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Title: Suitabilty of the Dwazda-Emam Natural Clay for the Synthesis of Al13, and (Fe, Li)/Al Pillared-Clay Nanoparticles
Author(s): Bakhtyar Kamal Aziz, Baram Ahmed Hama Amin
Pages: 1-4 Paper ID:150301-7474-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2015
Abstract: The present research presents the suitability of pillaring of natural local clay of Dwazda-Emam area (CTE) from Sulaimani governorate for preparation of nano-sized large pore pillared clays which are important as thermally stable catalysts. Metal polyoxides of Al, Fe, Li were used as pillaring agents as well as mixed pillaring agents of these metals. X-ray diffraction spectra of the Al-Pillared clay showed an increase in the basal spacing of the clay particles from 15.55Ao to 20.52Ao. Comparison of CTE and pillared CTE using thermal gravimetric analysis TG/DTA shows an increase in the interlayer water molecules of the prepared pillared clays which is further indication of expansion of the interlayer spacing that increases specific surface area, thereby increasing adsorption capacity and catalytic activity. Morphology study by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) of the natural and modified clay samples show the formation agglomerated nano-rods.
Keywords: Nanoparticle, natural clay, pillared clay.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 642 KB
Title: Wastewater Produced by Some Dairy Plants in Jordan
Author(s): Saleh Shakhatreh, Kholoud Al-Ajlouni, Nada Al-Ananzeh
Pages: 5-10 Paper ID:151101-2929-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2015
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the main pollution parameters of wastewater in three dairy processing plants in Amman city from (2008-2011) in Jordan. The wastewater samples were tested for BOD (Biological oxygen demand), COD (Chemical oxygen demand), TSS (Total suspended solid), TDS (Total dissolved solids), temperature and pH values. The results indicated that pollution levels of wastewater samples of dairy industry tested in this study were found high. Since Jordan is a country with little water resources and below water poverty line, discharge waters should be reclaimed and reused for irrigation instead of high quality waters.To avoid the environmental pollution and to protect public health, wastewater treatment units in these dairy plants are recommended for these dairy industries.
Keywords: Dairy industry, Jordan, wastewater.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 352 KB
Title: An Analytical Solution for MHD Micro Polar Fluid Transport Phenomena over a Stretching Permeable Sheet
Author(s): A. Majidiana, M. Parvizi Omran, A. Amani, M. Golipour, H. Borzouei Bazgir, G. Domairry
Pages: 11-19 Paper ID:156301-8282-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2015
Abstract: In this paper, an analytical solution for two-dimensional boundary layer of an electrically conducting micro polar fluid spreading over permeable flat plate is aimed. The effect of Magno-Hydrodynamic (MHD), viscous dissipation and internal heat generation has been considered. A set of similarity parameters is employed to convert the governing partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations .Nonlinear ODE which is obtained by similarity solution has been solved through, a powerful analytical method, called Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM). The convergence of the obtained series solutions is explicitly studied. The obtained analytical solution in comparison with the numerical ones represents a favorable accuracy. The Results are presented graphically and in tabular form and the different physical aspects of the problem have been discussed.
Keywords: Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM), MHD Flow, Micropolar Fluid, Joule Heating Effect, Analytical Solution, Non- Linear ODE, Similarity Solution, Variable Electrical Conductivity.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 593 KB