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Title: The Dynamics of The Ocean Bottom Sediment Beneath OBS 9 MERAMEX Station in July 2004 Using HVSR Analysis
Author(s): Gatot Yuliyanto, Wiwit Suryanto, Udi Harmoko, Kirbani Sri Brotopuspito, Waluyo
Pages: 1-4 Paper ID: 121306-8989-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: A research has been done over the dynamics of the ocean bottom sediment of Indonesia Ocean beneath the Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) 9 MERAMEX station which is placed in the southern Central Java and Yogyakarta using the analysis of horisontal to vertical spectrum ratio (HVSR). During the period from 1 July 2004 to 31 July 2004, the ocean bottom sediment under OBS 9 station has predominant frequency that is fairly similar in about 1.8 Hz, except on 11 July 2004 has predominant frequency of 0.8 Hz which is also the highest HVSR amplitude. Frequencies 1.8 Hz and 0.8 Hz are also obtained from HVSR processing on the date of 11 July 2004 for the recording data every 30 minutes. It can be concluded that the ocean bottom sediment beneath OBS 9 MERAMEX has dynamic characteristic and it may has complex structure. There is no correlation between earthquake events and predominant frequency changing of ocean bottom sediment.
Keywords: Ocean bottom sediment, OBS, HVSR
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 649 KB
Title: Tribe and Transition in Nigeria: The Role of Ethno-Political Organizations in The Transition from Military Rule to Democracy, 1993 – 1998
Author(s): Okechukwu Ibeanu
Pages: 5-19 Paper ID: 121406-9090-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: This essay analyzes the role of ethno-political organizations in Nigeria's quest for democracy. It inquires into how their interaction in the recent transition to democracy curtailed and/or exacerbated politically pertinent conflicts among ethnic groups. It is argued that the salience of ethno-political organizations in Nigeria's recent transition rests, first, on the historical process of state making in Nigeria, specifically on the insertion of ethnic groups in the structure of that state with pertinent effects. Second, military rule and absence of democratic political structures created "mobilizational gaps" that ethnic organizations filled. Both factors are germane to a "conflict dynamic" among ethnic groups at the political level of structures. Ethno-political organizations purvey such conflicts. Two factors shaped the general role of ethno-political organizations in the transition: (a) the importance of various phases of the transition programme to power sharing among the ethnic leaders; and (b) divisions between ethnic group(s) associated with the incumbent authoritarian regime (in-group) and other ethnic groups (out-group). Both factors made for conflictive ethnic alliances. Still, individual interests and maneuvers of civilian and military politicians alike, who led the ethnic alliances thrown up by the transition, underlined the specific character of conflicts.
Keywords: Ethno-political organizations, transition, authoritarianism, marginalization, conflict.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 260 KB
Title: In Depth Study for Developing Efficient Direct Somatic Embryogenesis of Jatropha Curcas L.: Morphology and Ultrastructure
Author(s): Totik Sri Mariani, Mirna Zuirda, Hiroshi Miyake
Pages: 20-28 Paper ID: 125905-06-8383-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: This is the first report on direct somatic embryogenesis of Jatropha curcas L. For in depth study, morphological observation was performed by inverted microscopy whereas ultrastructural observation was conducted by transmission electron microscopy. The somatic embryos derived from single cells, which divided, developed into embryo proper with suspensor, ECS (Embryogenic cell suspension), proembryo, globular embryo, heart and torpedo stage embryo.The shoot and plantlet developed when the ECS was plated on embryo induction medium I, embryo induction medium II and embryo germination medium, consecutively. The highest germination percentage was 63.3% on IG4-gamborg medium supplemented with 3 ppm GA3 and 1 ppm IAA. The highest shoot development was on IG4-gamborg (60%) and the highest plantlet development was on IG4-glutamin (6.7%). The reason of low percentage of plantlet development was revealed by observing the ultrastructural features of the embryogenic cells and the somatic embryos. Character of the embryogenic cells and somatic embryo was forming deposit material in the vacuole. The deposit material inhibited cellular metabolism of the cells.
Keywords: Jatropha curcas, direct somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium, deposit material.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 508 KB
Title: Network Analysis on Safety Culture and Worker’s Behaviour : A Forest of All Minimum Spanning Trees
Author(s): Maman Abdurachman Djauhari, Shamshuritawati Sharif, Hariza Djauhari
Pages: 29-37 Paper ID: 1216905-06-8484-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: In this paper safety culture and worker’s behaviour are considered, all together, as a complex system and statistically represented in the form of correlation network among their characteristics. We show that the current practice, based on a minimal spanning tree (MST), to filter the important information contained in the network is not robust. A robust filter based on the forest of all possible MSTs is then proposed and used to analyze the network. For practical purpose, an algorithm will be provided to find the forest. The advantages of the proposed filter compared to the MST-based filter will be illustrated first before we use it in the case of Malaysia manufacturing industry. Some important results that will be useful for the management will be highlighted.
Keywords: Adjacency matrix, centrality measures, correlation matrix, distance matrix, network topology.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 550 KB
Title: Crustal Shear Wave Velocities Inferred From Love Wave Group Velocity Dispersion Between Mt. Merapi and Mt. Lawu, Central Java
Author(s): Gatot Yuliyanto, Kirbani Sri Brotopuspito, Waluyo, Wiwit Suryanto
Pages: 38-43 Paper ID: 123106-9494-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: Analysis of Love waves dispersion data have been carried out to determine shear wave velocities on the crustal structure between Mt. Merapi and Mt. Lawu. The record of earthquake of near S. Coast of Honsu, Japan, 5 September 2004 with magnitude 7.5 MW at seven MERAMEX seismic stations located between Mt. Merapi and Mt. Lawu have been used. The dispersion of group velocity data have been processed by using Fourier transform-based multiple-filtering frequency-time analysis developed by Kolinsky. In particular, it can be concluded that there are low velocity zones in the crustal structure between Mt, Merapi and Mt. Lawu with shear wave velocity vary to each stations. All stations have crustal shear wave velocity below 4.0 km/s and Moho discontinuity inferred between 20-24 km depth. Crustal structure beneath CI1 station near the Mt. Merbabu has the highest shear wave velocity 3.244-3.975 km/s. It can be inferred from the crutal shear wave velocity structure, that the low velocity zone in the region between Mt. Merapi and Mt. Lawu primarily at 4-8 km depth.
Keywords: Crustal structure, low velocity, Love wave, Conrad discontinuity.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 748 KB
Title: Shoot Induction from Broccoli Explant Hypocotyls and Biosynthesis of Sulforaphane
Author(s): Wenny Tilaar, Sumeru Ashari, Bagyo Yanuwiadi, Jeany Polii-Mandang, Francien H. Tomasowa
Pages: 44-48 Paper ID: 123904-06-4747-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: The research aimed to assess combination effect of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzylaminopurine (BAP) to shoot induction from broccoli explants hypocotyl and to evaluate sulforaphane synthesis. Factorial design arranged in randomized complete design was used with 0 and 1 ppm concentration of NAA and 0, 2.5, and 5 ppm of BAP. Each combination of NAA and BAP was replicated five times. Parameters observed were time of adventive shoot formation, number of adventive shoot, fresh shoot weight, shoot height, and sulforaphane content in broccoli shoot. Data was analyzed using variance analysis. The result showed that significant difference in the number of shoots, shoot height, and sulforaphane synthesis on broccoli shoot was evident in the treatment combination with NAA and BAP. The highest shoot number and the sulforaphane content were detected in the treatment combination with 1 ppm NAA and 5 ppm BAP. The highest shoot height was yielded by the combination of 0 ppm NAA and 0 ppm BAP. The treatment with NAA revealed significant difference in shoot formation time while that with BAP showed significant difference in fresh shoot weight.
Keywords: Broccoli, substant growth, shoot induction and sulforaphane.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 423 KB
Title: The Construction of Regular Semigroups With Medial Idempotent
Author(s): O. Hysa
Pages: 49-52 Paper ID: 123906-8585-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: M. Loganathan (1987) has constructed an semigroup in terms of idempotent-generated regular semigroup , with a medial idempotent u, and of the orthodox semigroups with identity , such that u u. In that paper M. Loganathan has also shown, that every regular semigroup with a medial idempotent u, can be described in terms of the subsemigroup of generated by the set of idempotents and the orthodox subsemigroup of with identity, . In this paper we will prove that constructed by Loganathan is regular semigroup with a medial idempotent.
Keywords: Medial idempotent, orthodox semigroup, Regular semigroup.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 369 KB
Title: Nutrient, Phytochemical Composition and Sensory Evaluation Of Soursop (Annona muricata) Pulp and Drink in South Eastern Nigeria.
Author(s): Onyechi, Agatha Uchenna, Ibeanu, Vivienne Nkiruka, Eme, Paul Eze, Kelechi, Madubike
Pages: 53-57 Paper ID: 124006-8787-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: Background: Micronutrient deficiency is a public health problem. This study evaluated the nutrient, phytochemical composition and sensory evaluation of soursop (Annona muricata) pulp and drink. Methods: The soursop fruits were purchased from local market and a farm in the South Eastern Nigeria. The mature fruits were ripened for five days at room temperature. The ripen soursop fruits were peeled, the pulp handpicked, liquefied with 400mls of water to make the soursop drink. The soursop drink was then flavoured with four teaspoons of sugar syrup. The proximate composition, vitamin, mineral and phytochemical contents of the pulp and drink were determined using standard methods. The sensory evaluation of the drink was conducted using 9- point hedonic scale. Result: The carbohydrate content of soursop pulp and drink was 72.71% and 83.47% respectively. The fibre content was 6.26% and 3.47%; retinol 192.50IU and 63.76IU; ascorbic acid was 22.59mg/100g and 34.71mg/100g for the pulp and drink respectively. The pulp and drink also contained high levels of anthocyanin 6.44 and 7.35 mg/100g; flavonoids 9.32 and 5.24mg/100g and tannin 65.98 and 53.96mg/100g respectively. The soursop with sugar syrup was more acceptable (7.58±2.04) compared to the soursop without sugar syrup (5.08±1.67) at P<0.05. Conclusion: It was concluded that soursop pulp and drink contained appreciable amount of micronutrients and can be incorporated into the diets for the vulnerable groups to improve their nutritional status.
Keywords: Annona muricata, nutrients, phytochemcials, sensory evaluation.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 152 KB
Title: Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Studies of complexes of Some Metal Ions with 2-[2-Amino-5-(3,4,5-Trimethoxy-benzyl)-Pyrimidinyl-4-azo]-4-Bromo-Phenol
Author(s): Saadiyah A. Dhahir, Nazk M. Aziz. Shaimaa R. Bakir
Pages: 58-67 Paper ID: 124306-6868-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: The complexes of the 2-[2-Amino-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-benzyl)-pyrimidinyl-4-azo]-4-bromo-phenol with metal ions Cr(III), Ni(II), Cd(II) ,Cu (II) and Zn(II) were prepared in ethanol solution. These complexes were characterized by spectroscopic methods, conductivity, metal analyses and magnetic moment measurements. The antibacterial activity in vitro tests shows that the most of prepared compounds display good activity to (Staphylococcus aureus) and (Escherichia coli).
Keywords: Synthesis, 2-[2-Amino-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-benzyl)-pyrimidinyl-4-azo]-4-bromo-phenol, biological activity.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 737 KB
Title: Applying Ruschewwyh Derivative On Two Sub-Classes Of Bi-Univalent Functions
Author(s): Abdul Rahman S. Juma, Fateh S. Aziz
Pages: 68-74 Paper ID: 126306-4545-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: The Ruscheweyh derivative has been applied in this paper to in- vestigate two subclasses of the function class of bi-univalent functions de ned in the open unit disc. We nd estimates on the coe cients |a2 | and |a3 | for functions in these subclasses.
Keywords: Analytic and univalent functions; Bi-univalent functions; convex functions; Ruscheweyh derivative; Coe cient bounds.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 80 KB
Title: Evaluation of Extent of Heart Rot Fungi Infection and Impacts on Live Juniperus excelsa Trees in Ziarat Juniper Forest Balochistan, Pakistan
Author(s): Huma Batool, Zahoor Ahmad Bazai, Rukhsana Jabeen, Tahir Aqil
Pages: 76-79 Paper ID: 124606-9797-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: In the contemporary evaluation study of Juniper forest Ziarat in Balochistan five selected compactly forested areas positioned at Zangoon Jungle (ZJ), Ambaar Zawar Sar (AZS), Warkai Zazri (WZ), Salih Sakhobi (SS) & Nishpa (N) were scrutinized for the magnitude and concentration of heart rot fungal infection. There was statistically significant variance in area wise mode and intensity of damage by fungal microbes on the Juniper trees. Heart rot fungal infection percentage calculated and highest to lowest infection rate in AZS, N, WZ, SS & N were 59%, 35%, 35%, 31% & 25% respectively. The fungal infection in stem from highest to lowest in 5 locations AZS, N, WZ, SS, ZJ are 47.3, 23.66, 23.3, 16.66 & 13 respectively. Correspondingly, The premier average number of severely damaged from highest to lowest AZS, N, WZ, SS, ZJ are 18.33, 9, 7.33, 5 & 4.66 respectively. It was concluded that the infection severity was very high and the mode of infection was through wounds. It was recognized that pruning and de branching of trees by community must be stopped in order to control the heart rots and degradation of wood quality.
Keywords: Wood quality, wounds, Heart rot, Fungal infection, Pruning, De branching.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 304 KB
Title: Effects of Water Flow Speed on Muscle Histology and Survival Rate in Improving Tiger Grouper Hatchlings Quality
Author(s): Marcelien Dj. Ratoe Oedjoe, E. Suprayitno, Aulanni’am, E. Y.Herawati
Pages: 80-84 Paper ID: 122706-0808-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: Tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) is much in demand by consumers because of their meat texture and stiffness. The quality of fish is strongly influenced by the condition of the water in which the fish lives. One of the parameters that determine the stiffness of fish flesh is the flow of water, so the research to determine the relationship between the velocities of water flow to the water quality, which in turn determines the quality of the fish, needs to be done. Some 60 fish (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) were used in the experiments and kept in four 24-L tanks with population of 10 fish per tank. The four tanks were treated with different water flow rates. Our study employed completely randomized design (CRD) experiments. The muscle histology as a function of velocity of water flow was analyzed descriptively. The correlations between the muscle stiffness and survival rates with water flow velocity were analyzed using an analysis of variance (ANOVA). If the results show significant effects, the Tukey test was then used. Our study revealed that skeletal muscle histology of fish exposed to flowing water showed no different with the group without water flow (control). The structure of muscle tissue of treated groups also showed no different with the control group. Treatment of water flow had a significant effect (p <0.05) on meat firmness of the tiger grouper as well as on the survival rate.
Keywords: Tiger grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, water flow velocity, muscle firmness, survival rate.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 250 KB
Title: Pesticide Residue Levels in The Surface Water of The Irrigation Canals in The Muda Irrigation Scheme Kedah, Malaysia
Author(s): Ismail B. S., Siti Humaira Haron, Mohd. Talib Latif
Pages: 85-90 Paper ID: 129206-4545-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: The presences of pesticides residue present in the surface water of irrigation canals during the two seasons (dry and wet seasons) in the Muda Irrigation scheme of Kedah, Malaysia was monitored from September 2010 to March 2011. The sampling sites were located at four areas each representing a province in the agricultural area. The method of extraction of the insecticides (organochlorine/ organophosphate/pyrethroid) from the water samples constituted solid phase extraction followed by gas chromatography (with electron capture detector, ECD). The insecticides, namely a-endosulfan, ß-endosulfan, endosulfan sulphate, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos were found in the surface water of the irrigation canals. High concentrations of insecticides in the surface water were observed during the period from September 2010 to March 2011, a period which included both seasons (wet and dry season). The highest concentration of 3.97 µg/mL of cypermethrin was observed during the wet season while 4.42 µg/mL of chlorpyrifos was the highest observed during the dry season. This could be due to the frequent usage of the above-mentioned insecticides plus contamination could originated from the application sites. Meanwhile, the lowest concentrations detected in the surface water was that of a-endosulfan (0.26 µg/mL), and chlorpyrifos (0.13 µg/mL) during the dry and wet seasons respectively.
Keywords: Pesticide, environmental analysis, insecticide, gas chromatography.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 416 KB
Title: Exact Solutions of Burgers Equation with Space Dependent Coefficients by the Extended Unified Method
Author(s): Nasser S. Elazab
Pages: 91-95 Paper ID: 127406-8989-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: A brief report on the different methods for finding exact traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations is presented. In a very recently work it had been shown that most of methods that exist in the literature are equivalent to the “generalized mapping method” that unifies them. This method is extended here to find a class of formal exact solutions to Burgers equation with space-dependent-coefficients.
Keywords: Exact solutions, Extended Unified method, Burgers equation, variable coefficients
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 422 KB
Title: Exact Solutions For Some Nonlinear Reaction Diffusion Equations
Author(s): Nasser S.Elazab
Pages: 96-98 Paper ID: 128006-6464-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: In this paper we present a generalized method to obtain exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations. As a particular case, we obtain exact solutions for reaction diffusion equation. A new class of multiple-soliton or wave trains obtained.
Keywords: Exact solution, Reaction diffusion equation
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 151 KB
Title: An Overall Centrality Measure: The Case of U.S Stock Market
Author(s): Gan Siew Lee, Maman A. Djauhari
Pages: 99-103 Paper ID: 1212206-3838-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: In social network analysis, there have various traditional centrality measures that commonly used to determine the relative significance of a node in the network. They determined the centrality of nodes with different definitions. In this paper we propose an overall centrality measure which is an optimal linear combination of the traditional measures where the optimality criterion is similar to that in principal component analysis. This measure can be used to summarize the characterization of traditional measures determined on a node in the network. A study on the NYSE 100 stocks will illustrate its advantages.
Keywords: Centrality measure; econophysics; minimum spanning tree; stock market
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 315 KB
Title: Introduction to θ-Typr Transitive Maps on Topological spaces
Author(s): Mohammed Nokhas Murad Kaki
Pages: 104-108 Paper ID: 126106-3737-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: In this paper, we define and introduce a new type of topological transitive map called θ- transitive and investigate some of its properties in (X, τθ), τθ denotes the θ–topology of a given topological space (X, t ). Further, we introduce the notions of θ- minimal mapping. We have proved that every topologically transitive map is a θ-type transitive map but the converse not necessarily true, unless the space X is regular and that every minimal map is a θ- minimal map, but the converse not necessarily true.
Keywords: Topologically θ- transitive, θ- minimal maps, θ- irresolute, θ- dense.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 455 KB
Title: Composition and phase mineral variation of Portland cement in Mass Factory Sulaimani – Kurdistan Region NE- Iraq
Author(s): Tola Ahmed Mirza Mohammed
Pages: 109-118 Paper ID: 126206-8585-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: The raw materials, clinker, and cement from the Mass cement factory in Sulaimani City- Kurdistan Region NE-Iraq have been investigated using polarizing microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM and chemical analysis. This study will discuss about the composition and phases mineral variation from different sample type of the factory. Chemical composition analysis using X-ray fluorescence is one of the important quality analyses for examining of cement and widely used in cement industries for a long time as a tool to estimate phase composition. X-ray diffraction is one of the established techniques as a qualitative tool to identify phase existing in the sample. Microscopic invistigation and X-ray diffraction of clinkers from Mass factory indicating the presence of five principle constitutes alite,(C3S), belite (C2S), aluminate (C3A) , ferrite (C4AF), as well as minor isotropic residue (Periclase, and free- lime). The obtained SEM – micrographs show alite with well developed external shape and hexagonal outline and it is larger than the other existing phase while belite is semi rounded and irregular outline phase. The chemical analyses of raw materials used in Mass cement factory indicate that the local raw materials are suitable for cement industry after addition some additive such as iron oxide and sandstone. The chemical and mineralogical analyses for studied clinker samples show that the dominant phases composition are C3S and C2S while the C3A and C4AF are less abundant. Transformation of mineral phases is found affected by different temperature during cement production. The different types of mineral phases are observed during the production.
Keywords: Portland cement, Mass Factory, Raw material, Clinker, Phase composition.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 1019 KB
Title: Modeling the Percentage of Poor People in Indonesia Using Spline Nonparametric Regression Approach
Author(s): I Nyoman Budiantara, Madu Ratna, Ismaini Zain, Wahyu Wibowo
Pages: 119-124 Paper ID: 128906-7575-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: The problem of poor people is a very important issue in every country in the world, including in Indonesia. Each state is always trying to find the right pattern to estimate the behavior of the poor and forecasting, as an effort to create an appropriate policy to address poverty. The pattern of the percentage of poor people in Indonesia are generally tends to fall from year to year, but have localized fluctuations. In the period 1790-1998 the percentage of poor people grows quite highly because of the monetary crisis in Indonesia. While in the period 1998-2000 the percentage of poor people fell drastic line with the improving economy in Indonesia in the period of the year. In the period 2000-2005 the percentage of poor population tends to decline, although the change is less than 1%. In 2006 the population of poor increased quite significantly, but in the period 2006-2009 tends to decrease with the change between 1% until 2%. Modeling the percentage of poor people in Indonesia who have a certain pattern but vary in certain period of years, is not appropriate to use parametric regression approaches such as linear regression, quadratic or cubic. Quadratic spline nonparametric regression approach with two points knots, very decent used to model the percentage of poor people in Indonesia, because it can describe the behavior patterns of poverty change and increase the coefficient of determination is significant to 95,4%.
Keywords: Nonparametric Regression, Spline Regression, GCV, Poor.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 390 KB
Title: The use of Indrayanti Beach Sand and Coconut shell Carbon as Absorbents in Selokan Mataram Canal Water Filtration System
Author(s): Suparno, Subuhul Fathir Rajabun Na'im, Unang Alim Ardhiyadi, Widya Gusta, Lien Permatasari
Pages: 125-128 Paper ID: 1212706-4848-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: An investigation on the use of Indrayanti beach sand and coconut shell carbon as absorbents in water filtration system is reported. This environmentally friendly research is aimed to clean dirty Selokan Mataram canal water which is extremely important for agriculture, fish farm and tourism. Dirty Selokan Mataram canal water was filtered by using Indrayanti beach sand and coconut shell carbon as absorbents in ion exchange columns. The treated water was placed in a transparent container and shot by using a laser beam. The light transmission intensity was then observed by using a luxmeter. The cleanliness of the filtrated water was determined by comparing this intensity to the transmission intensity of the clean tap water to obtain light transmission intensity efficiency. The results show that the efficiency of light transmission intensity decreases with the increase of the volume of dirty water. On the contrary the light transmission efficiency increases with the increase of mass of absorbent. For both cases, the data show that coconut shell carbon absorbs dirty water better compared to the Indrayanti beach sand.
Keywords: Absorbent, filtration, Indrayanti beach sand, coconut shell carbon.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 319 KB
Title: Synthesis and Applications of Three Vinylsulfone Based Fiber-reactive azo Dyes for Dyeing Cotton Fabric
Author(s): B. Ahmad, I. A. Bhatti, Q. Saeed, M. Abbas
Pages: 129-136 Paper ID: 125306-8484-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: New- fangled vinylsulfone (VS) based fiber- reactive dyes were synthesized and applied to mill desized, bleached and mercerized textile fabric (100% cotton). Pad-thermosol dyeing method was utilized due to less hazardous environmental affects and high dye fixation to optimize dyeing quality parameters i.e. salt concentration, pH, dyeing time and dyeing temperature. The pre- treated and dyed cotton fabrics were subjected to CIE LAB and LCH system to study the dyeing quality parameters such as dL* (difference in lightness co-ordinate), da* (difference in red/ green co-ordinate), db* (difference in yellow/ blue co-ordinate), dC* (difference in chroma co-ordinate), dH* (difference in hue angle) and dE* (total color difference) with the assistance of Spectraflash SF- 600 at Noor Fatima textile. Pvt. Ltd., Faisalabad. Subsequent ISO standard test methods were applied for the assessment of different fastness properties i.e. perspiration, light, washing, chlorinated water, dry cleaning and crocking.
Keywords: Vinylsulfone reactive dyes, Color output, Dyeing applications, Cotton, Spectraflash, Crocking
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 383 KB
Title: A Study of Physico-Chemical Properties, Exhaust Dyeing of Cotton with Synthesized azo-reactive Dyes and Their Printing Applications
Author(s): B. Ahmad, I. A. Bhatti, H. N. Bhatti, M. Abbas
Pages: 137-142 Paper ID: 125606-8383-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: Three sulfatoethylsulfone reactive dyes have been synthesized and were applied to mill desized, bleached and mercerized cotton fabric. Effect of different dyeing parameters i.e. salt concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature and pH of dye solution were being optimized by exhaust dyeing method. The fixation (%F) of the synthesized dye molecules with the cotton fabrics was also studied. Cotton fabric was printed with the three synthesized dyes by printing paste formulation with sodium alginate as a thickening agent. Dyed and printed cotton fabrics exhibited excellent to good fastness results.
Keywords: Vinylsulfone, Pad-thermosol dyeing, Reactive dye, Printing, Color strength, Fastness.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 704 KB
Title: H-measures and system of Maxwell’s
Author(s): Hassan TAHA
Pages: 143-164 Paper ID: 129806-7474-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: We are interested in the homogenization of energy like quantities in electromagnetism. We prove a general propagation T heorem for H-measures associated to Maxwell’s system, in the full space = R3 , without boundary conditions. We shall distinguish between two cases: constant coe cient case, and non coe cient -scalar case. In the two cases we give the behaviour of the H-measures associated to this system.
Keywords: Electromagnetism, homogenization of energy, H-measures, Maxwell’s system.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 342 KB
Title: Use of Benthic Macro-Invertebrate Taxones as Biological Indicators in Assessing Water Quality of Erzeni River, Albania, During 2011-2012.
Author(s): Erjola Keçi, Anila Paparisto, Bledar Pepa, Kledi Xhaxhiu
Pages: 165-169 Paper ID: 1211706-4848-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: The Erzeni River flows in an area with sandy – clay deposits (Saraçi R., 1790). The geographical position and geologic composition of river basin have a specific study importance. This occurrence shows a close connection between habitat and benthic indicators and widely between hydrology and biodiversity. For the biological assessment of river water quality different groups of macro invertebrates are used. They are good indicators of biodiversity and habitat quality and their presence is closely connected with the general ecological status of the river ecosystem. (Lee N. 2003). Benthic macro invertebrates are determined as crucial elements and have a great importance in the biological assessment of water quality (Water Framework Directive - WFD). In this study the water quality results are given for the monitoring period from summer 2011 to summer 2012 in three sampling stations in Erzeni River, Albania. The paper presents the aquatic ecosystem situation based on data gathered on insect and invertebrate fauna. From the analyses of data is important to mention the presence of benthic sensitive organisms (Environmental Protection Agency- USA) in the sampling stations. Two other groups, benthic invertebrates with a medium tolerance toward pollution and tolerant taxons were present as well. The species richness pattern of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera were significantly correlated with EPT and BI value.
Keywords: ETP, TV, water quality, EPT, BI index.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 441 KB
Title: Chemical and Sedimentological Characterization of Moulvibazar Silica Deposit of Bangladesh as Standard Sand
Author(s): Md. Faruk Hossain, Md. Ashraful Islam Molla, Shah Md. Masum, Ashequl Alam Rana, A. F. M. Saiful Amin.
Pages: 170-176 Paper ID: 121806-7676-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: Standard sand is used for conducting the compressive strength test of hydraulic cement mortars. American society for testing and materials (ASTM) recommends Ottawa Standard Sand (OSS). Bangladesh has quiet a rich sand deposits but in the scenario of not having standard sand, OSS is imported from abroad for using in different tests in Bangladesh. In this work, a very strong effort has been made to standardize the sand for Bangladesh using its own available deposits and thus to eliminate the unwanted expenditure of foreign currencies. Hence, we selected the Moulvibazar silica deposit (situated at the piedmont of Dupi Tila formation) with the maximum probability of having high silica content by studying the geological formation of Bangladesh. OSS contains about 99.7% of silica and has ‘rounded’ shape which enables non-reactivity of sand with cement constituents during the testing of hydraulic cement mortars. XRD analysis of the sand sample shows that it contains about 96.87% of silica after water wash and 91.17% of silica after acid wash. SEM images were used to measure the roundness of the sand samples. The roundness of the water wash and acid (0.1N HCl) wash sand samples (according to Waddle scale) were found to be 0.28 and 0.27 respectively. Both sand samples fall into ‘sub-rounded’ class of roundness grade (of Pettijohn gradation). An attempt was taken to observe the change of roundness by mechanical abrasion of the sample. It was observed that the roundness was decreased because of the growth of secondary corners. DSC isotherm analysis was carried out at three different temperatures (300, 450 and 600 C) to investigate the reactivity of sand samples. Neglecting the unaffected reactivity, instead, considering the high silica content and subrounded shape of the sample, the sand of Moulvibazar deposit could be recommended for using as standard sand for testing hydraulic cement mortars.
Keywords: Moulvibazar; X-ray diffraction; scanning electron microscopy; differential scanning calorimetry; roundness.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 704 KB
Title: Mechanism of Gonadotropin Hormone Release in Catfish (Clarias Sp.) upon Laserpuncture Exposure to Reproduction Acupoint.
Author(s): Pungky S.W. Kusuma, Agung P.W. Marhendra, Aulanni’am, Marsoedi.
Pages: 177-182 Paper ID: 127106-7575-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: Laserpuncture exposure effectively stimulates gonad maturation and spawning, but the associated gonadotropin release mechanism is still unknown. Our study was aimed to investigate the release of gonadotropin hormones in the catfish (Clarias sp.) after laserpuncture exposure at the reproduction acupoint. The test fish consisted of 54 males and 54 females aged 8-9 months from the F1 hybrid Sangkuriang type female and Paiton type male parents. Our study employed an experimental method with completely randomized design. The treatment comprised 6 levels with 9 repetitions. We were to observe gonadotropin (GtH-I and GtH-II) hormone concentrations pre-spawn, spawn, post-spawning in the laser exposed group. As a comparison investigations were also conducted to untreated group (control). Blood sampling was performed six hours post exposure. Hormone level test was performed using Elisa test kits. The test results showed a significant effect of laser exposure on the increase of gonadotropin hormone levels pre-spawn, spawn and post- spawning. This suggests that laser exposure at reproduction acupoint can stimulate the release of gonadotropin hormones which affect the acceleration of gonad maturation and spawning.
Keywords: Laserpuncture, catfish (Clarias sp.), reproduction acupoints, gonadotropin hormones.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 704 KB
Title: Physiochemical Analysis of Drinking Water from Different Urban Areas of Faisalabad.
Author(s): Saeed Q., Bhatti I.A., Ashraf A., Ahmad B.
Pages: 183-186 Paper ID: 1211406-9393-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: In order to determine quality of water used for drinking purposes physicochemical analysis in selected residential areas of Faisalabad, an industrial city of Pakistan was carried out .Samples were collected from twenty different sites and analyzed for following parameters such as color, odor, taste, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, P-alkalinity, M-alkalinity, total hardness and concentration of principal cations and anions such as Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Cl- and SO42-. Standard methods were used for determination of physical and chemical characteristics of the water samples. The data showed the variation of the investigated parameters in samples as follows: pH 7.12- 7.73, conductivity 639-6690 µS/cm, total dissolved solids 1260-6573 mg/L, P-alkalinity 17-60 mg/L, M-alkalinity 270-940 mg/L, total hardness (Calcium and Magnesium) 220-620 mg/L and concentration of principal cations and anions such as Na+ 19-55 mg/L , K+ 16-48 mg/L, Mg2+ 9.72-81.1 mg/L, Ca2+ 32-100 mg/L, Cl- 20-960 mg/L and SO42- 50.8-72.6 mg/L. The concentrations of the investigated parameters in the drinking water samples were within the permissible limits of the World Health Organization.
Keywords: Drinking water, physiochemical analysis, cationic and anionic analysis, WHO standards.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 335 KB
Title: Feasibility Analysis of Geothermal Power Plant Wastewater Utilization: A Case Study on Lahendong Geothermal Power Plant, North Sulawesi.
Author(s): Hariyadi, Soemarno, Bobby Polii, Bagyo Yanuwiadi
Pages: 187-190 Paper ID: 1212806-6464-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: Utilization of geothermal energy is limited to power generation. Therefore, in view of the value of commercial utilization a study to find other feasible utilizations has been carried out. Our study aimed to identify and analysis the possible utilizations of geothermal fluid wastewater from Lahendong Power Plant in North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Our study revealed that the annual potential economic value is mounted to IDR 941.934.000. The feasible utilizations are hot bath, steam bath, drying process of agricultural products, wood drying, recreational purposes, palm sugar production, and alcohol distillation.
Keywords: Waswater utilization, geothermal, Lahendong Power Plant, North Sulawesi.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 335 KB
Title: Study of Application of Mono azo Reactive Dyes on Cotton by Exhaust method and Printing Properties.
Author(s): Saeed Q, Bhatti, I.A., Zuber, M., Nosheen, S., Zia, M.A., Abbas M
Pages: 191-197 Paper ID: 1211906-8484-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: This paper explores the printing properties and exhaust dyeing of four newly synthesized reactive dyes. Dyes were applied at different conditions of dyeing parameters such as pH, electrolyte concentration, time and temperature in order to get maximum fixation. After printing on fabric, color strength was determined with Spectraflash SF 600 spectrophotometer and fastness properties such as washing, crocking, light, perspiration, chlorinated water and dry cleaning were investigated by International organization of standardization (ISO) standard methods. Exhaustion and fixation values were evaluated by UV/Vis Spectrophotometer. All dyes showed remarkable color strength in the range of 70 to 80% for printing. Percentage dye bath exhaustion and fixation has been found to be in the range of 65 to 85% which is reasonably good and acceptable. Fastness properties were good to excellent.
Keywords: Reactive dyes, exhaust method, fastness properties, printing property.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 391 KB
Title: Indoor Outdoor Ultrafine Particle Measurements in Lecture Rooms.
Author(s): Arinto Y.P. Wardoyo, Djoko. H. Santjojo, Inggita. I.H. Putri
Pages: 198-201 Paper ID: 1212906-7575-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: Ultrafine particles (UFP) have become important concerns of people due their identified impacts on human health. The contribution of UFP on indoor air quality (IAQ) is another thing that attracts an attention for investigation. This study performs the measurements of outdoor indoor UFP concentrations in lecture rooms. The aims were to measure the UFP concentrations in the lecture rooms, and also to estimate the relationships between outdoor UFP concentrations and indoor UFP concentrations. The results showed that the UFP concentration in the lecture rooms varied between 1.0 x 103 particles/cm3 and 4.1 x 103 particles/cm3. The indoor UFP concentrations were found proportional to the outdoor UFP concentrations. And I/O UFP concentration ratio was obtained more than 80 %.
Keywords: Ultrafine particles, indoor air quality
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 304 KB
Title: Assessment of Acoustic Performance of Anechoic Chamber at Acoustic Laboratory in Syiah Kuala University .
Author(s): Zulfian, Lindawati
Pages: 202-204 Paper ID: 1213106-8484-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: This paper describes acoustic performance of anechoic chamber of acoustic laboratory in University of Syiah Kuala. The chamber has a free space of 6.0 meters in length, 4.5 meters in width, and 3.1 meters in height with a lower cut off frequency of 125 Hz. The assessment demonstrates that the performance of the chamber is consistent with the free field characteristics within the tolerance allowed by ISO 3745; it also has sufficient sound insulation for low noise level. The background noise level is 23.9 dB (A-Weighting).
Keywords: Anechoic chamber, acoustic laboratory, a lower cut-off frequency.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 247 KB
Title: Mechanical Modification of Khulays Clay; Structural and Textural Effects.
Author(s): Maha Al-Qunaibit M., Al Juhaiman L.
Pages: 205-209 Paper ID: 1213406-7373-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: Samples of Bentonite-Clay from Khulays region in Saudi Arabia were subjected to mechanical grinding using an agate mortar for 30, 60, and 120 minutes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the ground samples exhibited a lack of amorphization. The mean d(001) value and crystallite size were shifted to the lowest values at the first 30 minutes of grinding. FT-IR spectra revealed no decomposition in the structure against grinding for 2h. A reduction in the intensities of water stretching vibration at 3435cm-1(?Al-OH) and at 1637cm-1(bending-OH) appeared due to the heat produced by grinding which promoted the escape of water molecules. Grinding for 30-60 minutes resulted in a decrease in particles in the µm range and their volume percentage with an increase in particles in the nm range, and aggregation post excessive grinding to 120 minutes. This was translated into a maximum surface area reached at 30 minutes of grinding time. Combined Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), surface area, SEM and TEM analyses allowed for the interpretation of this effect in terms of textural modification as a result of change in clay particles morphology. SEM micrographs of the peudo-hexagonal structure of the clay showed that 30-120 minutes of grinding decreased the particle size and increased the dispersion, whilst TEM micrographs revealed that excessive grinding to 120 minutes induced aggregation. Textural properties of the ground clay depended on the time of grinding, where high surface energy of fine particles enhanced aggregation after 30 minute grinding of clay.
Keywords: Aggregation, crystallite size, particle size, surface area.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 567 KB
Title: Effect of Sulphanilamide Adsorption on Zeta Potential and Water Loss of Raw and Na-Activated Bentonite.
Author(s): Mekhamer, W.K., Al Juhaiman, L.A., Al-Boajan, A.M.
Pages: 210-213 Paper ID: 1213806-8484-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: The present work aims to investigate the effect of sulphanilamide (SA) adsorption on the zeta potential and water loss of raw local bentonite (B) and Na-bentonite (Na-B) suspensions. This was accomplished by separating the fine particles of raw bentonite of size (< 1µm), then activating them by Na+ ions. Adsorption isotherms of SA on B and Na-B were obtained at different SA concentrations ranging from (10–1000 mg/L) using the batch-equilibrium technique. It was found that the adsorbed amount of SA onto B and Na-B increased with increasing SA concentration. The zeta potentials of B and Na-B suspensions (1% w/v) were measured and correlated with the adsorption data. The zeta potentials of B and Na-B suspensions decreased to comparable values with increasing SA concentrations. Moreover the water loss of B and Na-B suspensions decreased with increasing SA concentrations reaching minimum comparable values then increased with increasing SA concentration. The adsorption of SA did not influence the zeta potential and water loss of B and Na-B suspensions. Thus raw local bentonite may be used without treatment in many industrial applications.
Keywords: Sulphanilamide; Raw local bentonite; Na-bentonite; Zeta potential; Water loss; Adsorption.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 549 KB
Title: Diversity of Shade Trees and Their Influence on the Microclimate of Agro-Ecosystem and Fruit Production of Gulapasir Salak (Salacca zalacca var. amboinensis) Fruit.
Author(s): I Ketut Sumantra, Sumeru Ashari, Tatik Wardiyati, Agus Suryanto
Pages: 214-221 Paper ID: 1213906-6464-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: The presence of shade trees in salak tree plantation is necessary as the plant was unable to defend the sunlight. The study was aimed to identify the diversity of shade trees and their influences on the microclimate and Gulapasir salak fruit production in agro-ecosystem in Karangasem (original planted area) and Tabanan (new area development). The research employed plot methods placed in purposive random sampling on high altitudes 450-750 m above sea level (asl) in Karangasem and Tabanan. The parameters measured were plant density, frequency, dominancy, Important Value Index (IVI), Diversity Index (H), microclimate, fruit number, and weight of fruits. The differences of shading plant density and its influences on microclimate were analyzed using t-test, and the relationship between light interception and the number and weight of fruits was analyzed using regression analysis. The results showed that the density of shade trees and population of salak trees in Karangasem and Tabanan was different. The difference in light interception due to different plant densities in each zone in Tabanan and Karangasem only caused a decrease in air temperature significantly in the zone 650-750 m asl, so the number and weight of fruit produced was lower than the other two zones.
Keywords: Salak trees, Gulapasir, shading plant, diversity, microclimate.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 549 KB
Title: Fractal Dimension of The Escape Condensation Set EC @ of the fractal set A0
Author(s): Arkan J. Mohammed
Pages: 222-228 Paper ID: 1212106-7575-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: Fractal geometry is a kind of geometry certainly different from the classical Euclidean geometry. The main difference lies in the notion of dimension, while the formal deals with non-integer dimension, the later have integer dimension. There are many techniques to estimate the dimension of fractal patterns. The box –counting dimension represent the most widely used one. Despite it is quite accurate, still an error exists when it is applied. A new method for estimation to the dimension of some fractals that is known as escape condensation sets EC? of fractal AO is proposed. These sets are constructed based on escape time using the method of spreading of the points inside a specific window there dimension have been computed. The existing and uniqueness of the escape condensation set in the space of fractals H(X) have been proven also. Another prove have been performed to show that the escape condensation set EC? and A0. have the same fractal dimension.
Keywords: Fractal, Fractal Dimension, Iterated Function System (IFS), Escape Time Algorithm (ETA), condensation set.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 549 KB
Title: Toxic Influence of Diazinon as an Organophosphate Pesticide on Parameters of Dry Matter Degradability According to in Situ Technique
Author(s): M. Kazemi, A. M. Tahmasbi, R. Valizadeh, A. A. Naserian
Pages: 229-233 Paper ID: 128206-5353-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: Many feed and forages are exposed to low, medium or high levels of organophosphorous (OP) pesticides. It is unclear whether these exposures (for example diazinon as an OP pesticide) impact dry matter degradability parameters. So, different levels (0, 0.7, 2.8 and 5.6 mg) of diazinon as an OP pesticide with different levels of calcium bentonite (CB) (0 and 100 mg) as a toxin binder were tested for their toxicological effects on in vitro dry matter disappearance. Also we investigated whether CB can inactivate the probably deleterious effects of contaminated forage with diazinon in the situ procedure or not. The study indicated that effect of diazinon with adding the different levels was significant (p<0.05) for the entire estimated parameters exception “a” fraction and dry matter degradability after 24 h incubation. Also effect of CB on entire estimated parameters for dry matter degradability was insignificant exception dry matter degradability after 48 h incubation. It seems toxicological effect of diazinon on slowly degradable fraction (b) and potentially degradable fraction (a+b) was highest than other estimated parameters and the most decreasing for these parameters was recorded at 5.6 mg of diazinon.
Keywords: Diazinon, organophosphorus pesticides, degradability, dry matter.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 312 KB
Title: Adsorption of H2O, CO2, O2, Ti and Cu on Graphene: A molecular modeling approach
Author(s): Hilal S Wahaba, Salam H. Alib, Adi M.Abdul Husseinb
Pages: 234-240 Paper ID: 1215306-7878-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: In the present work, we investigate the adsorption of small molecules namely, H2O, CO2, O2 and deposition of Ti and Cu on graphene substrate using molecular modeling calculations. The adsorption of small molecules has very little effect on the electronic properties of graphene. The deposition of metallic atoms presented high molecular doping, i.e., charge transfer and consequently better adsorption energies and stronger dipole moments.
Keywords: Graphene, Molecular calculations, Adsorption, Deposition.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 473 KB
Title: Case Study on Determination of Inertia Moments of Details with Complex Shapes
Author(s): Asllan Hajderi, Veronika Hajdari
Pages: 241-244 Paper ID: 1214306-7575-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: In this study it is treated the precise determining problem of inertia moments of details with complex form, performing a circular motion. The accuracy of calculation of the inertia moments of the mass, directly affects on the accuracy of oscillation frequencies and vibrations level of mechanical system. This makes that is specified the system resonance zones and the amplitude of oscillation. As a case study for the calculation it is taken crankshaft of the engine, which has complex shape. For this case it is used theoretical method, which calculates the moment of inertia of the detail drawing. In fact, in practice, the completed details change form given in drawing, because it affect the technological manufacturing tolerances and dynamic balancing process. Therefore it is used experimental method, which takes account when the material is not homogeneous. The chosen method is hanging method, because it is accurate, simple and the device is designed and produced easy and it can also be used for other details. The results of experimental measurements performed for 4 crankshafts, have shown that the values of the moments of inertia are about 7% smaller than those derived from theoretical method and differ by 4% from one detail to another. Therefore it is proposed that details during repairs change, it is made the experimental determination of the moment of inertia, because it affects more on the level of torsional vibration system and consequently on the breaking of travel comfort.
Keywords: Moment of inertia, hanging method, free frequency.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 336 KB
Title: Nest Characteristics of Mud Lobster Thalassina anomala (Herbst 1804) in Tanjung Jabung Barat, Jambi, Sumatra, Indonesia
Author(s): Winda D. Kartika, Mufti P. Patria
Pages: 245-248 Paper ID: 1215606-9393-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: Density, distribution of mounds and nest characteristics of mud lobster Thalassina anomala (Herbst 1804) have been investigated in The District of Tanjung Jabung Barat, Jambi. The research areas were located in Regional Marine Protected Area Pangkal Babu (Station 1), the fish port of Kuala Tungkal (Station 2), and Perum Manunggal community (Station 3). Fifty-six of squares (10 m x10 m) were placed in the research area.The nest characteristics were measured such as base diameter of mound, height of mound, slope of mound, slope of hole, diameters of outer hole, deepth of burrow, inclination of burrow, the temperature and humidity of burrow and the analyses of substrate. Distribution of mound was random, and the highest density recorded on Station 1 (5.3/100m2). The highest average of mound height (31.79 ±14.66 cm) and the largest diameter of outer hole (6.19 ±1.42 cm) were found on Station 3. The Nest burrow shape resembling the letter "L", "Y" and "I". There was significant correlation between carapace width and diameter of outer hole (0.480 ; p < 0.05).
Keywords: Density, Jambi, mound, mud lobster.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 286 KB
Title: Nutrient and Dietary Fibre Profile Of Dehulled and Undehulled Seeds of Sweet Princess Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Consumed in Nigeria
Author(s): Ibeanu, VN, Onyechi, UA, Ugwuanyi GU
Pages: 249-252 Paper ID: 1218106-7474-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: Background: Plant foods are important dietary sources in the developing countries because of their availability and low cost. The seeds of many tropical fruits which are discarded maybe rich in nutrients and dietary fibre. Objective: This study examined the nutrient and dietary fibre contents of dehulled and undehulled seeds of sweet princess specie of watermelon consumed in Nigeria. Methods: Small tan coloured seeds of the watermelon were manually separated from the pulp, washed and shade dried until the seed coats were easy to remove. The seeds were divided into two portions; one was dehulled manually and milled into flour and the other was milled without dehulling. Proximate, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre composition of the samples were determined using standard procedures. The data were statistically analyzed and compared on dry weight basis at p < 0.05 significant level. Results: The results showed that on dry weight basis, the undehulled sample had more carbohydrate (48.35g) than the dehulled (33.08g) sample. Protein (38.59g), fat (17.78g), retinol (56.47µg), potassium (717mg) and insoluble non-starchy polysaccharide (10.28%) in the dehulled seeds differed on dry weight basis from those of the undehulled sample (28.50g, 10.65g, 17.21µg and 474mg, respectively). The differences were statistically significant (p>0.05). The iron content of the two samples was generally low (1.94mg for dehulled and 4.81mg for undehulled). The undehulled sample had higher (57.56%) total soluble non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) than the dehulled sample (34.66%). Conclusion: Sweet princess watermelon seeds contain appreciable amount of nutrients and dietary fibre, their consumption with the fruit pulp or alone could be one of the ways of increasing dietary fibre intake in particular.
Keywords: Watermelon seeds, dehulled, undehulled and chemical composition
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 219 KB
Title: The Effect Of The Blending Method and Polyisoprene Concentration On The Mechanical Properties Of Lignocellulosicfoam
Author(s): Charles Banon, Widia Rahmi, Bambang Setiaji, Ria Armunanto, Totok Eka Suharto
Pages: 253-256 Paper ID: 1216906-7575-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: Researches about the effects of blending method and polyisoprene concentration on the mechanical properties of lignocellulosicfoam have been done. Preparation of lignocellulosicfoam was Blended lignocellulosic and polyisoprene by spraying and stirring method with various concentration of polyisoprene 5. 10 to 45% (v/v). The study begins by getting the lignocellulosic from coconut husk using counter machine, a separator and sifting. Lignocellulosic as dried sieved with 10 mesh size. Total of 30 g of lignocellulosic mixed with 100 mL of polyisoprene, molded and dried in an oven + 90 oC until dry. The mechanical properties (strength and elasticity) were characterized by bending testing using Torsee-Tokyo testing machine. Bending strength and elasticity properties stated in the Modulus of Rupture (MOR) and Modulus of Elasticity (MOE). Lignocellulosicfoam density determined by pycnometer method. Lignocellulosicfoam morphology observed with a microscope. The results showed blending lignocellulosic and polyisoprene in the preparation lignocellulosicfoam using the stirring method is better than spraying method with optimum conditions at a polyisoprene concentration of 30%. The values of MOR and MOE of lignocellulosicfoam prepared by spraying method at a polyisoprene concentration of 30% was 19.01 g/mm2 and 29.65g/mm2 and stirring method was 52.49 g/mm2 and 64.09 g/mm2.
Keywords: Lignocellulosic, polyisoprene, lignocellulosicfoam.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 183 KB