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Title: Galerkin discretizations of 4th order in space and time for the Convection-Diffusion-Reaction (CoDiRe) equation
Author(s): R. Mahmood, S. Hussain
Pages: 1-22 Paper ID: 131104-6767-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2013
Abstract: In this paper, we extend the continuous Galerkin-Petrove time discretization scheme studied in [5], for the nonstationary Convection-Diffusion-Reaction (CoDiRe) equation. In particular, we analyze the 4th order cGP(2)-method and compare it with existing low order method. Moreover, for the approximation in space we use the nonparametric e Q3 -element which belongs to a family of recently derived higher order nonconforming finite element spaces and leads to an approximation error in space of order 4, too, in the L 2 -norm. We also combine the space discretization with edge oriented jump stabilization (EOJ) in order to get the stable discretization for the increasing convection. We discuss implementation aspects of the time discretization as well as efficient multigrid methods for solving the resulting block systems which lead to convergence rates being almost independent of the mesh size and the time step. The expected optimal accuracy of the full discretization error of 4th order in space and time is confirmed by several numerical tests. In our numerical experiments we compare different spatial and temporal discretization approaches with respect to accuracy and computational cost.
Keywords: continuous Galerkin-Petrov method, convection-diffusion equation, multigrid method.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 3,629 KB
Title: Effect of Plunger-Gate Voltage on Triple-Barrier Resonance Tunneling Nanostructure
Author(s): Nzar Rauf Abdullah, Hossien Hossieni, Aziz Hama Rahim, Peshwaz Abdulkareem
Pages: 30-33 Paper ID: 134804-0707-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2013
Abstract: We have presented a theoretical study of the electronic transport through a triple-barrier (TB) resonance tunneling nanostructre. The system is modeled by a so called tight binding Hamiltonian method. The transmission for both symmetric and asymmetric TB systems is calculated by using Landauer-Buttiker formalism. We have observed that the local (inter-well) and non-local resonance tunneling can be enhanced by tuning a plunger-gate voltage (Vpg). Our results can be benefit for the future of resonance tunneling multi-barriers devices.
Keywords: Electronic transport in mesoscopic systems, single-electron tunneling, Quantum well devices, Tight-binding method.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 576 KB
Title: Exploring the Clustering Location of Accommodation Units through the Tourism Development in the Cing Jing area of Taiwan
Author(s): Hsueh, Ya-Hui, Tseng, Hsiu-Yuan
Pages: 34-43 Paper ID: 135704-9090-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2013
Abstract: This research, taking the example of accommodation units in the Cing Jing area, examined the clustering location of accommodations through the temporal-spatial process based on Butler’s TALC tourism development model. From the time series data of the tourists’ number in the Cing Jing area, this research investigated the stage of TALC model of tourism development, and defined the characteristics of clustering location of accommodation points by using GIS spatial analysis method.
Keywords: TALC, clustering location, GIS, accessibility, landscape, serenity.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 653 KB
Title: Evaluation of Wastewater Discharge from Hospitals in Amman -JORDAN
Author(s): Kholoud Al-Ajlouni, Saleh Shakhatreh, Nuha AL- Ibraheem, Musa Jawarneh
Pages: 44-50 Paper ID: 132104-6363-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2013
Abstract: Hospital waste management is a crucial environmental and public safety issue. Discharge water is one of the main sources of groundwater and rivers contamination if not treated efficiently Hospitals consume an important volume of water a day, and generate multiple amounts of infectious and hazardous polluted discharge water to the drain .These pollutants should be treated by the WWTP of each hospital before release to the municipal drainage. This study aims at presenting the primary results on characterization of hospital wastewaters in some hospitals in Amman city – Jordan. Twelve major hospitals were selected for this study in Amman ranging from 930 to 32 bed per hospital, none of them have a wastewater treatment plant, WWTP, and the wastewater is rejected untreated to the sewage. This addition of polluted wastewater will increase the load to the WWTPs of the city and reduce the efficiency of treatment processes leading to hazardous pollution in the future. Analysis of the concentration of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, sulfate, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, chlorides, and oils and grease were made during the period (1/6/2010 - 31/12/2010). The study showed an increase in the concentration of pollutants which is higher than the Jordan standards of wastewaters.
Keywords: Hospital effluents, Kalida graph software, Wastewater.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 384 KB
Title: Forensic Linguistic Evidence and its Admissibility in Malaysia
Author(s): Ramalinggam Rajamanickam, Anita Abdul Rahim
Pages: 51-56 Paper ID: 133204-7676-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2013
Abstract: In today’s complex and technologically oriented society, scientific evidence surfaces in nearly every kind of litigation. Among other things, the use of forensic science to solve a crime which later will be used as an evidence in the courtroom. One of the important areas of forensic science is forensic linguistic. Forensic linguists are called in to help a court answer the questions pertaining to application of linguistic knowledge and techniques in the investigation of a crime. This paper addresses, from the perspective of Malaysia, the primary issue of relevancy of forensic linguistic evidence under the Evidence Act 1950. This paper further emphasizes on the issue of admissibility of such evidence in the courtroom to prove the fact in issue in the criminal trial. The paper suggests that the Malaysian Courts shall have the proper guidelines in terms of admissibility of forensic linguistic evidence to uphold justice.
Keywords: Admissibility, evidence, forensic linguistic, forensic science, relevancy.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 393 KB
Title: Removal of Amaranth Dye from aqueous Solution using Pomegranate Peel
Author(s): Hana, Adii Ali, Hana, Kadhem Egzar, Noor Mustafa Kamal, Naha abdulsaheb, Muthana Saleh Mashkour
Pages: 57-64 Paper ID: 133404-9595-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2013
Abstract: Pomegranate peel carbon was tested for its ability to adsorb amaranth dye from solutions with alterations in the parameters such as pH, contact time, sorbent weight, and temperature. The adsorption process was analyzed on the basis of pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order kinetic models and also by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity for pomegranate peel as calculated by Langmuir model was found to be 3.448mg/g and 3.560 g\ L at 25°C. Thermodynamic parameters such as the changes of free energy, enthalpy, and entropy were also evaluated. The results indicated that the sorption amaranth dye onto the pomegranate peel was an endothermic process that could be well fitted with the Langmuir adsorption model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model.
Keywords: Adsorption, amaranth dye removal, Pomegranate peel.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 909 KB
Title: Physical Characteristics and Magnetic Properties of Barium Hexaferrites (BaFe12O19) Derived from Mechanical Alloying
Author(s): Rahmat Doni W, Azwar Manaf, P. Sardjono
Pages: 65-68 Paper ID: 133904-7878-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2013
Abstract: Barium hexaferrite is synthesized using a planetary ball mill with ball to powder ratio 10:1. Changes in the particle and crystallite-size, structure, and also magnetic properties are studied with the aid of particle-size analyzes, X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. The product after an 60 h mill is phase BaCO3 and Fe2O3. The milling process leads to increase the content of Fe2O3 which causes enriching of surface layer of powder particle by Fe2O3. After sintering up to 1100°C in air is found that in the former case the product for 60 h mill is phase BaFe12O19 (BHF) and hematite (a-Fe2O3). Sintering the green compact of the particles at 1100 0C has resulted in a dense compact and promoted the formation of particles containing nanocrystallites in which the mean crystallite size is 33 times lower than that of mean particle size. The best remanence, coercive force and maximum energy product for the magnets were obtained from sample prepared at 10 hours mechanically alloyed powders.
Keywords: Particle size, crystallite size, magnetic properties, barium hexaferrite, mechanical milling.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 522 KB
Title: Production Methyl Laurate from Virgin Coconut Oil via Transesterification and Distillation Methods
Author(s): Syamsuddin, Bambang Setiaji, Wega Trisunaryanti, Harno Dwi Pranowo
Pages: 69-73 Paper ID: 136704-8484-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2013
Abstract: The research have been done production methyl laurate from virgin coconut oil via transesterification and distillation methods. Determination of optimum conditions through the application of influence methanolysis stirrer agitation and the reaction time of the mass fraction of fatty acid methyl esters are formed. Agitation stirrer and the reaction time effect on fatty acid methyl ester methanolysis products with optimum conditions found on the stirrer agitation 500 rpm and reaction time 50 minutes. In these conditions the mass fraction of fatty acid methyl esters reached 100%. Methyl ester which was obtained in every treatment was separated, washed and filtered, which was then characterized by GC, and then methyl ester was analyzed GC and GC-MS separated by distillation method to obtain methyl laurate. The results of the fatty acid methyl ester fractionation produce 6 fractions, 3 fractions (fractions I, II and VI) containing methyl laurate lower than original VCO (Virgin Coconut Oil), 3 fractions (fractions III, IV and V fraction) containing methyl laurate above VCO (virgin coconut oil) origin (in up 70%). Fractionation back combined fractions III to V yield fractions containing 93% methyl laurate. If distilled up to 99% yield of methyl laurate.
Keywords: Fatty acid methyl ester, methyl laurate, virgin coconut oil, methanolysis.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 484 KB
Title: In vitro Antileishmanial, Cytotoxic and Antioxidant activities of Salvia bucharica leaves extract and its fractions
Author(s): Afroz R. Khan, Muhammad Javed Khan
Pages: 74-78 Paper ID: 136004-7373-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2013
Abstract: Balochistan, province of Pakistan is blessed with the treasure of numerous medicinal plants. Salvia bucharica has widely been used in folk medicine for its medicinal properties. The present study has been focused on the crude methanolic leaves extract (CME) and its fractions: chloroform fraction (CCF), acetone fraction (CAE) and aqueous fraction (AQF).The plant was investigated for its aniti leishmanial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. CME showed significant antileishmanial activity with IC50 value 72.31. The results of CCF and CAF showed maximum brain shrimp cytotoxic activity with ED50 values 2.76 µg/ml and 1.68 µg/ml respectively. The antioxidant activity of Salvia bucharica ranged from 31.98 to 42.1 µg/ml. CCF showed maximum antoxidant activity with IC50 value 42.1 µg/ml. The extract and its fractions were also appreciating for further biological studies in future.
Keywords: Antileishmanial, Cytotoxicity (Brine shrimp), Antioxidant, Salvia bucharica leaves.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 426 KB
Title: Vibrations of a Non-Linear Dynamical System with Time Varying Stiffness Subjected to Multi- Excitation Forces
Author(s): Y. A. Amer, E. El emam. Ahmed
Pages: 79-87 Paper ID: 137804-6969-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2013
Abstract: Vibration and dynamic chaos are undesired phenomenon in structure. The system of single degree of freedom of a cantilever skew of aluminum plate are introduced using quadratic and cubic non-linearities with time varying stiffness are considered and studied. The multiple time scale perturbation technique is applied. An approximate solution is derived up to third order approximation. The stability of the system investigated applying both frequency response functions (FRFs) and phase-plane methods. The effects of different parameters are studied numerically.
Keywords: Chaotic, Perturbation method, Response curves, Stability.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 501 KB
Title: A Two-Echelon Supply Chain and Facility Location Problem
Author(s): Uddin Mohammed Forhad, Islam Mohammad Khairul, Kazi Anowar Hussain
Pages: 88-96 Paper ID: 134704-5656-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2013
Abstract: The present work deals with supply chain optimization and facility selection problem. The supply chain consisting single vendor and buyer with deterministic demand function is considered. Coordination mechanism among the member of supply chain is significant to obtain the optimum state for the whole system. The coordination mechanism has been considered to obtain the optimal location for buyer’s warehouses. In this work, (1) Buyer’s Mixed Integer Problem (MIP) model, (2) Vendor’s Integer Problem (IP) model, and finally (3) Coordinated MIP model have been formulated. Numerical examples presented in this research, which include the sensitivity of the key parameters to illustrate the models. Results show that the individual profit as well as joint profit could be increased by coordination mechanism. Buyer’s selling price with consumers purchasing price could be decreased which may increase the demand of the end market. By coordination different products allocations for different cases are not differ much and the location set for the warehouse facility is become confined which is easy to conclude.
Keywords: Coordination mechanism, Facility location problem, Warehouse location problem.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 822 KB
Title: Titanium Dissolution from Indonesian Ilmenite
Author(s): Rudi Subagja, Lia Andriyah, Latifa Hanum Lalasari
Pages: 97-103 Paper ID: 138004-7272-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2013
Abstract: At present work, an experiment to dissolve titanium from Indonesian Ilmenite into the sulfuric acid solutions was carried out through a decomposition process using aqueous KOH solutions, and it was followed with titanium dissolution from decomposed Ilmenite into the aqueous sulfuric acid solutions. Ilmenite decomposition process was done by using 10 mol/liter aqueous potassium hydroxide at temperature 150 o C for 4 hours in the autoclave and titanium dissolution from decomposed Ilmenite into the aqueous sulfuric acid solutions was carried out in the three neck glass reactor. The variable used for dissolution process were covering: dissolution temperature from 50 0 C up to 125 0 C, sulfuric acid concentrations from 50 % up to 75 % and dissolution time from 30 minutes up to 360 minutes. The effect of all those variables were observed on the titanium and iron dissolution from decomposed Ilmenite, whereas the titanium and iron dissolved into the aqueous sulfuric acid solutions were represented as a fraction of titanium [XTi] and a fraction of iron [XFe] dissolved from decomposed Ilmenite. The result of the dissolution experiments show that [XTi] increased when the dissolution temperature were increased from 50 o C to 125 o C and sulfuric acid concentration were increased from 50 % to 75 %. In case of iron, at dissolution temperature 50oC, [XFe] increased when the sulfuric acid concentration were increased from 50 % to 75 % , however at dissolution temperature 75 0 C, [XFe] was slightly decreased when the sulfuric acid concentration were increased from 50 % to 75%. Almost 85 % of titanium and 30 % of iron were dissolved into the aqueous sulfuric acid solution when the decomposed ilmenite were dissolve into 75 % sulfuric acid solutions at dissolution temperature 125 o C and dissolution time 2 hours. From the kinetical study, the titanium dissolution from decomposed ilmenite follows the diffusion control model, with activated energy 59 Kj/mole.
Keywords: Decomposed Ilmenite, sulfuric acid, titanium dissolution
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 537 KB
Title: Indoor Pollutants, Microbial Concentrations and Thermal Conditions Influence Student Performance and Health
Author(s): Sonia Regina Jurado, Antonia Dalla Pria Bankoff
Pages: 104-111 Paper ID: 135604-8181-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2013
Abstract: The investigation included thirty classrooms, air-conditioned (n=12) and naturally ventilated (n=18), at eleven different schools for comparison of indoor air quality. Environmental parameters were monitored in indoor and outdoor schools. A total of 674 pupils aged 10-12 filled in a questionnaire on building-related symptoms and they also make a test for checking the academic performance of both types of classrooms. Rooms with natural ventilation tended to have higher fungal concentration than air-conditioned rooms. The indoor average PM10 concentrations exceeded the Brazilian standards in six naturally ventilated classrooms. The indoor dust concentrations were positively associated with eye irritation, headache and lethargy. Indoor CO2 concentrations often exceeded 1000 ppm in ten air-conditioned rooms. The relative air humidity and indoor temperature for the majority of rooms with air-conditioning were within acceptable ranges, in opposite of classrooms with natural ventilation. The indoor air quality school influences academic performance and health student. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.
Keywords: Indoor air pollution, biocontaminants, schools, student performance.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 378 KB
Title: The Exploration of Ketosynthase Gene on Endophytic Bacterial Root of Vetiveria zizanioides L.
Author(s): Any Fitriani, Any Aryani, Hasbi Yusuf, Yani Permatasari
Pages: 112-119 Paper ID: 138604-5757-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2013
Abstract: The exploration of ketosynthase gene has been conducted on 17 isolates of endophytic bacterial root of Vetiveria zizanioides L. Ketosynthase gene was detected by two pairs of degenerate oligonucleotide primers, that is DKF-DKR and HGLF-HGLR. Meanwhile, another partial-sequence analysis was conducted on 16S rRNA gene that was amplified by 63F and 1387R primers. Partial sequence of ketosynthase gene was obtained by sequencing the result of the 400 and 700 bp amplicon in size. The result of DNA amplification showed that there were only five species of endophytic bacteria detected to have ketosynthase gene. Through the analysis of 16S rRNA gene, the species information of the bacteria was obtained, i.e. Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Isolate A), Pantoea sp (Isolate H), Bacillus sp (Isolate K), Acinetobacter sp (Isolate M) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Isolate O). Through bioinformatics and phylogenetic study, it was proven that isolate H, M, and O are included in proteobacteria group with ketosynthase gene type I, while isolate A (Lysinibacillus sphaericus) and isolate K (Bacillus sp) belong to Firmicutes bacteria group with ketosynthase gene type II. The separation of the branches on bacterial family tree demonstrated the evolution of ketosynthase genes in the bacteria itself.
Keywords: Endophytic Bacteria, Ketosynthase, 16S rRNA, Vetiveria zizanioides.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 451 KB