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Title: Multivariate Outlier Detection in Currency Exchange Rate
Author(s): Shamshuritawati Sharif, Maman. A. Djauhari, Nur Syahidah Yusoffi
Pages: 1-5 Paper ID: 1215906-1301-4747-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: In correlation networks analysis, the influential currencies is usually identified by using minimal spanning tree (MST) to filter the important information followed by the centrality measures analysis. In this paper, we introduce an analysis to identify the currencies that might have different behaviour compared to the others which is also conducted based on MST by using outlier labelling and testing. A case study on 78 currency exchange rate will be reported and discussed.
Keywords: Correlation matrix; distance matrix; gamma distribution; Kruskal’s Algorithm.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 352 KB
Title: A Parametric Study for the Stopping Power of Some Electron Gas Targets Using Extended Bethe Formula
Author(s): Sherzad A. Taha, Dlshad O. Abdulrahim, Omed Gh. Abdullah
Pages: 6-8 Paper ID: 130801-6262-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: Within the frame of Bethe theory, and within the first Born approximation, the basic formula for energy loss including excitation and ionization of the coupled (projectile-target) system for both (H and C) as projectile and a number of atoms like (Li, Be, B, C, N, Al, Ca, Fe, Co, and Cu) as targets were considered. The effective charges and the stopping for both samples were measured. Reasonable causes for their variations with velocity functions are found, and within some obeyed rules. The results are interpreted logically. Mostly the peak value of the stopping power in the case of (H) is more than (C) because of their difference in electron density, and atomic bonding energies. The results were compared with the available experimental data counterparts and it has been observed that they are extremely agreed with other.
Keywords: Bethe Formula, Stopping power, Effective Charge.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 394 KB
Title: On the Vibration Behavior Study of a Nonlinear Flexible Composite Beam Under Excitation Forces via Nonlinear Active Vibration Controller
Author(s): Y. S. Hamed, S. K. Elagan
Pages: 9-18 Paper ID: 132701-9595-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: The main object of this work is the mathematical study of the vibration behavior in a nonlinear flexible composite beam described by non-linear differential equations and we focus on the application of different control algorithms for a flexible composite, geometrically nonlinear beam–like structure with Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) actuator. Multiple scale perturbation method is applied to obtain the solutions of flexible composite beam and the nonlinear saturation controller (NSC) up to the second order approximation and to study the stability of the steady state solution near different simultaneous resonance cases. The resulting different resonance cases are reported and studied numerically. The stability of the steady state solution near the selected resonance cases is studied applying both frequency response equations and phase-plane technique. The effects of the different parameters of the system and the controllers on the system behavior are studied numerically. The effects of NSC controller on the system are investigated numerically. Comparison with the available published work is reported.
Keywords: A flexible composite beam, Stability, Vibration control, Resonance.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 609 KB
Title: An Exact Solutions for the Generalized Fractional Kolmogrove-Petrovskii Piskunov Equation by Using the Generalized -Expansion Method
Author(s): Taha Elghareb , S. K. Elagan, Y. S. Hamed, M. Sayed
Pages: 19-22 Paper ID: 135301-2727-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the generalized - expansion method for construct an explicit Exact traveling wave solutions involving parameters of the fractional generalized Kolmogrove-Petrovskii Piskunov equation , for some special parameter where satisfies a second order linear differential equation , , where p(t) , q(t) are functions of t and , our problem Comparison with the available published work is reported.
Keywords: Fraction FitzHugh-Nagumo equation, Generalized -expansion method, Caputo Derivative.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 202 KB
Title: Using a Complex Transformation to get an Exact Solution for Fractional Generalized Coupled MKDV and KDV Equations
Author(s): Mohamed Saad, S. K. Elagan, Y. S. Hamed, M. Sayed
Pages: 23-25 Paper ID: 135501-2828-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: In this paper, we use the fractional derivatives in the sense of Caputo to construct exact solution for fractal derivative generalized coupled mKdV and KdV equation , . Many authors got to an approximate solution for fractal derivative generalized coupled mKdV and KdV equation. We apply a generalized fraction complex transformation [12, 13, 15] to convert this equation to ordinary differential equation. Finally, we obtain to a new exact solution for it by using a novel technique.
Keywords: Generalized Coupled mKdV and KdV equation, Caputo Derivative, Fractal Index.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 227 KB
Title: Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension Among Middle-Aged Adults in Ahiazu Mbaise Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria
Author(s): Mbah, B.O., Eme, P.E., Ezeji J.
Pages: 26-30 Paper ID: 123406-1301-7575-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: The thrust of the study was to determine the prevalence and the risk factors of hypertension among middle-aged persons in Ahiazu Mbaise Local Government Area, Imo State. A total of 200 subjects aged 40-60 years were selected and used for the study. Anthropometric measurements (weight and height) were taken. Body Mass Index (BMI) of the subjects was also calculated. The blood pressure measurements of the subjects were also collected using a sphygmomanometer and then classified using standard methods. A structured interviewer administered questionnaires were used to obtain information on the socio-economic characteristics, personal data and risk factors associated with hypertension among the subjects. The Statistical Package for social sciences was used for data analyses. The prevalence of hypertension (32.5%) was found among the subjects with a higher proportion in female subjects (20.0%) than males (12.5%). A quarter of the subjects (25.0%) were either overweight or obese. Less than half (30.0%) of the subjects had a frequent consumption of alcoholic beverages and 23.0% had a frequent intake of salty foods. These were all implicated as the risk factors of high blood pressure. There is need for preventive strategies on hypertension control and enlightening the public on the risk factors of hypertension especially high BMI and wrong eating habit and lifestyle should be encouraged.
Keywords: Prevalence, risk factors, hypertension, middle-aged, Imo State.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 361 KB
Title: Reproduction Aspects of Marine Worms Perinereis cultrifera (Grube, 1840) in Langgur Waters, Lesser Kei Islands, Southeast Maluku Regency, Indonesia
Author(s): Martha Rettob, Diana Arfiati, Luchman Hakim, Lawrence Lumingas
Pages: 31-35 Paper ID: 128805-1301-9494-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: Marine worm class Polychaeta, Perinereis cultrifera (Grube, 1840), is used by many local residents in the Langgur waters as food. But in the collection the fishermen capture them before the spawn. The practices might decline in catches since the purpose of the worms to surface is to release gametes. Therefore, the catching period needs to be regulated based on bio-ecological aspects. The purpose of this study was to observe the dynamics of P. cultrifera worm catches, to analyze distribution of egg diameter, fecundity, and spawning peaks and to establish catching regulation. Sampling was carried out every month in June 2010 through May 2011 in the Langgur waters using a line transect sampling method along the shoreline. At any time of collection, samples were weighed to determine the biomass, then 5% of the samples preserved in 50% alcohol solution. From the samples preserved were taken 10 and 40 individuals respectively for egg diameter measurement and fecundity determination. The highest biomass was obtained in September of 6346 g that indicated the spawning peak. The largest eggs were 110 µm and the highest fecundity of 27,000 eggs was obtained in October. The dynamics of the catch showed that mature gametes can be found throughout the year. Juvenile individuals were available only from June to August. Thus, the correct closing period for catching the P. cultrifera worms would be from June to October.
Keywords: Polychaeta, Perinereis cultrifera, bio-ecology, marine worm catching.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 309 KB
Title: Expert System-Based Predictive Cost Model for Building Works: Neural Network Approach
Author(s): Amusan, L.M, Mosaku, T.O, Ayo, C.K, Adeboye, A.B
Pages: 36-44 Paper ID: 127203-1301-4747-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: Project managers need accurate estimate of building projects to be able to choose appropriate alternatives for their constructions. Estimated costs of building projects, which hitherto have been based on regression models, are usually left with gaps for high margin of errors and as well, they lack the capacity to accommodate certain intervening variables as construction works progress. Data of past construction projects of the past 2 years were adjusted and used for the study. This model is developed and tested as a predictive cost model for building projects based on Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) with Levenberg Marqua. This model is capable of helping professionals save time, make more realistic decisions, and help avoid underestimating and overestimating of project costs. The model is a step ahead of Regression models.
Keywords: Expert-System, Predictive cost, Neural-Network, Cost, Model and Regression.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 309 KB
Title: Morphological Changes of Cell in Relation to Increased Catharanthine Content of Catharanthus roseus Cell Aggregate Culture after Tryptophan Treatment
Author(s): Dingse Pandiangan, Wenny Tilaar, Nelson Nainggolan
Pages: 45-51 Paper ID: 133301-9292-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: A study on changes in cell morphology and its association with increased catharanthine content in Catharanthus roseus cell cultures after tryptophan treatment has been carried out. This study was part of a strategy to improve the content of catharanthine. One strategy used was the addition of tryptophan as a precursor. Increased content of catharanthine is essential in in vitro culture in order to keep the catharanthine content at least equal to those grown in nature (in vivo). The research was conducted in the laboratory using MS medium with tryptophan 50-250 mg/L. The results showed that cell morphology was essentially the same for each treatment. The apparent discrepancy was the presence of long cells in higher number in the treatment of tryptophan. The highest ratio was obtained from the treatment of 150 mg/L tryptophan on day 14 of culture. There was relation between changes in cell morphology (more long cells) with the increased content of catharanthine after tryptophan treatment. The highest content occurred on day 14 after 150 mg/L treatment of tryptophan with 75% long cells (specialized cells) and 50.96 µg/g dry weight of catharanthine content.
Keywords: Catharanthus roseus, cell culture, cell morphology, tryptophan, catharanthine.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 458 KB
Title: On Some Fractional-Integro Partial Differential Equations
Author(s): Mahmoud M. El-Borai, Abou-Zaid H. El-Banna, Walid H. Ahmed
Pages: 52-59 Paper ID: 1311701-4949-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: In this paper, an inverse optimal control problem is introduced with state function governed by fractional partial differential equation. The existence of the control and necessary optimality conditions are proved.
Keywords: Fractional calculus, partial differential equations, Optimal control.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 294 KB
Title: Fractionation of Medium Chain Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters from Virgin Coconut Oil Via Transesterification and Distillation Under Reduced Pressure
Author(s): Jusman, Bambang Setiaji, Triyono, Akhmad Syoufian
Pages: 60-64 Paper ID: 138901-3636-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: A study fractionation of medium chain fatty acids ethyl esters from virgin coconut oil via transesterification and distillation under reduced pressure. Transesterification was strarted by preparing sodium ethoxyde from sodium hydroxyde and ethanol and then mixed it with the coconut oil : ratio ethanol/oil (1:2), stirring speed 500 rpm, 2% NaOH catalyst concentration, and reaction time of 60 minutes at room temperature. Ethyl ester which was obtained in every treatment was separated, washed and filtered, which was then characterized by GC-MS. Then ethyl ester formed separated using distillation under reduced pressure method based on differences in boiling point. At this stage fractionation by three fractions, namely the fraction 1 (<140oC), fraction 2 (140-170 oC), and fraction 3 (> 170 oC). Each fraction was analyzed composition of fatty acid ethyl esters using gas chromatography (GC). The result showed that the yield medium chain fatty acid ethyl ester is 75.59% . While the stage fractionation of fatty acid ethyl ester dominated by ethyl laurate with a range of above 60% for each fraction.
Keywords: Virgin coconut oil, transesterification, ethyl ester, fractionation, ethyl laurate.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 472 KB
Title: Exact Solutions Of Space and Time Dependent Burgers Equation by the Extended Unified Method
Author(s): H. I. Abdel-Gawad, Mohamed Osman, Nasser S. Elazab
Pages: 65-68 Paper ID: 137101-2626-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: Recently the unified method for finding traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations was proposed by the first author. It was shown that, this method unifies all the methods being used to find these solutions. In this paper, we extend this method to find a class of formal exact solutions toBurgers equation with space- time dependent coefficients. A new class of solutions is obtained.
Keywords: Exact solution, Extended unified method, Burgers equation, Variable coefficients.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 272 KB
Title: Does Pakistani Society Accept Corruption as a Changed Value with Reference to Religious Perspective?
Author(s): Asad Ullah, Mussawar Shah
Pages: 69-74 Paper ID: 137201-8484-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: The major objective of this research was to assess the impact of corruption upon the prevalent religious values in Peshawar. The conceptual framework comprise of perception of religious values as independent variable, and corruption perception as dependent variable. The objectives were to find out people’s perception, causes and institutional role regarding corruption and social values, and suggest remedies. A sample size of 150 respondents i.e. 98 from universities, 27 from anti corruption agencies (NAB) and 25 from religious institutions, was selected to ascertain their attitude towards phenomena at hand through Likert scale as measurement tool. Proportionate random sampling technique was used for choosing the respondents. Association test (Chi Square test) was used to determine the association between dependent and independent at bi-variate level. Gamma (?) statistics was further used for determining the strength and direction of relationship. the study found that most independent variables are significantly associated with corruption perception, which included knowledge of religion (P<0.000), Ijtehad in controlling corruption (P=0.000), bill boarding of religious values (P=0.000), educational support to highlighting religious values (P=0.000), involving the religious leaders (P=0.000), religion stresses to intact social values (P=0.000), religious institution for stressing over moral training (P=0.000). Moreover, practicing religion (P=0.000), regular religious awareness to guide masses (P=0.000), imposition of religious punishments (P=0.000). The study made it clear that against the ideal orientation to values, the individual’s sense of value is under change because of changes in real orientations to values, caused due to changes in social circumstances. It is concluded that the social values are deteriorating, being replaced by corruption which is getting the rank of a rising social value and is largely in practice amongst members of society, especially in various economic aspects of social life. Nevertheless, people still believed that prevalent social order is strong enough to combat this shifting dynamics, by generating a morality based environment.
Keywords: Corruption, Social dimensions, Religious values.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 349 KB
Title: Reduction Formula for Linear Fuzzy Equations
Author(s): N.A. Rajab, A.M. Ahmed, O.M. Al-Faour
Pages: 75-81 Paper ID: 1310501-8282-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: Recently fuzzy initial value problems or fuzzy differential equations, and fuzzy integral equations have received considerable amount of attentions. In this paper, a reduction formula to reduce fuzzy linear differential equations to fuzzy linear integro-differential equations of Volterra type is produced. Also the fuzzy linear integral equations of Volterra type to fuzzy linear integro-differential equations of Volterra type is reduced with some examples. Fuzzy reduction theorem helps to reduce every fuzzy linear integro-differential equation of Volterra type of order n>1, to fuzzy linear integro-differential equation of Volterra type of first order is introduced. Fuzzy function, which is used to define the functions in each fuzzy equation, is a fuzzy bunch function.
Keywords: Fuzzy bunch function, Fuzzy deferential equations, Fuzzy Volterra integral equations, Fuzzy integro-differential equations, Fuzzy reduction.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 437 KB
Title: Concept of Personality Score in a Society
Author(s): Zahid A. Siddiqi, Arif Siddiqui, Ayaz Waseem
Pages: 82-87 Paper ID: 1310801-4545-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: The purpose of this work is to evaluate the worth of a person in terms of a score (an integer number), applicable for whole of the society, calculated in a simple way. The score may be used to compare two persons working in different fields based on the level of formal education, the formal/recorded work experience, the field demand of the profession of work, personal characteristics and the individual credibility. The score may also be used to compare two individuals working in the same field with different levels of education and experience. The developed method of scoring is not applicable for out-fliers / heroes. One objective of the system is its simplicity, that is, evaluation of a person is carried out without going into detailed factors such as individual psychology, work habits, public or private setup difference and type of experience, etc. The score is based on past record of the individual and it does not include the potentials of an individual for the future. The number is initially proposed to be used for self analysis of a person, but later this data for group of individuals may be used by managers for important policy decisions. Although the calculated index may have a theoretical maximum value of 500, it rarely exceeds 250 in actual situations. The developed model gives realistic results for the selected example cases.
Keywords: Personality score; performance index; social evaluation; job importance; credibility; job fitness.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 290 KB
Title: The Solution of Advection Diffusion Equation by The Finite Elements Method
Author(s): Hasan BULUT , Tolga AKTURK and Yusuf UCAR
Pages: 88-97 Paper ID: 132001-4747-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: In this study, we have tried to find the numerical solutions of Advection diffusion equation (ADE) by Galerkin method (GM), Adomian decomposition method (ADM) and Homotopy perturbation method (HPM); and then, we have formed a table that contains numerical results for this equation by drawing the graphic of that equation using Origin 8. Finally, we have made a comparison between GM, ADM and HPM for ADE.
Keywords: Linear Advection diffusion equation, Homotopy perturbation method, Galerkin method, Adomian decomposition method.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 543 KB
Title: Impact of Nigerian Textile Industry on Economy and Environment: a Review.
Author(s): Bello, O.S.Inyinbor, A.A., Dada, A.O., Oluyori, A.P.
Pages: 98-106 Paper ID: 138801-2929-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: Environmental pollution is one of the issues of serious concern in the developing countries such as Nigeria; industrial activities contribute to the growth of the economy but usually at the expense of the environment. Although the Nigerian textile industry has in the time past contributed positively to the economy of her country it is not without its negative environmental impact. This review article covers the impact of Nigerian textile industry on her economy as well as her environment and most importantly is the environmental protection effort of the last five years (2008-2012).
Keywords: Dye, Environmental pollution, Environmental protection, Heavy metals, Textile industry.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 346 KB
Title: Vitamin A Food Sources and its Consumption Pattern in a Rural Community in South-Eastern Nigeria
Author(s): Mbah, B.O., Eme, P.E., Davidson, G. I.
Pages: 107-112 Paper ID: 133601-8484-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: Objective: This study was undertaken to identify the dietary sources of vitamin A and also to determine the consumption pattern of vitamin A in Aba South L.G.A.
Methodology: A total number of one hundred and sixty-three households were selected. A random sampling technique was adopted. Questionnaire was designed to provide information on the socio-economic, food habits and food consumption pattern of vitamin A rich food sources in the households. Information was collected on diet history (24-hour diet recall) by interview. Data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed using frequencies and percentage.
Results: The results showed that 65% of the respondents purchased palm oil while 35% processed palm oil by themselves. More than half (51.6%) of the respondents consumed palm oil 4 to 5 times weekly and 37.4% consumed palm oil 2-3 times weekly. However, 11% consumed palm oil daily. About 6% produced carrots with {90-3600 Retinol Equivalent (RE)} while 87.1% purchased it, pumpkin leaf with (300RE) were purchased by 22.7% and 65.6% produced same. Less than a quarter (19.3%) of the respondents consumed fruits and vegetables daily and only 0.2% spent above N2,000 on fruits and vegetables weekly. Twenty four hour dietary recalls revealed that 23.9% consumed pumpkin leaf, 16.0% consumed pawpaw while 14.1% consumed mango. Conclusion: It was noted that most of the vitamin A rich food sources were not grown but purchased in the area. This might have predisposed the respondents into low consumption of these foods because of poor purchasing power. Home gardening in the area should be encouraged.
Keywords: Vitamin A foods, Consumption pattern, Aba South, Abia State Background of study.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 285 KB
Title: Analytical performance of HG-QFAAS and ICP-MS in Determination of the Total Arsenic in Indonesian tuna Fish Sample
Author(s): Tiny Agustini Koesmawati , B. Buchari, Aminudin Sulaeman, Slamet Ibrahim
Pages: 113-117 Paper ID: 1312501-7474-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: This research was done to compare two different types of method in measuring the total arsenic using hydride generator quartz cell AAS (HG-QFAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurement. These methods were validated using CRM DORM-2 ([As] =18.0 µg g-1 ±1.1 µg g-1, found 17.7 µg g-1 ± 0.9 µg g-1 ; n = 3) and DORM-3 ([As]=6.88 µg g-1 ± 0.3 µg g-1, found 6.77 µg g-1 ±0.14 µg g-1 ; n = 3). The result of this study showed that ICP-MS measurement was more accurate compared to HG-QFAAS measurement. However, measurement by ICP-MS is more expensive than HG-QFAAS. The result of this research can be used as a reference method for determination of total arsenic in tuna fish sample by HG-QFAAS.
Keywords: DORM-2, DORM-3, HG-QFAAS, ICP-MS, total arsenic, tuna fish
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 257 KB