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Title: Eucheuma cottonii Seaweed Seed Development Excellence Growth In Waters Sathean Southeast Maluku Indonesia
Author(s): Nally Yans. Grispinomia. Fraly. Erbabley, Dominggas. Mintje. Kelabora, Martha Rettob, CennyPutnarubun
Pages: 1-6 Paper ID:152203-8585-IJBAS-IJENS Published: June, 2015
Abstract: The development of seaweed cultivation , which refers to the growing season is a model of productive land use. This research has been carried out in the waters Sathean Southeast Maluku, which aims to determine in a period of growth during the growing season in the waters Sathean Southeast Maluku. Experiments were analyzed using t-test. Treatment seaweed Eucheumacottonii seedlingsgreen and brown seeds. Each treatment consisted of 5 rope stretch . Seeds obtained from nursery growers in the vicinity of the research by the initial weight of 20 g per hill and plant spacing of 15 cm between clumps. Seedlings maintained using methods long line on a 30 m, nylon rope with a distance of 80 cm between the stretch . Maintenance carried out for 42 days each cycle and is done an ongoing basis as much as 8 cycles . Measurement of the growth of seaweed and marine environmental quality performed at intervals of 45 days. The data were analyzed statistically to determine the growth of total production and planting calendar seaweed. The results showed that the growth rate of both the varieties of seeds and seedlings brown green varieties found in cycle to V is in July and August. While the t-test results showed that the brown seed varieties have better growth than the green varieties of seeds. The total yield the highest production was found in the seeds of varieties of chocolate on the fourth crop cycle, while the next crop cycle decreased production of both varieties. Growing season seaweed, E. cottoniiSathean productive waters occurred 5 times or 4 cycles per year is from February to April and July and August, while in the month of May-June and September-December are less productive because of an attack disease. Seaweed growth is strongly influenced by the season, because it's appropriate cropping patterns is needed to anticipate the season of harvest failure.
Keywords: Growth, Seaweed farming, Sathean.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 336 KB
Title: Innovation as a Competitive Differential Based on Investments in Research and Development by Global Innovation Index Countries: A Contributing to the Global Efficiency as to the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)
Author(s): Paulo Ricardo Cosme Bezerra
Pages: 7-11 Paper ID:152403-6767-IJBAS-IJENS Published: June, 2015
Abstract: Innovation is considered the main factor that allows the societal masses and economies to solidly become more developed. The designated “new growth theory”, and the criticism given by it, were brought, in fact, to put innovation as the center of a new economical and developmental growth model, in which the ability to produce, disseminate, absorb and recombine knowledge has an essential role. The innovation as a responsible for the economical differences among countries takes an ever-growing spot in economical literature. The many different ways innovation is focused turns it into a fundamental piece in its analytical elaborations. It is present in discussions on the national systems of innovation, the so-called evolutionist economy, in the industrial clusters discussion, in the theory of regulation from the economist’s point of view, of the authors that work along with industrial districts and even from the perspective of the neoclassical economy authors. In this context, innovation stands out associated to the idea of scientific discovery because of the referred investigation and development activities, executed inside businesses, investigation institutions or universities. Innovation processes occur when, based on this discovery and the making of experimental nature prototypes, it is possible to widen determined methodological procedures, which allows transforming the discovery in some kind of generic technological knowledge. In other words, potentially appropriable by any entity that can benefit from it for the activities they develop. This way of perceiving the innovation process is clearly sequential, hierarchical and descendant. This article sought to evaluate the efficiency of the countries presented in the GII regarding their performance in competitively and technological innovation. To analyze the results, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is utilized through input oriented BCC (Variable Returns to Scale) and CCR (Constant Returns to Scale).The variable dispersion analysis shows that the data is not equally distributed for presenting a variation coefficient superior to 25% and through Pearson’s coefficient correlations have been found and it’s being verified that there is a strong positive correlation between variables in the study. About the definition of orientation (input/output oriented), – The orientation is up to the data analyst – can be oriented to the output. In addition to the model variation (CCR and BBC are the main models) DEA also changes depending on the orientation, which can be input or output. All the applications of this article were done with an input orientation. This type of orientation is common in literature. It is necessary to more deeply understand the efficient units by determining the efficiency, it is also important to verify which ones were benchmarking to set a pattern for the other inefficient countries.
Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Innovation, Efficiency.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 395 KB
Title: The Study On Photo Degradation Of Crystal Violet By Polarographic Technique
Author(s): Falah Shreef Abed Suhail, Muthana Saleh Mashkour, Deemah Saeb
Pages: 12-21 Paper ID:155103-8484-IJBAS-IJENS Published: June, 2015
Abstract: This work include the photocatalytic degradation of an aqueous crystal violet [Tris((dimethylamino)phenyl) methylium chloride] dyes by using ZnO catalyst photo catalyst in aqueous medium, Photocatalytic degradation of dyes was carried out by using UV radiation as light source. The result of this study expressed by current diffusion against time to using polarographic technique. The effect of some parameters, such as mass of catalyst, Initial dye concentration, initial pH of aqueous dye solution and temperature were studied. The results indicate that the photocatalytic reactions are a pseudo first order reactions according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood relationship. It was observed that the photocatalytic degradation efficiency increase with increase of catalyst mass up to 0.1g.For above this masses, photocatalytic degradation efficiency was decreases with increasing of catalyst mass . The results also showed an increase in the photocatalytic degradation efficiency with increasing of initial pH up to maximum value. The results also showed that degradation efficiency was inversely directed with the initial dye concentration. The degradation of crystal violet dye increases slightly with increasing temperature. The activation energy is equal to( 27.55) kJ.mol-1 . The thermodynamic parameters of the degradation of crystal violet have been reported. The positive ?H# refer to endothermic reaction , the positive ?G# obtained indicate that the reaction is non-spontaneous ,the positive ?S# obtained indicate the reactants is more regularly than produce. The result indicate that the dye was degraded and the suggest mechanism show that the final product of degradation of crystal violet dye was CO2 and H2O. De colorization and degradation of crystal violet dye in the absence of light and/or catalyst were performed to demonstrate that the presence of light and catalyst was essential for the degradation of this dye.
Keywords: Degradation; crystal violet; photo catalysis, polarography.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 823 KB