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Title: IPA Thematic Analysis Of Parkour and Freerunning
Author(s): Mathew Wallace
Pages: 1-7 Paper ID:160902-3737-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2016
Abstract: Free running and parkour are original and creative activities that are “outside” the mainstream and harbour highly individualised and unique operating codes. This paper provides the themes that were produced as a result of an interpretative phenomenological analysis of eight participants to deepen understanding on the recent emergence of parkour and free running. The perspectives, meanings and experiences of the designated research participants significantly unearth what was hidden, deep and elusive information. Their belief systems, psyches, social relations, and underlying mechanisms play a key role in understanding the phenomenon being studied. Discovering how they function provides new insights into the belief systems of these ultra-modern activities.
Keywords: Parkour, free running, individualised, themes, interpretative phenomenological analysis, belief systems, social relations.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 459 KB
Title: Efficient ground-state evaluation of the Hubbard model using an approach of the Lanczos method
Author(s): T. X. R. Souza, C. A. Macedo
Pages: 8-15 Paper ID:165602-7979-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2016
Abstract: Standard approaches to evaluate the ground-state properties of the Hubbard model via the Lanczos method have convergence problems upon the growing difference between hopping and Coulomb interaction strength. This issue is quite relevant since energy convergence does not necessarily translate into convergence of the ground-state itself. Here we discuss several algorithms such as the standard Lanczos method, Explicit Restarted Lanczos algorithm (ERL), and the Modified Explicit Restarted Lanczos algorithm (MERL), and introduce a protocol based on them, using the S2 operator as a stopping criterion, since it is possible to track the error in the ground-state evaluation. We find that the ERL-based algorithm provides a much better precision and it is 5 times faster when compared to the conventional one. The MERL-based algorithm keeps the error at the last significant digit and its processing time takes about 2.5 times longer than the ERL algorithm, although it is still faster than the standard Lanczos scheme. Our findings pave the way for a reliable and practical evaluation of the ground-state properties not only of the Hubbard model, but also for many other many-body quantum systems.
Keywords: Diagonalization, Hubbard model, Lanczos Method, Quantum State Transitions.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 484 KB
Title: Microencapsulation of Green tea Extracts and its effects on the Physico-Chemical and Functional Properties of Mango Drinks
Author(s): Zokti James, A. Badlishah Sham Baharin, Abdulkarim S. M., Faridah Abas
Pages: 16-32 Paper ID:165902-7373-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2016
Abstract: Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Inspite of the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage towards its effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from Cameron highlands Malaysia were extracted using SFE. To improve the stability, the green tea extracts was encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD), gum arabic (GA) and chitosan (CTS) and their combination at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41 - 88.04%, 19.32 - 24.90 (g100GAE), and 29. 52 -38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity and bulk density of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31 – 5.11%, 0.28 – 0.36, 3.22 – 4.71% and 0.22 – 0.28g/cm3, respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in SGF and SIF was determined at 142.00 -188.63% and 207.55 -231.77% respectively. The microparticles with the best catechin efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were selected and incorporated into mango drink and its effects on the physicochemical and functional properties of the product evaluated during storage. The pH, total solid and viscosity of the catechin microparticles supplemented range from 5.15 – 4.38, 12.70 – 14.20%, and 12.55 -13.99(cps) respectively. The stability of green tea bioactives in the mango drink showed degradation rate in the range of 16.47 – 29.72% compared to the non-encapsulated powder (46.46%). The green tea extracts microparticles show good degree of stability in the mango drink and the antioxidant capacity of the mango drink was significantly ( p ≥ 0.05) different compared to the non-encapsulated powder at the end of the storage period.
Keywords: Green tea catechins; Microencapsulation, Functional food; Mango drink; Stability.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 968 KB