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Title: Antibacterial Characterization Studies of Silver Nanoparticles Against Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherichia Coli
Author(s): Sahar E. Abo-Neima, Sohair M. El-Kholy
Pages: 1-11 Paper ID:162406-7575-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2016
Abstract: Multi-drug resistance is a growing problem in the treatment of infectious diseases and the widespread use of broad- spectrum antibiotics has produced antibiotic resistance for many human bacterial pathogens. The resistance of bacteria towards traditional antibiotics currently constitutes one of the most important health care issues with impacts in practice. Overcoming this issue can be achieved by using antibacterial agents with serious negative multimode antibacterial action. Silver nano-particles (AgNPs) are one of the well-known antibacterial substances showing such multimode antibacterial action. Therefore, AgNPs are suitable candidates for use in combinations with traditional antibiotics in order to improve their antibacterial action. Advances in nanotechnology have opened new horizons in nanomedicine, allowing the synthesis of nanoparticles that can be assembled into complex architectures. The present study was performed to investigate the antibacterial activities of AgNPs between gram negative Escherichia Coli (E.Coli) and gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) bacteria, AgNPs were synthesized by physical method. Due to the development of antibiotic resistance and the outbreak of infectious diseases caused by resistant pathogenic bacteria, the pharmaceutical companies and the researchers are now searching for new unconventional antibacterial agents. Recently, in this field nanotechnology represents a modern and innovative approach to develop new formulations based on metallic nanoparticles with antimicrobial properties. This study was performed by observing the bacterial cells treated or not with AgNPs on bacterial conductivity, antibiotic susceptibility, molecular and morphological cellular structure by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results indicated that E.Coli and S.aureus treated with AgNPs can inhibit bacterial growth and significant increase to antibiotic susceptibility that inhibitors to protein, cell wall and DNA. Results of dielectric relaxation and TEM indicated molecular and morphological changes. The obtained results suggested that Ag-NPs exhibit excellent bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect towards all clinical isolates tested regardless of their drug-resistant mechanisms. It will be concluded that Ag-NPs could be used as an excellent effective antimicrobial material on microorganisms. Moreover, a very low amount of silver is needed for effective antibacterial action of the antibiotics, which represents an important finding for potential medical applications due to the negligible cytotoxic effect of AgNPs towards human cells.
Keywords: S.aureus , E.Coli , AgNPs, TEM, antibiotic susceptibility, DNA, dielectric relaxation.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,043 KB
Title: A Qualitative Exploration of Parkour and Freerunning
Author(s): Mathew Wallace, Mustafa Apak
Pages: 12-18 Paper ID:160406-5959-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2016
Abstract: Parkour and free running are unconventional physical activities that are non-competitive in nature. Participants focus on the development of individual physical and mental strength, fluidity of movement and teamwork. Participants practice the activities in groups or alone and incorporate elements of self-expression and gymnastic movement. Moves can include running, rolling, jumping, climbing, swinging and vaulting. This paper provides the results of a qualitative study into the major psychological and sociological reasons for their emergence. The detailed accounts of eight parkour and free running participants significantly contribute towards broadening understanding on their growth and development.
Keywords: Parkour, free running, individual, self-expression, qualitative, growth and development.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 42 KB
Title: Evaluation of the Superior Characters of Salak Gulapasir Cultivars in two Harvest Seasons at the New Development Area in Bali
Author(s): I Ketut Sumantra, Ni GAG Eka Martiningsih
Pages: 19-22 Paper ID:161906-5757-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2016
Abstract: This study aimed at obtaining high production of superior broodstock and the sweet taste fruit as a recommendation of its new development area in Bali. This research began in May - September 2015 located in three locations of Salak development in Tabanan Regency is the new area develoment, namely: Wanagiri, Pajahan and Munduk Temu villages. The plant materials used were 56 plants. Observations of agronomic characters and fruit chemistry to obtain superior Salak were done during the two harvest seasons in May-June (Sela) and in August-September (Gadu), using a Randomized Block Design with 14 replications. Salak cultivars tested consisted of Salak Gulapasir Nangka (SGK), Salak Gulapasir Nenas (SGN), Salak Ggulapasir Gondok (SGG) and Salak Gulapasir Maong (SGM). The Agronomic character observed number of bunches of fruit, fruit weight, and the weight of the edible fruit. Fruit chemistry were observed consisting of TSS and total acid. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, and when cultivars showed differences continued with LSD 5%. The results showed: 1). Four cultivars showed extensive morphological variation on the character of the long bunches of flowers, fruit number and fruit weight. 2). Salak Gulapasir Nangka (SGK) showed agronomic and chemical properties of superior fruit inlcluding fruit weight, meat weight, and thick fruit pulp either on the sidelines Sela or Gadu harvest season. In order to develop, SGN cultivars should be considered as superior cultivars in new development areas.
Keywords: Salak Gulapasir, Morphology, Agronomy, Superior.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 298 KB
Title: On The Numerical Solution of Urysohn Integral Equation Using Chebyshev Polynomial
Author(s): Jumah Aswad Zarnan
Pages: 23-27 Paper ID:163206-9494-IJBAS-IJENS Published: December, 2016
Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a new technique celebrate as Chebyshev polynomials are used to solve the Urysohn integral equations numerically. Urysohn integral equation is one of the most applicable topics in both pure and applied mathematics. The main objective of this paper is to solve the Urysohn type Fredholm integral equation. To do this, we approximate the solution of the problem by substituting a suitable truncated series of the well-known Chebyshev polynomials instead of the known function. After discretization of the problem on the given integral interval, by using the proposed procedure the original integral equation is converted to a linear algebraic system. Now, the solution of the resulting system yields the unknown Chebyshev coefficients. Finally, two numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Keywords: Fredholm Urysohn integral equations, Chebyshev collocation matrix method, Chebyshev polynomials.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 340 KB