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Author(s): Feng Decheng, Zhang Xin
Pages: 1-6 Paper ID: 104606-0707-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: High temperature is main reason of rutting and Urban Heat Island effect. Thermal resistance wearing course materials are developed to solve that. Instead of common aggregate, sintered clay (size in 0-5 mm) and recycled ceramic (size in 4.75-9.5 mm) are used to improve the thermal resistance performance. The solar radiation simulation system is developed to evaluate mixtures heat resistance effect. Thermal properties are tested by Transient Plane Source method. Volume and mechanics index of mixtures are tested by Marshall experiment. The thermal properties change largely with the use of sintered clay and recycled ceramic. Thermal resistance wearing course materials can isolate heat effectively. The performance of water sensitivity, high-temperature and low-temperature of developed materials are tested. The results show that the thermal resistance wearing course has good performance by choosing proper dosage of sintered clay and recycled ceramic.

Keywords: Thermal resistance wearing course; sintered clay; recycled ceramic; thermal properties .
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 330 KB
Author(s): Alwafi Pujiraharjo, Tokuzo Hosoyamada
Pages: 7-12 Paper ID: 107006-8585-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: The Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT) 26 December 2004 is the most devastating tsunami recorded in history causing over than 200,000 deaths and millions homeless people, uncounted property and infrastructure damaged along the coasts of Indonesia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives. Many lessons can be inferred for this case, one of interesting phenomena is the dispersive effect on tsunami propagation is remarkable. Numerical simulations of IOT are conducted here to investigated the effect of dispersion by using weakly nonlinear dispersive Boussinesq (WNB) model and nonlinear shallow water (NLSW) model. Predictor-corrector scheme is used for time integration and high-order finite difference schemes are used for spatial derivatives of the model equations. Simulation results of the two models are compared each other and against recorded data from selected locations to study the dispersive effect. The dispersion effect reduced over than 20% of maximum wave height at some areas of maximum deep water. Very well agreements between WNB and NLSW model at the east areas of tsunami source are obtained by model simulations. However, the NLSW model is very attractive and quite reliable for practical purpose because it has low computation cost and gives consistent results. General features of tsunami wave patterns show a good agreement compared to observations data. Tsunami arrival time and maximum runup are also well predicted by the models.

Keywords: Boussinesq equations, dispersive, numerical models, nonlinear, tsunami, runup.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 839 KB
Author(s): C. Keles, G. T. Icemer., S. Ozen
Pages: 13-18 Paper ID: 104506-8484-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: The treatment of the sewage sludge produced in the biological treatment plants have increasingly become a serious problem. For this reason, when the reuse and the disposal of the sludge are taken into consideration, the pathogens that the sludge contains should be seriously reduced. In this study, as an alternative to traditional treatment methods for the purpose of pathogen inactivation in sewage sludge, AC electric field, which is a non-thermal technology, was used. The electric field energy designed for the inactivation of the microorganisms in the sewage sludge affects directly the pores in the cell wall in a physical manner. In order to evaluate the inactivation effect of the electric field, AC electric field (50 Hz, 0,6 -1,2kV cm-1) was applied to the sewage sludge containing Salmonella spp. and Salmonella typhimurium. It was observed that Salmonella spp. population reduced 1.4 log in 0.6 kVcm-1, 1.1 log in 1.2 kV cm-1and S. typhimurium reduced 0.5 log in pure culture. The results showed that the electric field treatment increased the transmittance of the cell wall and that caused destructions in the cell membranes.

Keywords: AC electric field, pathogen inactivation, sewage sludge, biosolid.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 320 KB
Author(s): Mohammad Arif Kamal
Pages: 19-22 Paper ID: 102406-5252-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: Buildings consume significant large amount of energy for cooling, heating, ventilation and lighting in buildings to create desirable thermal comfort conditions. In warm and tropical climates excess solar gain results in high cooling energy consumption. The depletion of conventional energy and high cost of non-conventional energy enforces a demand for energy conscious designs of buildings. Natural and passive cooling uses non-mechanical methods to maintain a comfortable indoor temperature. Shading is a simple method to block the sun before it can get into the building. Shading minimizes the incident solar radiation and cool the building effectively and hence dramatically affect building energy performance. In this paper an attempt has been made to study different shading strategies that can be employed to shade the building, which provides natural cooling and finally helps in energy conservation in buildings.

Keywords: Shading, Natural Cooling, Energy Conservation.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 269 KB
Author(s): Shazy A. Shabayek
Pages: 23-31 Paper ID: 1011306-5757-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: Experiments were conducted on a physical hydraulic model of a circulating water pump sump structure. The cooling water intake structure consisted of two circulating water pumps and two auxiliary water pumps withdrawing flow from one end of a cooling tower basin. The objective of the hydraulic model study was to evaluate the performance of the initial design of the pump sump and to develop modifications to eliminate flow problems such as severe vortexing, intense swirl, or uneven flow distribution at the pump bell. The initial design of the intake structure developed high levels of pre-swirl and strong vortices were observed entering the circulating pumps. Modifications were developed in the model to reduce the level of flow pre-swirl and vortex activity and to improve the flow conditions entering the circulating water pumps. Proposed modifications to the sump included the installation of sidewall fillets, back-wall fillets and center floor splitters. Modifications also included the installation of a curtain wall set at El. 1089.95om and 3.71om from the back-wall of the sump. With these modifications installed in the model, flow pre-swirl, vortex activity and pump throat velocities were all within acceptable limits for the range of operating conditions examined in the model. The minimum recommended water level in the cooling tower basin to prevent the formation of a hydraulic jump and to avoid the potential for adverse hydraulics and degradation in pump performance in the sump was El. 1089.90om.

Keywords: Flow Swirl, Physical modeling, Vortices, Water Pumps.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 467 KB
Author(s): Anthony Nkem Ede
Pages: 32-36 Paper ID: 1010006-5858-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: Over the last 10 years, the incidence of building collapse in Nigeria has become so alarming and does not show any sign of abating. Each collapse carries along with it tremendous effects that cannot be easily forgotten by any of its victim. These include loss of human lives, economic wastage in terms of loss of properties, jobs, incomes, loss of trust, dignity and exasperation of crises among the stake holders and environmental disaster. It can be rightly said that any pursuit of human endeavor has its cost, but the cost being paid in the Nigerian building industry cannot be justified. The fact that Nigeria is undergoing a tremendous transformation in the built environment cannot be over emphasized. This is in line with the growth that is being experience in the infrastructural and building industries all over the world for the effects of technological breakthroughs and consequently the ICT flattened world. But experiencing negative trends in the Nigerian building industries while other parts of the world are experiencing total improvements brings to fore the need to come out boldly and confront this ugly situation. The world today is facing a lot of other more serious man-made and natural crises such as global climate change which requires greater preparedness than the level on which we are standing today. For these facts, this paper addresses the impacts of building collapse on Nigerian strive for sustainable developmental. Probabilistic model of the linear regression analysis was used to establish the trend of heights and casualties. The results of this research will go a long way in reducing the building collapse phenomenon and the implications on the efforts of the nation to achieve the Millennium Developmental Goals (MDGs) and the Vision 20-2020.

Keywords: Building Collapse, High death rate, MDGs, Vision 20-2020, Sustainable Development.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 552 KB
Author(s): A. E. AL-Salami, A. Salem
Pages: 37-41 Paper ID: 108306-9494-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: Modern construction requires advanced concretes, which have high strength, cost effectiveness and durability. The influence of sodium sulfate solutions on the physical properties of neat and blended cement has been investigated. The ordinary Portland cement was replaced by 35% ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). The cement pastes were mixed using water/cement ratios 0.25. The hardened cement paste samples were immersed in sodium sulfate solutions having different concentrations between 0 and 1.5 %, for 3, 14 and 28 days. The results showed that, the increase of sulfate ions leads to increase in the porosity, the relative mass loss and the relative expansion. Also show a decrease in the bulk density and the chemical combined water. The critical variations in these parameters occur at a concentration ˜ 0.5%.

Keywords: Blended cement paste, combined water, Relative mass loss, sodium sulfate, Relative expansion.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 399 KB