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Title: Bio-oil from Pyrolysis of Castor Shell
Author(s): T. Hassan Mohammed, Rajae Lakhmiri., Amina Azmani, Isam Ibrahim Hassan
Pages: 1-5 Paper ID:141006-2525-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2014
Abstract: Bioenergy is the most important renewable energy option, both at present, as well as in the near- and medium-term future . Slow pyrolysis of castor shell has been conducted in a fixed bed reactor to determine the effect of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on the pyrolysis product yields. Pyrolysis experiments were performed at pyrolysis temperature between 400-600°C with a constant heating rate of 70°C/min and particle sizes of 0.5-1 mm.The highest liquid yield was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 550°C, with particle size of 0.5-1.0 mm and heating rate of 70°C/min.The obtained yield of liquid, gas and solid were found be in the range of 36.8-41.5 %, 30.7-35.5 % and 22.5-32 % respectively at different pyrolysis conditions. The elemental analysis and calorific value of the bio-oil were determined. The functional groups and chemical compound present in the bio-oil obtained at optimum conditions were identified by Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR) Spectrosco- Py and Gas ChromatoGraphy/Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis respectively. The calorific values of bio-oil was 35.01 MJ/kg.The chemical characterisation results showed that the bio-oil obtained from castor shells could be used as a renewable fuel and chemical feedstock.
Keywords: Slow pyrolysis, Fixed bed reactor, Castor Shell, Bio-oil.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 308 KB
Title: Heavy Metal Resistance and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Bacteria Isolated from Selected Polluted Soils in Lagos and Ota, Nigeria
Author(s): Owolabi, J. B., Hekeu, M. M.
Pages: 6-12 Paper ID:142206-7373-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2014
Abstract: Heavy metal pollutants are commonly found in soils, sediments and waste water where they remain persistent, and become toxic to many species above certain threshold concentrations. Bacteria resistant to heavy metals can be used for detoxification and prevent further deterioration of contaminated sites. The incidence of bacteria resistant to heavy metals in soils collected from six contaminated sites in Lagos and Ota, Nigeria was assessed in this study. Heavy metal resistant bacteria were isolated from the soil samples following enrichment by growth on media amended with high concentrations of lead, cadmium and chromium, and identified based on cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. A total of 11 heavy metal resistant bacteria isolated from the soil samples were tentatively identified as Aeromonas sp (3), Arthrobacter sp. (1), Corynebacterium sp (4), Pseudomonas sp (1) and Streptococcus sp (2). The maximum tolerated concentrations of metals (in basal medium supplemented with lead, cadmium and chromium) ranged from 2 to 10 mM for the Pseudomonas sp. and 2 to 4 mM for the Corynebacterium and Streptococcus spp. The three selected isolates also exhibited resistance to amoxicillin, augmentin, cefuroxime, erythromycin and cloxacillin, and sensitivity to ofloxacin and ceftazidime. The organisms with antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance isolated and identified in this study have potential application in bioremediation of environments polluted with metals and may also help to overcome the inhibition that heavy metals exert on the biodegradation of organic pollutants. In addition, such dual resistant organisms would have the capacity to compete well with antibiotic-producing flora in the polluted environment.
Keywords: Heavy metal, resistance, antibiotics, bacteria, soils.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 242 KB
Title: Effect Of in Queue Waiting on Decision Making
Author(s): Görkem Sariyer
Pages: 13-18 Paper ID:147106-8383-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2014
Abstract: Strategic customers take their waiting time into consideration upon making decisions. While satisfactorily completed service increases utility of a customer, waiting to be served decreases this utility in a queueing type service system. In this system, waiting can be classified into two: in queue waiting and in service waiting. Unlike the literature, proposed model assumes waiting in a queue, while other customers are being served, differs from waiting in service where the former one decreases the utility of a customer more. This paper analyzes decision making of a customer under this assumption. Comparing decision of the customer under proposed assumption and literature assumption, this paper shows that in queue waiting differs in service waiting.
Keywords: Strategic customer, M/M/1, in queue waiting, in service waiting, observable queues, unobservable queues.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 339 KB
Title: The Sub Surface Modeling of Opak Fault Yogyakarta Region With Inversion Method of Gravity Data
Author(s): M. Irham Nurwidyanto, Kirbani SB, Sismanto, Waluyo
Pages: 19-26 Paper ID:146206-7171-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2014
Abstract: Survey measurement of the relative gravitational field in the central part of the southern area of Yogyakarta has been performed. In this survey successfully measured relative gravity field 470 measurement points were distributed almost evenly spanning an area of 30 km x 30 km. Distribution of measurement points through the area suspected Opak Fault shown on the geological maps published by the Geological Research and Development Center Bandung. This study aims to model the subsurface conditions of the Opak Fault Yogyakarta based on the rock density contrast value with the inverse method of gravity data. In order to measure the relative gravity fields is used a La-coste & Romberg gravity meter type G-1118 MVR, whereas the location of measurement and the height of the measuring point uses Trimble GPS Navigations 4600 LS type. The distribution of point measurements were performed by using semi-grid pattern with a trajectory passing through the measurement of existing roads or footpaths to the distance between the trajectory of about 1-2 km and the distance between the point of measurement varied from about 0.5 km - 2 km. The relative gravity data measured then doing the process , among others, the calibration readings into units of mgal, drift correction, high correction tools, tidal correction, correction of normal gravity, free air correction, Bouguer correction and terrain correction. The gravitational field data has been done and corrected, called the Complete Bouguer Anomaly (CBA) in the topography (at the point of measurement). The CBA data obtained is then projected on a horizontal plane at a height of 500 m above sea level with approach a point source equivalent mass at a depth of 5000 m below the reference spheroid used Damney method. The CBA data that has been projected on a plane then separated for the local components and regional components do further modeling and interpretation. To determine the Opak Fault zone, the data of CBA local components obtained are then calculated the value of the horizontal gradient. The position of the fault zone is indicated by the maximum horizontal gradient value. To model the subsurface rock conditions based on the rocks density contrast value using inversion modeling is done with software Grav3D from UBC (University of British Columbia). The area with small density contrast values to negative is the area of suspected as fault zone. It is a weak zone. From the results of the 3D inverse modeling in the study area was found in three areas was interpreted as a fault, which is in the western part and the eastern parts of hills that stretches from Parang Tritis to Prambanan trending southwest to northeast and in the south of the study area trending northwest-southeast. The weak zone located in the western part of hills is interpreted as a Opak Fault. The weak zone in the eastern part of hills is interpreted as another fault which proposed with the name of Oya Fault. The Weak zone located in the southern part of the study area is interpreted as another fault which proposed with the name of Siluk Fault. The Oya Fault and the Siluk Fault was estimated as fault caused the earthquake in Yogyakarta and Central Java on May 27, 2006. The estimation for location the Oya Fault and the Siluk Fault are correlation with the location of aftershocks (Walter, et al. 2008) and adjacent to the position of the epicenter of the main quake, according to the USGS (Elnashai, et al 2007).
Keywords: Opak Fault, Gravity Method, 3D Inversion.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 567 KB
Title: Characterization Structure, Electrochemical Corrosion Behaviour and Physical Properties of Bismuth-lead Based Penta Fusible Alloys
Author(s): A. El- Bediwi, F. Dawood, M. Kamal
Pages: 27-34 Paper ID:149706-5858-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2014
Abstract: Electrochemical corrosion behavior, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of Bi50-xPb25Sn12.5Cd12.5Xx (X=Cu, Se, In, Al and Zn, x=2) rapidly solidified alloys have been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis show that, Bi50-xPb25Sn12.5Cd12.5Xx alloys have lines corresponding to rhombohedral Bi phase, tetragonal Sn phase, face centered cubic Pb phase, hexagonal Cd phase and Pb7Bi3 intermetallic phase with different intensity, broadness and position. Corrosion rate of Bi50Pb25Sn12.5Cd12.5 alloy in 0.5M HCl decreased after adding Cu, Se, In, Al and Zn contents. Elastic modulus of Bi50Pb25Sn12.5Cd12.5 alloy increased after adding Cu, Se, In, Al and Zn contents. Vickers hardness and internal friction of Bi50Pb25Sn12.5Cd12.5 alloy decreased after adding Cu, Se, In, Al and Zn contents. Wetting behavior of Bi50Pb25Sn12.5Cd12.5 alloy varied after adding Cu, Se, In, Al and Zn contents. The Bi48Pb25Sn12.5Cd12.5In2 alloy has lowest melting temperature (69 ºC) for shielding blocks used in radio therapy.
Keywords: corrosion current, corrosion rate, Vickers hardness, elastic modulus, internal friction, microstructure, wettability.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 929 KB