when open unemployment rate is less than 3.87, and will be declined when the open unemployment rate moved between 3.87 and 4.24. But after the open unemployment rate reached 4.24, the percentage of poverty re-patterned quadratically but decreased slowly. So, for the case in Indonesia, unidirectional relationship between poverty and unemployment in the region occurred only partially, while some are actually spinning.
|Keywords: Nonparametric regression model, spline, Bayessian, GCV|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 506 KB|
|Title: Trace Metals Accumulation in Freshwater and Sediment Insects of Liberty Dam, Plateau State, Nigeria|
|Author(s): Egila J.N., Daniel V.N.|
|Pages: 103-109||Paper ID: 1110106-3737-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: A study of the analysis of water, surface sediment, plant species, water and sediment insects sampled in three different locations of Liberty Dam was undertaken for three months (August, September and October, 2001). Most of the physicochemical properties of water determined were within the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water except for the pH of the downstream water (5.3), color (115 - 205 units), turbidity (17.4 - 44.5 NTU). The mean metal concentrations of five (5) metals in the surface sediment as determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) in µg/g dry weight were; Pb (40.82- 323.93), Cu (3.20-36.30), Zn (426. 28 – 561.60), Fe (18,231.42 – 86,284.61). Cd was not detected in the sediment. Pb and Zn concentrations were above the values allowed for bottom sediments and also had high enrichment factors in these metals that were previously determined. The control gave lower values for Pb and copper concentrations. Determination of the concentrations of four (4) metals in the sediment from the fractions that were sequentially extracted by different solutions revealed that, 0.11% Fe, 5.15% Zn, 12.50% Cu and 40.09% Pb, represented the sum of the bioavailable fractions of the metals that were present in the sediment. The relative uptake of the metals accumulated by P. lenigerum A and O. sativa were in the order of K > Fe > Pb > Zn > Ni > Co = Cd with P. lenigerum A being a better accumulator of metals. The sites, species and metal differences were observed in insects studied and expressed as concentration factors. The average accumulation of metals in insects was in the order: Cu > Pb > Zn > Fe > Cd. The study demonstrated the need of a multidisciplinary approach for the determination of the overall suitability of water for consumption and the use of more sophisticated multi-element analytical equipment (ICP-MS) to be able to detect metals of very low detection limit for proper analysis of the dam water.
|Keywords: Trace metals, Accumulation, Sediments, Insects, Freshwater, FAAS.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 531 KB|
|Title: Cognitive styles in Industrial Design|
|Author(s): Fernando A. Álvarez R., Edgar E. Martínez S.|
|Pages: 110-116||Paper ID: 113506-9292-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: The article presents the results of a research Project aimed at making a characterization of Cognitive Styles (CS) in the dimension of field sensibility-independence, of a sample of 126 Industrial Design students of the Jorge Tadeo Lozano University (JTLU) in Colombia, 90,47% of them come from the central Andean region. The guiding approach of our project is the Theory of Psychological Differentiation in the version of the Sawa, Gottschadt, Embedded Figures (SG-EFT) . The results of the SG-EFT tests are crossed to some variables of individual, eco-cultural and social study identifying the conditions of cognitive styles that favor processes of innovation. These indicate a trend toward students with a field independent style. The results support some correspondence to those of Hederich et al. and other researchers in the field independence trend. It is expected that this project contributes pedagogy and didactics within the university context, add guidance to future generations in the development of design abilities and play a role in the processes of innovation.
|Keywords: Cognitive, field sensibility-independence, industrial design, university students.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 284 KB|
|Title: The Poissonian Queue with Balking Function, Reneging and two Heterogeneous Servers|
|Author(s): Mahdy S. El-Paoumy, Hossam A. Nabwey|
|Pages: 117-120||Paper ID: 1110206-7474-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract:The aim of this paper is to obtain the analytical solution of the queue: M/M/2/N (capacity N) with general balk function, reneging and two heterogeneous servers. The usual discipline first come first served (FCFS) is used with a more general condition. The steady-state probabilities and some measures of effectiveness of the system are obtained. Also, some special cases are deduced.
|Keywords: Poissonian Queue, Balking function, Reneging; Heterogeneous servers|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 337 KB|
|Title: Critical Evaluation of Dry Spell Research|
|Author(s): SC Mathugama, TSG Peiris|
|Pages: 121-128||Paper ID: 114806-7575-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: Prior knowledge on the starting dates and lengths of dry spells has a significant importance in rain-fed agriculture, irrigation planning, and various decision making processes related to climate. When reviewing statistical analyses already in existence to study the above aspects on dry spell events, it was evident that some analyses worth further review. The statistical and mathematical algorithms used to analyze dry spells varied from empirical frequency distributions to more complex statistical distributions. Empirical frequency distributions involve comparison of frequencies of dry spells at different lengths and probabilities of maximum and conditional dry spells exceeding a user specified threshold. Markov models of order 1-10, Negative Binomial, Truncated Negative Binomial, Eggemberg-Polya and Weibull distributions have been used to find the probabilities of a dry spell event greater than or equal to a certain value. Some of the fitted models were not compared with the results obtained from empirical statistical models. Also, such models have not attempted to forecast length and starting dates of dry spells and thus the information derived from past studies cannot be used efficiently for planning purposes. Further, as forecasting of all the dry spells is impossible, it is also recommended to concentrate only on the most critical dry spells.
|Keywords: Dry Spell|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 308 KB|
|Title: Electrical Properties of Indonesian Hardwood|
Author(s): Irzaman, Sucahyo Sadiyo, Naresworo Nugroho, Reinardus L. Cabuy, Amar afif, Fakhruzy, Merry Zabed, Ningsih Indahsuary, Esi Fajriani, Abigael Kabe, Sucipto
|Pages: 129-133||Paper ID: 1110806-9494-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: Electric properties in wood have played a crucial part and continue to be study for meet the useful in the future. Apart from those, wood has basic properties and significantly different even in the same tree. Therefore it would be affected the function in its use. The aim of this investigation was to reveal the ability both in its capacitance and conductance properties. Wood samples used consist of four (4) hardwood species in which subsequently be cut adjusted with the tool. The measurement process using 3532-50 LCR HiTESTER (Hioki) with frequencies: 10, 100, 103, 104, 2.104, 4.104, 6.104, 8.104 and 105 Hz respectively. Result found that there were various values from the investigation of capacitance and conductance toward the frequency which applied. Capacitance value decrease continuously towards the frequency at 10Hz until 105Hz. While capacitance was increasing continuously in conductance property towards frequency at four (4) wood samples. Generally, these variations has influenced by wood properties and its structure in the wood.
|Keywords: Electric property, capacitance, conductance, hardwood|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 530 KB|
|Title: A Comparative study on Algorithms for Shortest-Route Problem and Some Extensions|
|Author(s): Sohana Jahan, Md. Sazib Hasan|
|Pages: 134-141||Paper ID: 1110706-3838-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: The shortest-route problem determines shortest routes from one node to another. In this paper Dijkstra’s Algorithm and Floyd’s algorithm to determine shortest route between two nodes in the network are discussed. Some extensions in Floyd’s algorithm have done. We have formulated a shortest route problem as a linear programming problem and solved it as a 0-1 integer programming problem. The dual of the formulated linear programming problem is also used to determine the shortest routes. Complementary Slackness Theorem is used to solve the primal problem from the solution of the dual problem and to determine the shortest distance as well as the shortest routes.
|Keywords: Complementary Slackness Theorem, Dual of an LPP, Dijkstra’s algorithm, Floyd’s algorithm, 0-1 Integer Programming Problem.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 511 KB|
|Title: The product Nyström method for solving nonlinear Volterra integral equation with weakly kernel|
|Author(s): F. A. Hendi, Sh. A. Al-Hazmi|
|Pages: 142-153||Paper ID: 114606-9494-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: In this work, the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the nonlinear Volterra integral equation with weakly kernels are discussed. Also, the product Nyström method is considered, to obtain a nonlinear system of algebraic equations.. In the later, we discuss numerically some examples, when the kernel takes a logarithmic and Carleman forms. Also the estimate error in each case, is calculated.
|Keywords: Singular nonlinear Volterra integral equation (SNVIE), Product Nyström method, Nonlinear algebraic system (NAS), Weakly singular kernel|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 755 KB|
|Title: Hopping conduction and dielectric properties of InSb bulk crystal|
|Author(s): A. A. Ebnalwaled|
|Pages: 154-161||Paper ID: 117406-5858-IJBAS-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: The conduction mechanism in InSb crystals has been investigated by means of dc and ac conductivity measurements. The temperature-dependent electrical conductivity analysis revealed the dominance of the thermionic emission and the variable range hopping (VRH) of charged carriers above and below 325 K, respectively. The Mott's temperature T0, the density of states at the Fermi level N (Ef), the average hopping distance Rhop and the barrier height Whop have been calculated for the obtained InSb crystals. The ac electrical conduction as a function of frequency analysis suggests that ac conduction is attributed to correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model. There is a significant increase with temperature at low frequencies in the dielectric constant due to increase in contribution from space charge polarization with temperature.
|Keywords: Variable range hopping, Correlated barrier hopping, Electrical conductivity, Dielectric constant, InSb|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 294 KB|