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Title: Implementing A Decision-Making Model for a small scale production company
Author(s): Oyelade Olarenwaju. J, Alaje Daniel T, Fatumo Segun A
Pages: 1-6 Paper ID: 105803-1302-2828-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract: Decisions making play a major role in the success of any organisation and individual. Business professionals are faced with making decisions that are predominately based on uncertain projections. Optimisation techniques have become key tools in making important business decisions that increase competitive advantage. Optimisation, through the use of mathematics and computer science techniques, is used to assist organizations with solving their complex business problems in areas such as productions, manufacturing, distribution, finance, and scheduling. The success of optimisation projects depends on many different factors such as which modeling tools are used, integration with corporate data, and the selection of the most efficient solution algorithms available for the problem. In this paper, we formulated and implemented a linear programming (hence forth LP) model for a small scale production company. Our model is good benchmark for effective managerial decision making for Production Company to foster optimal profitability. Our model was implemented with Java applet for portability.
Keywords: Optimization, Decision, Constraint, objective function, Linear programming.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 273 KB
Title: Evaluation of Meteorological Condition During 2005 Haze Episode In Klang Valley Using Mesoscale Model MM5
Author(s): Nor Liyana Arif, Ahmad Makmom Abdullah, Hafizan Juahir, Loi Kok Chng
Pages: 7-14 Paper ID: 113905-1302-7272-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract: Haze pollution has become a transboundary problem to the South East Asian region, especially Malaysia, Indonesia and their adjacent countries. Meteorological condition, particularly temperature, is severely affected during the haze episode which occurred between 1 August 2005 and 15 August 2005 in Klang Valley, Malaysia. This paper reports on the use of MM5 modelling system to predict the hourly temperature distribution during the haze period. Meteorological simulation was conducted to spatially and temporally analyse the temperature distribution during haze episode in Klang Valley. Domain resolution of 27km, 9km, 3km and 1km (innermost) have been employed for this study. Urban areas in Klang Valley experience higher temperature during the haze episode simulation. Highest daily maximum temperature for each day was recorded during late afternoon. Evaluation of the model performance was also conducted with a measured data through a range of statistical measures. The model tends to under predict the temperature distribution of the simulation period. The paper discusses the spatial and temporal distribution of temperature during the haze episode in Klang Valley and also the model performance in predicting the meteorological condition of the study area.
Keywords: MM5, Atmospheric Modelling, Urban meteorology, Haze.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 364 KB
Title: Typical of Morphological Properties of Porous Silicon
Author(s): Uday Muhsin Nayef, Mohammed Waleed Muayad
Pages: 15-17 Paper ID: 133902-8484-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract: In this paper we prepared porous silicon layers from p-type silicon by electrochemical etching method . And study the morphology properties of PS samples by changing etching time and imaged PS sample in Atomic force microscopy(AFM) . We found that from AFM images show the PS layer has sponge like structure, and average diameter of pore and thickness of PS layer decreasing with silicon <111> oriented more than with silicon <100>. And also we found that when increasing etching of time porosity of PS increasing specifically in <100>.
Keywords: Porous silicon, Electrochemical etching, AFM, Pore Diameter, Roughness.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 619 KB
Title: Solitary Solution of Non-linear Schrödinger Field with a Logarithmic Non-Linearity for Free Particle in (1+1) Dimension
Author(s): Hossien Hossieni
Pages: 18-20 Paper ID: 134002-9595-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract: This paper studies non-linear Schrodinger field with logarithmic non-linearity, the study uses Gausson solution method for Solitons. By solving Non- linear Schrödinger equation, in the case of free particle, the wave function and conservations law will be obtained. On the other hand, the velocity and frequency of Soliton are calculated.
Keywords: Nonlinear Schrödinger field, non-linear Schrödinger equation, Gausson solution, free particle.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 343 KB
Title: Study of Phytochrome Mediated Seed Germination of Cucurbita pepo L and Citrullus Vulgaris Thunb found in Balochistan
Author(s): Afroz R. Khan, Muhammad Anwar, Muhammad Javed Khan
Pages: 28-35 Paper ID: 137102-6969-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract: The role of temperature and light has long been appreciated in the seed germination of plants; especially the control of seed germination by red and far-red light is one of the earliest documented phytochrome mediated processes. The seeds of Cucurbita pepo L germinated = 15 % when imbibed at constant temperatures of 15, 20, and 25 °C. The seeds were indifferent to far-red light. While seeds of Citrullus Vulgaris Thunb germinated = 10 % when imbibed at constant temperatures of 15, 20, and 25 °C. The seeds were indifferent to far-red light. Rate of germination was much reduced under far-red light. Mean value of seed germination % of Cucurbita pepo was high (36% ±16.09) at 25Co under dark, while it was lowest (14% ±6.26) at 15 oC under light. Conversely, germination % of Citrullus Vulgaris was high (21% ±9.39) at 25 oC under light, while it was lowest (2% ±0.89) at 15 oC under far red. At single pulse mean germination % of Cucurbita pepo at constant temperature (i.e. 20Co) was high (24% ±10.73) under red light, at intermittent Pulses while it was lowest (13% ±5.81) under red light.Alternatively, at single pulse mean germination % of Citrullus Vulgaris at constant temperature (i.e. 20Co) was high (26% ±11.62) under red followed by far- red light, but it was lowest (16% ±7.15) under dark.
Keywords: Cucurbita pepo L and Citrullus Vulgaris Thunb, Phytochrome, Seed Germination.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 434 KB
Title: Physicochemical Analysis and Fatty Acid Composition of Oil Extracted From Olive Fruit Grown in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Author(s): Ali Muhammad, Muhammad Ayub, Alam Zeb, Said Wahab, Saleem Khan, Ihsanullah
Pages: 36-39 Paper ID: 137202-3636-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract: Research work was carried out to investigate the physicochemical analysis of olive oil extracted from olives grown in Khyber pakhtunkhwa. The samples were studied for physicochemical characteristics (Specific gravity, refractive index, Acid value, Saponification value and Peroxide value). The free fatty acidity is thus a direct measure of the quality of the oil. Olive oil was analysed for fatty acids commonly present in olive oils which are Palmitic, Palmitoleic, Stearic, Oleic, Linoleic, Linolenic, Arachidic and Gadoleic which have specific carbon number and their values in percentage are C16:0 (15.4), C16:1(1.5), C18:0 (3.5), C18:1 (65.2), C18:2 (16.3), C18:3 (0.7), C20:0 (0.3) and C20:1(0.2) respectively. The major fatty acid found in kalamata variety of olive oil contain oleic acid. Oleic acid percentage is high in olive oil which contained considerable amount of 65.2 %. The oil was compared with two olive oil samples S2 and S3 collected from local market. Statistical analysis shows a significant difference at a =0.05.
Keywords: Olive oil, Fatty acids, Sensory evaluation.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 220 KB
Title: Nutrient, Phytochemical Composition and Sensory Evaluation of Formulated Diabetic Snacks made from Nigeria foods, Afzelia Africana and Detarium Microcapium seed flour
Author(s): Onyechi, Agatha Uchenna, Ibeanu, Vivienne Nkiruka, Eme, Paul Eze, Ossai, Chilaka Chinazaekpere
Pages: 40-44 Paper ID: 1214706-1302-5858-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract: Background: Consumption of traditional foods high in fiber is on the decrease due to urbanization and westernization in Nigeria. Objective: The aim of this study was to formulate and develop nutritious snacks for urban diabetics using Afzelia africana and Detarium microcarpium seed flour. The nutrients, phytochemical composition and the sensory test were evaluated. Methods: The seeds of Afzelia and Detarium were purchased from the South Eastern Nigeria. The seeds were sorted and cleaned. Afzelia flour was produced using soaking and roasting method while detarium flour produced by boiling, soaking and milling. Recipes were formulated based on the soluble non-starch polysaccharide (s-NSP) content of the wheat flour and Afzelia and Detarium flour. The proximate composition, vitamin, mineral and phytochemical contents of the snacks were determined using standard methods. Sensory evaluation of the snacks was also evaluated. Data generated were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17. Results: The fibre content of snacks were; Afzelia (2.58-2.88%) and Detarium (2.34-2.49%). . The carbohydrate content was 47.18-50.18% (afzelia) and 57.63-59.35% (detarium). Retinol content was 2.63-7.87mg/100g and 5.24-5.26mg/100g for afzelia and detarium respectively. The tannin content was 0.63-1.03mg/100g and 0.60-0.62mg/100g; while the saponin content was 0.76-0.88mg/100g and 0.74-0.88mg/100g for afzelia and detarium respectively. Detarium snacks were more accepted for texture (7.62-7.70), colour (7.69-7.75), taste (7.31-7.70), crispness (6.89-7.35) and flavor (7.67-7.79) than afzelia snacks. Conclusion: The diabetic snacks had appreciable amount of nutrients. The phytochemicals present were in the acceptable range. Detarium snacks were more acceptable.
Keywords: Nutrients, Phytochemicals, Sensory, Afzelia, Detarium, Snacks.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 258 KB
Title: Using Natural Clays and Spent Bleaching Clay as Cheap Adsorbent for the Removal of Phenol in Aqueous Media
Author(s): Bakhtyar K. Aziz, Fuad H. Shareef
Pages: 45-49 Paper ID: 137402-2626-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract: Clay samples of six different locations of Kurdistan region were characterized. Chemical compositions of the clays were found using XRF technique for the clay powders. The mineralogy of the samples by XRD shows that the clay samples are mostly mixed layer type of Chlorite/Smectite composition with different types and quantities of mineral impurities. Specific surface area (SSA) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) for the clay samples were determined by methylene blue adsorption method. Although the de-oiled spent clays have less SSA and CEC compared with their virgin samples, but their adsorption efficiency is 70-80 % higher than their virgin clays due to the increase in the organophilic character of the de-oiled spent clays, while acid activation of the natural clays has no significant effect on the adsorption efficiency. Charcoal, the universal adsorbent, has removed 58% of 50 ppm phenol solution, while de-oiled spent clays have removed 80-95 % of the phenol concentration.
Keywords: Removal of phenol, de-oiling of clay, spent bleaching clay, adsorption efficiency.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 619 KB
Title: Trends in the Development of Small and Medium-sized Businesses in Kazakhstan
Author(s): Aitkaly Nurseiit, Nurlan Nurseiit
Pages: 50-60 Paper ID: 138702-6565-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract: The rapid developing of small and medium-sized business (SMBs) is an important condition for creating a stable and dynamic modern economy, especially in a transition country such as Kazakhstan, where since soviet era have been dominated super-large enterprises. The world experience shows that, if the government wants to make the growth of own economy more stable, it should create favorable conditions for the development of SMBs. In Kazakhstan, despite the measures of authorities, SMBs are still not performing that role that they have to play in the modern economy.
Keywords: Medium Business, Small Business, Enterprises, Kazakhstan
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 666 KB
Title: Fabrication and Characteristics of Porous Silicon for Photoconversion
Author(s): Uday Muhsin Nayef
Pages: 61-65 Paper ID: 138602-3737-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract: Porous silicon (PS) layers are prepared by anodization for etching time densities. The samples are then characterized the nanocrystalline porous silicon layer by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Raman and electrical properties. PS layers were formed on a p-type Si wafer. Anodized electrically with a 10, 20 and 40 min etching times for fixed 20 mA/cm2 current density. We have estimated crystallites size from X-Ray diffraction about nanoscale for porous silicon and AFM confirms the nanometric size and therefore optical properties about nanocrystalline silicon yields a Raman spectrum showing a broadened peak shifted below 520 cm-1. The electrical properties of prepared PS; namely current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics under dark, and illuminations show that the pass current through the PS layer decreased by increasing the etching time, due to increase the resistivity of PS layer. The photosensitivity measurements of prepared PS layer showed the peak value in visible region at (400-600 nm) increased with increasing the etching time.
Keywords: Porous silicon, X-Ray Diffraction, Raman, morphological properties, Raman, J-V, Photosensitivity.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 642 KB
Title: Study of Radiation and Matter Epochs of the Universe
Author(s): Mariwan A. Rasheed, Mohamad A. Brza
Pages: 66-69 Paper ID: 1311302-4848-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract: Some basic properties of the universe at two different epochs of radiation and matter were calculated depending on lambda cold dark matter model. WMAP satellite data and a computer program code used for solving Friedmann equations and calculating radiation density, matter density and temperature at different ages of the universe from the Big Bang to the present day. It was found that the value of radiation, matter and dark energy densities were different in the same value of the age of the universe, except approximately at years the density parameter of radiation and matter were equal. Also it came to be known that when the age of the universe is increased, temperature decreased so matter dominated in the universe. At temperature 3K the cosmic microwave background radiation separated freely all over the space.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 407 KB
Title: Converse Variational Stability for Kurzweil Equations associated with Quantum Stochastic Differential Equations
Author(s): S. A. Bishop, E. O. Ayoola
Pages: 70-84 Paper ID: 130802-2727-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract: In analogous to classical ordinary differential equations, we study and establish results on converse variational stability of solution of quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs) associated with the Kurzweil equations. The results here generalize analogous results for classical initial value problems. The converse variational stability guaranteed the existence of a Lyapunov function when the solution is variationally stable.
Keywords: Non classical ODE; Kurzweil equations; Noncommutative stochastic processes, Converse Variational stability and Converse Asymptotic variational stability.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 423 KB
Title: The Study of Flame’s Effects on the mechanical Strength of Metals at Room Temperature
Author(s): Ammar M. J.
Pages: 85-88 Paper ID: 136402-9090-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine what the effects of flame (at room temperatures) have on the tensile strength of Metals. The three kinds of metal to be used in this study, Iron, steel and galvanized steel. The gauge and the length of the wires was the same (18 30) cm. The main variable in this study was the types of wire being used and the temperature points at which they are being tested. The responding variable was the weight at which the wires break at the different weights. According to results the all six tests I concluded that the galvanized steel was stronger than the steel and Iron wires I tested. Even though the steel was inconsistent all of the results on that wire showed that even at its highest the steel wire held significantly less than the galvanized steel wire.
Keywords: Flame, Metal Strength, Annealing.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 393 KB
Title: Empowerment and its Impact on Banks Performance Jordanian Banks: A pplied Study
Author(s): Atallah Basheer Alnaweigah
Pages: 89-100 Paper ID: 137302-8585-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract: The study aims to identify the impact of empowerment on Jordanian banks performance. This study covers all the 25 commercial banks of Jordan as classified by the Central Bank of Jordan, as well as the working non-Jordanian banks in Jordan, the sample of study compromises (267) staff employees, out of which (130) are auditors (Internal Auditor) in different sections of the audit and internal control in Jordanian banks, and (members of the Unit) of the users of systems, internal audit. Representing a rate (48.68%) of the sample of the study. For the purposes of the study a Questionnaire is desgned, including a number of areas, which are as follows: personal freedom, quality, problem solving, choice of employment, and speed. May be every area of resolution of a number of paragraphs, where a total of paragraphs (43) , according to the Likert- five measuring tool, and as follows: very much, and significantly, and moderately, and a few, very few are. The digital signs on the following ranking: (5, 4, 3, 2, 1), after data collection and discharge of processed using descriptive statistical methods was the mathematical averages and standard deviations and Pearson correlation coefficient, analysis of variance and multi-bilateral variables (Two Way ANOVA ), and testing (Scheffe) for comparisons. The Study showed that there are no statistically significant differences in the impact of empowerment on Jordanian commercial banks performance due to the demographic variables. In the light of the results, the researcher recommends the following: the need to work on the training of outstanding workers in banks to enrich their experiences and to inform them of the motivation of all the scientific developments and technologies with regard to the bank and banking . the involvement of administrative and management environment for workers in decision and policy making and evaluation, adherence to the instructions of the banks with regard to discipline the employee and the organization as an example in conduct and professional practice, recruiting information available in the training and making judgments and decisions on providing excellent services to colleagues and clients, and working on the record-keeping and organization of the rapid access when needed.
Keywords: Empowerment, Performance, Jordanian Banks.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 333 KB
Title: Solvents Effect on Geometries and Electronic Properties of Picolinic Acid: A theoretical Study
Author(s): Adeoye, Idowu Olatunbosun, Semire, Banjo
Pages: 101-107 Paper ID: 123105-1302-7474-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract: The DFT(B3LYP) with five basis sets (6–31G*, 6-31G**, 6-311G**, 6-311+G**, 6-311++G**) was used to study the effect of basis sets on geometry, vibration frequencies, electronic properties and chemical shifts. The largest differences in geometry were observed in ethanol with 0.006Å, 0.014Å, -0.015Å, -0.005Å and 0.004Å for N-C1, C6-O1, C6-O2, C1-C6 and O2-H bonds respectively which show that solvent-molecule interactions are more prominent around the heteroatoms especially the polar solvents. The magnitude of solvation energies and dipole moments and solvents effect factor (þ) calculated for both 13C NMR and 1H NMR was in agreement with the experimental degree of polarity of the solvents.
Keywords: Picolinic Acid, Solvent Effects
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 507 KB
Title: Certain Subclass of Meromorphic p-Valent Functions With Alternating Coefficients
Author(s): H. E. Darwish, A. Y. Lashin, S. M. Soileh
Pages: 108-119 Paper ID: 1311402-7575-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract: A certain subclass consisting of meromorphic p-valent functions with alternating coefficients in and is introduced. In this paper we obtain coefficient inequalities, distortion theorems, closure theorems, and class preserving integral operators for functions in the class 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification:30C45
Keywords: Regular, Meromorphic, Starlike, Convex, Integral operator.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 278 KB