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Title: Quality of Service and Passenger’s Perception – A Review on Bus Service in Kota Bharu
Author(s): Noorfakhriah Yaakub, Madzlan Napiah
Pages: 1-9 Paper ID: 114504-05-8282-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Quality of Service is a very important measure for public transportation service in Malaysia since its service performance is low than other developed countries. A questionnaire survey on public bus passengers in Kota Bharu, Kelantan reveals that the passengers are not satisfied with the city bus service provided due to lack of punctuality (60.5% respondents) and low in frequency (67.7%). Using this information, a study is carried out on the public bus service in Kota Bharu to review the way this service is operated, and to check whether the passenger’s claims are true. This paper is an extract from a case study research in reliability of public bus performance in Kota Bharu. The findings will help understand the shortcoming of the public bus service in any way that the operator or the authority can do something to enhance the quality of service in order to improve passenger’s satisfaction.

Keywords: Service reliability, quality of service, passenger satisfaction.
Full Text (.pdf)| 583 KB |
Title:Degree of Hydration and Strength Development of Low Water-to-Cement Ratios in Silica Fume Cement System
Author(s): Dillshad K. H. Amen
Pages: 10-15 Paper ID: 110205-7676-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Hydration of cement is very important to be estimated, since there are a great relation of hydration with the properties of hardened cement paste. Limited information available about the rate of hydration of cement containing silica fume with low water to cement ratio. In this investigation strength development of cement paste with and without silica fume described using gel-to-space ratio concept. Twenty seven mixes of cement paste were prepared with low water-to-cement ratios ranging from 0.23 to 0.35 and different silica fume contents (0, 5, 10, 15, 20) % by weight of the binder. The mixtures were maintained at different curing temperatures (10, 20, and 40 ) oC . Non-evaporable water considered as combined water and compressive strength were determined at different stages of hydration. A best fit power equation used to describe the relationship.

Keywords: Degree of hydration, compressive strength, silica fume cement system.
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Title:Ultrasonic Computed Tomography System for Concrete Inspection
Author(s): Suryono, Kusminarto, Gede Bayu Suparta, Aris Sugiharto
Pages: 16-21 Paper ID: 111005-7676-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: This research aims to evaluate the dimension and time-of-light of concrete materials configuration using an immersed ultrasonic computed tomography imaging technique. The concrete materials are immersed into water bath. Two immersed ultrasonic sensor devices were used. One acts as the transmitter and the other acts as the transducer with a frequency center of 1 MHz. Both are placed across the object each other. The 350 volt of ultrasonic pulse is generated with delay time of 1µs from the transmitter and travelled to the sensor that was coupled by associate amplifiers and comparators. A microcontroller is used to control the tomography process involving translation and rotation movement, computer interfacing, time-of-flight of ultrasonic pulses data acquisition, and data recording. During the tomography scanning, a sinogram set of transmitted frequency at different positions and views is collected. An image reconstruction based on summation convolved filtered back-projection is performed. The results showed that all samples can be determined and bounded at its holes. Based on image profile, its dimension has an average deviation of 0.06 with standard gauge measurement. The tomography image represents the value of time-of-flight and pulse velocity of concrete. These values have been compared with those values measured using ASTM C 597-02 standard method and a linear correlation of 98.51% was obtained.

Keywords: ---
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Title:The Use and Evaluation of Split-Window Techniques for NOAA/AVHRR Surface Temperature Extraction over Different Surface Covers: case study (Perak Tengah & Manjong) area, Malaysia
Author(s): Hassaballa A. A., A. B. Matori
Pages: 22-27 Paper ID: 111705-8484-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Split window technique has been applied in this study to extract Land Surface Temperature (Ts) as a step leading to the retrieval of surface soil moisture and evapotranspiration over four study areas in Perak Tengah& Manjong, where the areas were selected according to the difference in surface cover type. Multiple NOAA/AVHRR images throughout June-August (2009) were acquired over the study area and processed; measured ground air temperature data (Ta) for the targeted areas were collected as well. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface Emissivity (e) were calculated from image visible bands 1&2. The brightness temperature from bands 4&5 was then used with e to derive Ts using three different split window algorithms. The results showed a good correlation between satellite estimated Ts and measured Ta especially when Uliveri algorithm was applied over the agricultural area with R2 reaching 87%. The application of the three formulas produced results that are in agreement with one another with accuracy ranges between 90 – 99%. This ensures the usefulness of using Uliveri, and Becker over the study area. A reasonable negative relationship also was found between NDVI and Ts over the uniform vegetation covers, indicating the applicability/suitability of the so called “Triangle method”.

Keywords: Land surface temperature, NOAA images, split-window techniques, remote sensing, surface cover types.
Full Text (.pdf)| 545 KB |
Title:Seismic Loss Assessment of Dhaka for Scenario Earthquakes Using A Displacement-based Method
Author(s): Md. Shafiqual Alam, Nazmus Sakib, Mardia Mumtaz
Pages: 28-33 Paper ID: 112405-8787-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Earthquake loss assessment is very useful for the design of insurance and reinsurance schemes and in the planning of urban/regional-scale emergency response, disaster planning and earthquake protection/retrofitting schemes. Traditionally, vulnerability assessment studies have employed macro seismic intensity scales to represent the ground shaking. But, where the assessment of a structure is concerned it is the displacement that gives an indication of the damage that can be expected and hence the state-of- the-art is now to use in some way the displacement response spectrum to represent the destructive capacity of the ground motion. The application of a displacement-based methodology instead of that of a traditional intensity-based method for loss assessment of Dhaka (the capital as well as political, cultural and economic center of Bangladesh and one of the major cities of South Asia), is thus the focus of this study. A displacement-based earthquake loss assessment methodology (DBELA), developed by applying basic principles of mechanics of materials, is applied to Dhaka and the damage is predicted based on the comparison of displacement capacity of buildings and displacement demand by scenario earthquakes.

Keywords: Displacement, earthquake, loss, response-spectra, sensitivity study.
Full Text (.pdf)| 532 KB |
Title:The Influence of Urban Morphology Indicators on Summer Diurnal Range of Urban Climate in Bangkok Metropolitan Area, Thailand
Author(s): Manat Srivanit, Hokao Kazunori
Pages: 34-46 Paper ID: 112805-7676-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Facing the concern of the population to its environment and to climatic change, city planners are now considering the urban climate in their planning choices. The urban climate, representing different urban morphologies across the central Bangkok metropolitan area (BMA), were used to investigate the effects of both the composition and configuration of variables of urban morphology indicators on the summer diurnal range of urban climate, using correlation analyses and multiple linear regressions. Landsat TM image data acquired in summer were used to estimate land surface temperature (LST). It was found that approximately 81.1% of the variation of the average daytime near-surface air temperature (Ta) were explained by the surface temperature (Ts) on the summer diurnal range. The urban canopy cover features that most significantly affect the magnitude of surface temperature is the percentage covered of buildings. We found that the configuration of urban morphology indicators was more important in determining the Ta than the composition of urban canopy cover features. The results indicate that approximately 92.6% of the variation in Ta was explained jointly by the two composition variables of urban morphology indicators, including open space ratio (OSR) and floor area ratio (FAR). On the other hand, the green coverage ratio (GCR) had the high negative correlation in mitigating of urban climate. These results suggest that the impact of urbanization on urban climate can be mitigated not only by balancing the relative amounts of various urban canopy cover features, but also by optimizing their spatial configuration. This research expands our scientific understanding of the effects of urban canopy cover pattern on urban environment and climatology by explicitly quantifying the effects of configuration. In addition, it may provide important insights for urban planners and natural resource managers on mitigating the impact of urban development on urban climate.

Keywords: Urban climate, Urban morphology, Near-surface air temperature, Surface temperature, Urban canopy cover.
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Title:Determination of Tensile Property of Bamboo for Using as Potential Reinforcement in the Concrete
Author(s): Md. Ahsan Sabbir, S. M. Ashfaqul Hoq, Saiada Fuadi Fancy
Pages: 47-51 Paper ID: 112905-9494-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: This research was undertaken to investigate the possibility of using bamboo as a potential reinforcement in the concrete beam to compensate the low tensile property of the concrete. Even though steel reinforcement is a very suitable material for complementing concrete’s low tensile strength, considering the cost, some parts of the world people build their houses by using only concrete or mud-brick which is very vulnerable. To overcome these problems, bamboo may be the alternative materials to substitute the reinforcing bar in concrete for less important structures by investigating the physical properties of this type of natural reinforcement. To evaluate these properties, tension test was conducted on bamboo specimen. First three samples of finished bamboo were tested in natural condition (without treatment). Then five samples of finished bamboo were tested with GI wire spiral at the ends for improved gripping. From this test, the tensile strength, proof strength and modulus of elasticity were determined from stress-strain curve for bamboo reinforcement and satisfactory results are obtained in terms of tensile strength and stress-strain characteristics of bamboo for using as reinforcement in the concrete.

Keywords: Bamboo, Stress, Strain, Tension test, Tension test grip.
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Title:Stabilization of Sandy Clay Loam with Emulsified Asphalt
Author(s): Elifas Bunga, H. Muh. Saleh Pallu, Mary Selintung, M. Arsyad Thaha
Pages: 52-58 Paper ID: 113105-2626-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Soil as one of the most vital natural resources for life, has continuously undergone degradation due to erosion process. The eroded soil is due to strength of binding of particles forming soil which is unable anymore to hold pressures on it. One of the ways to increase the soil strength is by adding chemical substance (chemical stabilization). In order to solve easily eroded sandy clay loam problem, a study was conducted by using emulsified asphalt as stabilization material. The soil samples were obtained from Manuju village, Gowa regency, South Sulawesi province (E.1190 41.035,, S.050 17.509,,+ 269 m). Emulsified asphalt type CSS-15 was obtained from PT. Widya Sapta Colas. The emulsified asphalt concentrations were 1.5%, 3.0%, and 4.5%. The results of the study indicate that stabilization material for emulsified asphalt can improve physical, chemical, and mechanic characteristics of sandy clay loam. Chemical bindings occur among the soil minerals and emulsified asphalt. Plasticity and shear strength of soil increase in line with the increase of emulsified asphalt concentration.

Keywords: Emulsified asphalt, sandy clay loam, stabilization.
Full Text (.pdf)| 950 KB |
Title:Integration of Water Transmission and Distribution Systems via Bypassing Storage Reservoirs
Author(s): Elshorbagy, W. E, Al Maamari, M. S
Pages: 59-72 Paper ID: 114005-2727-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Direct connection between the water transmission and the water distribution systems is implemented in United Arab Emirates “UAE” to avail from the residual pressure energy available in transmission lines. The connection is accomplished via bypassing a number of reservoirs and pumping stations in a small transmission system in AlAin City of UAE. The system has a major transmission pumping station that hosts four fixed-speed pumps, a main 1200mm line, storage reservoirs and boosting pumps besides few other connection pipes. The study objective is achieved by conducting a comprehensive transient analysis to evaluate the potential of pressure rises associated with various operating scenarios. The savings in energy cost associated with the proposed bypass setting are estimated at about $850,000 per year. Such savings are found to be available after a payback period of one year and one month to cover the capital cost of the needed bypasses and pressure relief valves.

Keywords: United Arab Emirates, Water distribution system, transmission, bypass, transient.
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Title:Removal of Heavy Metals from Landfill Leachate Using Horizontal and Vertical Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Planted with Limnocharis flava
Author(s): Ain Nihla Kamarudzaman, Roslaili Abdul Aziz, Mohd Faizal Ab Jalil
Pages: 73-79 Paper ID: 115005-2424-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Heavy metals were present at relatively high concentrations in the landfill leachate. Therefore, the exposure of heavy metals into the environment is great concern due to their serious effects on food chain and furthermore on animal and human health. This study focussed on comparing the efficiency of horizontal and vertical subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetland in the removal of heavy metals (Fe and Mn) in landfill leachate. Where, it also determines the amount of heavy metals uptake by Limnocharis flava and the amount of heavy metals retained in the soil media. A laboratory-scale study was conducted on SSF constructed wetland systems operated in vertical and horizontal mode. Each system comprises of one planted and one control system. The planted systems namely HP and VP were planted with Limnocharis flava, while the control systems namely HC and VC were left unplanted. The systems operated identically at a flow rate of 0.029 m3/d and HRT of 24.1 hours and 19.7 hours in HSSF and VSSF systems, respectively. The results shows both system performed well in the removal of heavy metals from landfill leachate with the overall removal efficiency ranging from 91.5 - 99.2% and 94.7 - 99.8% for Fe and Mn, respectively. This research also publicized the suitability of Limnocharis flava to be used in constructed wetland to treat landfill leachate.

Keywords: Landfill leachate, Constructed wetland, Heavy metals removal, Plant uptake, Soil media.
Full Text (.pdf)| 631 KB |
Title:The Nature of Fall Accidents in Construction Projects : A Case of Indonesia
Author(s): Yusuf Latief, Akhmad Suraji, Yulianto S. Nugroho, Rosmariani Arifuddin
Pages: 80-84 Paper ID: 115405-2929-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Fall accidents in construction projects, particularly building works, are the most frequent accidents. Those accidents may results in death and serious injuries of workers involved and other consequences such as lost of work days and the industry bad image. Robust accident prevention is required through improving continously health and safety in construction. Therefore, understanding triggering events and their factors leading to fall accidents are of important input. The objective of this paper is to report findings of triggering events based on 100 fall accident cases. The fall accident cases were retrieved from accident reports provided by PT Jamsostek, the stated owned worker insurance company. In this paper, current profile of accident records of Indonesia is presented. This paper also presents the nature of fall accidents. The event area and their potential active faiures leading to fall of accidents are described. It is expected the knowledge shared in this paper assist all people involved in construction projects to plan an accident prevention strategy properly.

Keywords: Construction projects, fall accident, triggering events, Indonesia.
Full Text (.pdf)| 312 KB |
Title:Strength Activity Index and Microstructural Characteristics of Treated Palm Oil Fuel Ash
Author(s): Nurdeen M. Altwair, Megat Azmi Megat Johari, Syed Fuad Saiyid Hashim
Pages: 85-92 Paper ID: 115905-7676-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: The strength activity index of mortar and microstructural characteristics of pastes containing treated palm oil fuel ash (POFA) have been investigated. POFA obtained from a palm oil mill was treated via sieving, grinding and heating at temperature of 450°C for 90 minutes in order to improve the pozzolanic reactivity of the POFA. The pozzolanic reactivity of the treated POFA was evaluated by conducting strength development tests according to ASTM C311. The hydration products of hardened pastes were analyzed by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to quantify the influence of the treated POFA which was used at different POFA/cement ratio ranging from 0 to 0.8. After 28 days, the strength activity index of the treated POFA with ordinary Portland cement exhibited very good performance and was higher than 100%. At 90 days, the strength activity index increased to 101.72 %. Using TGA, XRD, and SEM, a significant reduction in Ca(OH)2 content was observed with increasing amount of treated POFA. The development of C-S-H gel was higher when POFA/cement ratio was raised up to 0.3.

Keywords: Palm oil fuel ash; Strength activity index; Hydration products.
Full Text (.pdf)| 845 KB |
Title:Evaluation of Buildings Strength from Microtremor Analyses
Author(s): Sungkono, Dwa D. Warnana, Triwulan, W. Utama
Pages: 93-99 Paper ID: 116605-8383-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Microremor have been measured in evaluation of building at times earthquake vibration in the structural building. In this study, microtremor record in 6 public buildings (shools and mosque) respectively for 15 minutes. After record data, is obtained analysis using Random Decrement Method (RDM) to derive structural dynamic (damping ratio and natural frequency) and Floor Spectral Ratio (FSR) to estimate transfer function (amplification, natural frequency and vulnerability index) of six buildings in Pare, East-Java. To obtain damping ratio accurate, validation of frequencies natural by RDM and FSR is done. Based on the experimental data, the variation range and tendency between damping ratios and frequencies with damping ratios and vulnerability indices, along with the preliminary influence factor, are shown and discussed. In addition, a fitting curve indicates the relation between the damping ratio and fundamental natural frequency of building with the damping ratio and vulnerability of building. Furthermore, evaluation of strength building able to use damping ratio, natural frequency and vulnerability index of building was estimated by microtremor data. Then, buildings strength has been evaluated from these parameters.

Keywords: Microtremor, Strengthening, Damping Ratio, Natural frequency, Vulnerability index.
Full Text (.pdf)| 536 KB |
Title:Assessment of Water Supply and Sanitation Facilities for Korail Slum in Dhaka City
Author(s): Pramanik Biplob, Dipok Chandra Sarker, Ram Chandra Sarker
Pages: 100-106 Paper ID: 118005-6464-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Slum population has been increasing in Bangladesh over the last three decades along with the growth and expansion of cities and towns. But slum facilities are very much unsatisfactory for them due to lack of proper water supply and sanitation system. Therefore, the major portion of excreta is deposited into water bodies and open places, as such polluting water sources, groundwater and the general environment. As a result, majority of population in Bangladesh suffer from different kinds of water and excreta-borne diseases that aggravate in their poverty situations. That’s why, essential goal of the study is to investigate of water supply and sanitation facilities for Korail slum in Dhaka city. During the study period, data and information were collected by questionnaire survey at Korail slum. However, the level of hygiene knowledge and practice has been found to be significantly low among the Korail slum dwellers. The study in Korail area of Dhaka city has found that the sanitary and water supply condition are improving very slowly. Majority slum people use tube well water for drinking while significant amount of open defecation is also found. Normally Korail slum have pit latrines, which are partially hygienic. These may cause ground water contamination depending on the soil characteristics and distance between the water sources and latrines. The drainage system is the most neglected sector in the slums. The open disposal of human excreta pollutes the nearby water bodies, canals and drains causing severe water pollution. Besides, solid waste management and drainage system are totally unsatisfactory in the slum area. Many motivational work and idea marketing from government and NGO side help to improve their awareness level.

Keywords: Slum, Sanitation, Hygienic, Contamination, Excreta-Borne Diseases.
Full Text (.pdf)| 877 KB |
Title:Carbon Emission Trading and China's Pulp and Paper Making Industry
Author(s): Jing LIU, Katsuya NAGATA, Hiroshi ONODA
Pages: 107-111 Paper ID: 117605-7474-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: In 2009, China surpassed USA becoming world's top paper producer and consumer, Marked by energy guzzling, high pollution, the rapid development of China's pulp and paper industry brings heavy burden to the environment. The growth of carbon emission trading offers hope to help the industry runs in a clean, sustainable way. In this paper, the background of carbon emission trading, the carbon markets and three mechanisms are introduced. For global carbon market, the primary way China participate is through CDM project because of developing country status. The development of CDM project in China, especially, the CDM projects owned by China's pulp and paper industry are intensively discussed. In general, CDM project of pulp and paper industry started late, develops unevenly and comparatively slowly. Three advices are given for it's further development.

Keywords: Carbon emission trading, CDM, China's Pulp and Paper Making Industry.
Full Text (.pdf)| 425 KB |
Title:Analysis of Spatial Effects of Two-row Pile Structure of Foundation Pit Based on Elastic Resistance Method
Author(s): YUAN Man; DING Jihui; ZHANG Qin
Pages: 112-116 Paper ID: 117205-6464-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: The two-row-pile retaining and protecting structure of deep foundation pit is a complex three dimension spatial problem, while the analysis and calculation in traditional design was based on two-dimensional plane strain theory; the spatial and time effects are not reflected. The concept of earth pressure utilization factor is proposed and calculation method is established based on elastic resistance method. Assumed that horizontal displacement of top beam has an approximate function with simple supported beam subjected uniform load, the utilization factor of earth pressure and deformation of two-row-pile bracing structure are calculated. Practical examples of two-row-pile bracing projects shows that calculation method of utilization factor of earth pressure in considering spatial effect proposed is feasible.

Keywords: Spatial effect, Deep foundation pit, Utilization factor of earth pressure, Two-row pile structure.
Full Text (.pdf)| 386 KB |
Title:Eco-san Toilet for Sustainable Sanitation Practice in Bangladesh
Author(s): Pramanik Biplob, Ram Chandra Sarker, Dipok Chandra Sarker
Pages: 117-121 Paper ID: 118105-0909-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Bangladesh has always to face pressing sanitation problems due to its vulnerable geographical location and lack of appropriate and adaptive technological options. EcoSan toilets are found as one of the most appropriate and proven technological options, as these are cost effective, established and environmentally as well as socially sounds and reliable option can effectively contribute in solving the existing and emerging sanitation problems of Bangladesh. Eco-San toilet is a urine diversion toilet and based on the idea that urine, faeces and water are resources in an ecological loop. It has two defecation holes at the top of each vault that receive faeces. Sufficient ashes are used to cover new faeces for protecting odor, flies, insects and pollutions. Moreover, it does not need to use water for cleaning and flashing. However, Eco-san can effectively contribute in safely transforming human urines and faces into high-potent organic fertilizers for eco-friendly agriculture and producing qualitative nutrient food-crops. Human urines are contained with high level of Nitrogen (75%- 87%), Phosphorus (45%-50%) and Potash (50%-54%). On the other hands, human faces contain 10% Nitrogen, 40% Phosphorus and 12% Potash. The general perceptions of people on ECOSAN were found encouraging. Almost 80% of the users apply these resources in their field. Similarly, due to lack of agricultural land, 12% of them shared with the neighbours once the urine collection tanks are full while the remaining 8% used to throw it down the drain. On the other hand, 72% of the Eco-san users had experience of increment in production, 19% noted little difference, and 9% found no change in production at all. Therefore, Eco-san toilet protect public health, prevent pollution and at the same time return valuable nutrients. This recycling of nutrients helps to ensure food security. The basic objective of this paper is to share the status of Eco-san toilet towards demonstrating sustainable sanitation for environment, health and development in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Vulnerable, Ecological Sanitation, Food security, Groundwater Contamination, Sustainable.
Full Text (.pdf)| 422 KB |
Title:The establishment of Environment Performance Assessment system for Chinese Enterprise
Author(s): Mei Sun, Katsuya Nagata, Hiroshi Onoda, Takuya Kirikawa
Pages: 122-128 Paper ID: 112605-8383-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: With environment awareness and awards increasing, it becomes necessary to establish one fair environment performance assessment system for enterprise. This paper set up assessment indicators system with three categories, primary indicators, advanced indicators and sustainability indicators. Under the principle of promoting enthusiasm and ensuring fairness, this paper investigated the ranking method of corporate environment performance assessment. And it identified the weighting of every indicator according to the importance, cost and implementation difficulty by the Delphi expert investigation and questionnaire approach. At last, this paper explained how to understand the assessment results by the case study.

Keywords: VEnvironment performance assessment, indicator, weighting, enterprise.
Full Text (.pdf)| 780 KB |