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Author(s): Elifas Bunga
Pages: 01-10 Paper ID: 122702-6969-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2012
Abstract: Soil as one of the most vital natural resources for life, has continuously undergone degradation due to erosion process. The eroded soil is due to strength of binding of particles forming soil which is unable anymore to hold pressures on it. One of the ways to increase the soil strength and reduce erosion on it, is by stabilizing with emulsified asphalt. The aim of the study was to find out the stabilization effect of emulsified asphalt on erosion rate of sandy clay loam. The soil sample was obtained from the Jeneberang watershed area that is at Manuju village, Gowa regency, South Sulawesi province (E.1190 41.035’, S. 050 17.509’, + 269 m). Emulsified asphalt type CSS-IS was obtained from PT Wydya Sapta Colas. The test was done by rain simulation using Rainfall Simulator. The research parameters comprise rainfall intensity (50 mm/hour; 65 mm/hour; 80 mm/hour), degree of slope (100; 200; 300), and emulsified asphalt volume (0 cc/m2; 60 cc/m2; 80 cc/m2; 100 cc/m2) with length of storage 3 days. The data were analyzed by using descriptive quantitative from regression analysis results and correlation of erosion rate parameter with rain intensity parameter, slope and emulsified asphalt volume., The results of the study indicate that erosion rate increases exponentially in line with the increase of rainfall intensity and linearly by the increase of slope, but it decreases exponentially by the increase of emulsified asphalt volume. The stabilization of sandy clay loam with emulsified asphalt can reduce the erosion rate 61.58%, 72.42%, and 86.14% respectively at the stabilization of emulsified asphalt 60 cc/m2, 80cc/m2, and 100 cc/m2.
Keywords: Erosion rate, sandy clay loam, stabilization, emulsified asphalt, rainfall simulation
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 5685 KB
Author(s): Tasnuva Humyra, Md. Robiul Awall, Dr. Syed Abdul Mofiz, Mohd. Abdus Sobhan
Pages: 11-16 Paper ID: 123202-7474-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2012
Abstract: Standard Penetration Test (SPT) value contour map will be great helpful to the foundation designer. Every engineer wants to ensure the structural safety and serviceability. For this reason it is very important to know the soil condition before any construction. This study is carried out to prepare SPT contour map at Rajshahi city which will be helpful to construct small and low cost structures. To this end, firstly SPT value data of different locations and different depths at Rajshahi city have been collected from field test results. X- axis and Y- axis has considered in such a manner that the available boreholes data are in between these two axis. By using the commercially available Origin Software two types of SPT value contour map have been plotted at each depth (3ft, 6ft, 10ft, 15ft, 20ft, 30ft, 40ft, 50ft and 60ft). Line type contour maps shows the same SPT value line, from these people can understand the SPT value and direction of the SPT value line at Rajshahi City. Fill color maps shows different types of color area, each color contains same SPT value and people can understand from which area what the SPT value is. SPT values correlate empirically with the foundation design parameters such as soil density, friction angles, settlement of shallow and deep foundations, bearing capacity values, etc. By using SPT value a typical example have been done. At a glance to observe the prepared SPT value contour map any engineer can understand the soil condition at different depth of Rajshahi City.
Keywords: Contour map, Foundation design, Soil condition, Standard Penetration Test
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 469 KB
Author(s): Jeffry Swingly Frans Sumarauw, Koichiro Ohgushi
Pages: 17-23 Paper ID: 124102-3535-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2012
Abstract: The curve number (CN) is a hydrologic parameter used to describe the storm water runoff potential for drainage area, and it is a function of land use, soil type, and soil moisture. Therefore, the land use and land cover changes can be represented by this parameter. This study describes how to estimate the CN due to land use and land cover changes in Jobaru River basin. We applied the ArcGIS tool to delineate river basin and sub-basin, and HEC-GeoHMS tool for estimating the CN. MIKE 11-RR model is used to simulate the rainfall-runoff. The result shows that from 1948 to 2005 the CN of the Jobaru River basin decreased, which indicates that the land capability of reducing flooding was increased during this period. However, in the sub-basin the result is different. In mountainous sub-basin, the CN also decreased but in plain sub-basin the CN increased.  This indicates that the   land capability of reducing flooding was increased in mountainous sub-basin but decreased in the plain sub-basin. From 1948 to 2005, with the same amount of rainfall applied to the different land use, the peak flow decreased. This shows that the decreasing of CN caused the decreasing of peak flow.
Keywords: Jobaru river basin, curve number, land use change, peak flow
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 689 KB
Author(s): Maxi Tendean, Muhammad Bisri, Mochtar L. Rayes, Zetly E. Tamod
Pages: 24-27 Paper ID: 124602-7575-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2012
Abstract: A research to study the sediment transport along the estuarial area of Ranoyapo River in North Sulawesi (Celebes) has been conducted. The data acquired were the distribution of flow speed and the spread of bed load along the estuary during dry season. Seventeen locations along the river estuary were selected started from about 1500 m upstream the coastline. The speed measurements were carried out in two points at each location, at 0.6 of the river depth and on riverbed. The bed load measurements were done at points close to the riverbed (0.4 to 0.6 cm approaching the riverbed). The modeling of the river flow speed at the points near the riverbed as well as at the points 0.6 of the depth during low tides showed a decrease in the speed distribution pattern with increasing distance up to the coastline. At the times of low tide, transports of bed load takes place in the estuary region of Ranoyapo River. The increase of flow speed due to the increase of flow debit will result in the increase of flow velocity that may exceed the critical value. This allows the transportation of bed load to increase. In the condition of high tide, the pattern of bed load distribution showed bed load transport at locations one to eight. In the contrary, bed load material at locations nine to seventeen were not transportable, meaning that the flow velocity at those locations was unable to transport bed load sediment towards the coast line.
Keywords: Ranoyapo River, sedimentation, river estuary, sediment distribution, bed load transportation
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 237 KB
Author(s): Putu Ayu P. Agustiananda
Pages: 28-35 Paper ID: 124902-3737-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2012
Abstract: The rapid physical development in the cities has put great pressures to the historic urban areas. It has caused deterioration, or even, loss of historic fabric. At present, those problems are also being experienced by Surakarta, which is popularly known as Solo, the second largest city in Central Java Province. This city is chosen as a case study considering the historical and cultural values that it has.This paper aims to explore what the problems of urban conservation in Surakarta are and identify what could be the roles of stakeholders to improve them. Finally it concludes with some recommendations to improve urban conservation in Solo. To reach the objectives of the paper, exploratory studies were conducted at the beginning to understand the situation with the help of theoretical and practical data. Interviews of key informants are conducted in an in-depth semi-structured manner.For assessing future developments, a scenario-building method was used to build strategies, by assessing the current situations, trends and tendencies, and both predicted and potential conditions in the future. The outcome of the strategy assessment was finally synthesized in the form of conclusions and recommendations.
Keywords: Urban heritage, urban conservation, balanced heritage management
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1846 KB
Author(s): Oki Setyandito, Nizam, Nur Yuwono, Radianta Triatmadja, Panggua Pandin
Pages: 36-41 Paper ID: 125402-7373-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2012
Abstract: A thorough study concerning the artificial sandy beach slope stability is studiedin this paper. The performance analysis of the cross shore profile was using experimental approaches.  A 2 (Two) -dimensional physical model was set up in the laboratory wave flume. The initial slopes (n) of the artificial sand beach model are n =1:6. This study result also compared with some theories established from previous research. The results indicate that the sandy beach slopes are adjusted due to wave attack to form either steeper or flatter stable slopes. The range of stable slopes (nf1) are 3 ≤n ≤ 12. It was observed that the sand particles at the lower part of the slope are transported upward and deposited at a higher part of the slope and vice versa. Experimental result showed the stability of beach profile with the utilization of bar as well as berm. The result also showed significant corelation between stabilizing slope (tan α) and wave steepness (H0/L0).
Keywords: Sandy beach profile, wave, experiment and theory
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 549 KB
Author(s): R.S. Pegado, C.J.C. Blanco, J. Roehrig, C. Caroça, F.S. Costa and W.S. Tostes
Pages: 42-48 Paper ID: 126102-7373-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2012
Abstract: The city of Belém, Pará (PA) suffers the problem of unplanned settlement around its rivers. Therefore, the access to the rivers has become difficult. There is a lack of governmental plans to promote the anticipation of feasible investigation and solutions to urban flooding. The purpose of this study is to identify the physical characteristics of the hydrological resources of this urban area in order to establish physical and spatial indicators. To describe the study site, flooding areas were located and the application of statistical analysis was necessary.  After the descriptive analysis was done, a profile was verified, where the most critical points are pointed by the survey data. In Pearson's chi-squared test the variables which showed the greatest correlations were settlement density and canal characteristics. In short, in areas with higher population density a greater quantity of household and building waste are found in the canal. These areas are also characterized by low-income from the population and an unorganized settlement. By identifying the sites where floods occur in the urban area together with the proposed solutions, the respective authorities or institutions could carry out actions that would improve life quality of the local population.
Keywords: Urban Area, Urban Pollution, South American, Rivers, Sea Level
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 4684 KB
Author(s): Djeli Tulandi, Henny Pramoedyo, Bagio Yanuwiadi, Wiske Rotinsulu
Pages: 49-52 Paper ID: 126902-9494-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2012
Abstract: Manado is a growing tropical coastal city in North Sulawesi Province and is the capital city of the province. The development of economy, community, education, and culture that drives the growth of urbanization and the increase of urban population sacrifice much land to be converted to urban infrastructure and result in micro-climate change and declining thermal environment quality. A research has been conducted to measure and analyze the thermal comfort in the Boulevard area in Manado CBD. The study was conducted by measuring climate parameters: temperature, humidity, and wind speed during the daylight from 07.00 to 17.00. Some perceptions of thermal comfort were gathered from the public. The results showed that the index of comfort in the Boulevard area was comfortable at about 07.00-08.00 and 17.00-18.00 local time. At some other times it was uncomfortable. It is in agreement with the climate measurements in the area.
Keywords: Micro-climate, comfort index, comfort assessment, Manado
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 218 KB
Author(s): T.C. Nwofor
Pages: 53-73 Paper ID: 127502-3636-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2012
Abstract: In this paper, two kinds of models are used in order to validate a basic stiffness method for the macro-modeling of infilled frames. Previous numerical modeling techniques were faced with several complexities like the existence of plane of weak in the mortar joints and material non-homogeneity, which limited the real non-linear micro-modeling of infilled frames. The new explicit two dimensional finite element method, which is one of the models used in this work is used to study the behaviour of masonry infilled reinforced concrete frames and also considers the effect of the size of openings which is often ignored by most designers. A second model which is basically a macro-modeling technique which uses the stiffness matrix method to analyze an equivalent one-strut model used to replace the infilled panel is also used in this work, and results obtained validated against that of the micro-modeling procedure. It was observed that the stiffness matrix method for macro-modeling of infilled frames can quickly and effectively model the shear strength response of infilled frames with openings up to a failure load.
Keywords: Infilled frame, infill panel, equivalent one strut model, stress and displacement
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 157 KB
Author(s): Moh Sholichin
Pages: 74-81 Paper ID: 126702-3535-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2012
Abstract: Groundwater is an important source of irrigation and drinking water, especially for rural population in small city. Groundwater can be contaminated by a wide range of sources, include the septic tanks, underground storage tanks, improperly disposed of industrial wastes, mining waste, fertilizer and pesticides. One particularly common source of groundwater contamination is a poorly designed or maintained landfill from which liquid waste or leachate, are leaking into shallow groundwater. This paper investigates the effect of landfill site selection on the contamination of shallow groundwater, surface water and water well around landfill site. According to the site investigation and laboratory test based on water samples collected, BOD5, COD, pH, NO3 and EC indications are 10.8 mg/l, 32 mg/l, 7.5, 0.09 mg/l and 461 µhos/cm, respectively and were higher than standard regulation of water quality. Results from the investigation showed that groundwater, surface water and urban water-well around landfill area had been contaminated by leaching from solid waste landfill. Therefore, improvement and increment of quality control of design and operational management landfill are needed.
Keywords: Ground water, Contamination and landfill
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 720 KB