IJENS Publisher Indexed In SCOPUS


Author(s): Kartini, K., Norul Ernida, Z. A., Noor Fazilla, B., Ahmad Farhan, H.
Pages: 1-7 Paper ID: 126806-5858-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: The demand for sand in making sand-cement bricks as an infilled material for wall construction are increasing, thus alternative material in replacing the use of sand is indeed deem important to be looked into, and if possible should be lightweight. With that in mind, a research was conducted by utilising quarry dust (QD), rice husk (RH) and kenaf powder (KP), which can be considered as waste to overcome the shortage of sand. The research involved the preparation of three mix proportions, which are 1:2.5, 1:3.0 and 1:3.5 with 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% and 40% of sand replacement with QD, while for RH, the replacement of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% were used, and with KP, addition of 3%, 5%, 7%, 10% and 15% by weight of sand were prepared. The water/cement ratio is at 0.5 for all mix proportions. The experimental results showed that the weight of Sand Quarry Dust Cement (SQDC), Sand Rice Husk Cement (SRHC), and Sand Kenaf Powder Cement (SKPC) bricks were much lower than the control bricks, i.e. without any replacement. In terms of compressive strength, SQDC can goes up to 40% replacement while, SRHC and SKPC bricks resulted in lower compressive strength compared to the control brick (RH0). However, it still satisfied the specified requirement of minimum compressive strength under the specification of masonry unit in BS EN 771-3: 2003. The values of water absorption for SRHC brick was quite high, however SQDC and SKPC bricks were below the requirement of the BS EN 12390-8:2009. Therefore, the results of the research suggested that all these materials can be utilised as partial sand replacement in brick production for sustainability.
Keywords: Kenaf Powder, Quarry Dust, Rice Husk, Sand-Cement Brick
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 336 KB
Author(s): Ahmad Tarmizi Abd Karim, Ismail Abd Rahman, Ab Aziz Abd Latiff, Mohd Raihan Taha
Pages: 8-12 Paper ID: 125706-4949-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: A study was performed to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of solidification/stabilization of lead contaminated residual soil mixed with ordinary portland cement (OPC). Cement, varying from 10% to 60% was added to solidify and stabilize the soil-cement mixtures. Cube samples were prepared with water-cement ratio of 0.4 and were air cured at room temperature (27 + 3 oC) and humidity of 75 + 5 % for 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. Unconfined compression tests were conducted on these samples. The results showed that all samples satisfy the USEPA strength requirements of 0.35 MPa for S/S samples. The results also showed that the gain in strength varies linearly with log10 time. The gain in strength would also increase as cement content increases. Correlations for unconfined compressive strength as functions of curing time, and cement content was established and discussed.
Keywords: Curing time, lead, residual soil, solidification/stabilization, strength
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 320 KB
Author(s): Agus Tugas Sudjianto, M.Cakrawala, Candra Aditya
Pages: 13-17 Paper ID: 1210906-7474-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: The expansive soil will be swelling upon wetting and shrinnking to drying. This behavior can damage of construction structures, particularly, light buildings and roads. The phenomenom is very interesting to be researched, how far the effect of water contents is towards the behavior of free swelling of expansive soil. The material of expansive soil are selected from Karang Jati Ngawi region East Java Province. The expansive soils result in a variation of plasticity index and activity in the soil from Karang Jati (Ngawi) mixed with Na-bentonite. The research on free swelling is done by being remolded with diameter 6.35 cm and high 1.70 cm, with initial water content of 32% and dry density of 1.26 g/cm3. An electronic digital caliper is used to measure free swelling. Results of the research indicate that the water contents have a linear relation with free swelling.
Keywords: The expansive soil, Na-bentonite, water content, free swelling.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 469 KB
Author(s): M.F. Ali, S.A. Shakrani
Pages: 18-27 Paper ID: 1211606-7474-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: In the era of water resources dwindling, most of researchers have shown a great interest in treatment, recycling and reuse of wastewater particularly in agricultural activities. In general, wastewater contains beneficial features such as macronutrients, micronutrients and beneficial elements required for plants growth and development. However, the application of wastewater in irrigation may result in the presence of harmful trace metals to the plants which contribute to the adverse effects to the people and environmental. This paper discusses the effects of secondary treated wastewater irrigated on green mustards (Brassica Campestris Sp. Parachinensis) vegetable growth with soil and soilless culture. The results revealed the significant concentrations of trace elements in soil and plants irrigated with secondary treated wastewater. Besides, trace element’s characteristics were found higher in plant growth under soilless culture as compared to soil culture. Nevertheless, most of trace element concentrations were found within the permissible limits regulated for health standard. In addition, the health risk index (HRI) indicated values were less than 1. As a result, the consumption of plants irrigated with secondary treated wastewater by adults and children was no consequences and assumed to be safe in general. However, secondary treated wastewater irrigation along with proper monitoring and continuous assessments are required in order to prevent any long term risk associated with human and environmental.
Keywords: Secondary treated wastewater, soil culture, soilless culture, trace elements.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 525 KB
Author(s): Nor Wahidatul Azura Zainon Najib, Syakirah Afiza Mohammed, Saffaatul Husna Ismail, Wan Amiza Amneera Wan Ahmad
Pages: 28-33 Paper ID: 129306-2525-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: An assessment was made on six different site soils based on human activities in Kangar. The concentrations of five heavy metals which are Cuprum (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) in these soils were investigated. Soil samples were collected starting from January 2012 to March 2012 by considering dry and wet seasons. The first three soil samplings were conducted in dry season, while the next three soil samplings were carried out in wet season. The samples were digested using standard wet digestion method and heavy metal concentrations were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The study reveals that the concentrations of heavy metals studied in soils of wet market (WM), mechanic workshop (MW), dumping site (DS), paddy field (PF), car wash (CW) and control site (CS) in dry season were higher than those in wet season. The amount of Cu, Ni and Zn was highest in the top soil of MW during dry (623.7 mg/kg, 30.3 and 491.5 mg/kg respectively) and wet seasons (325.9 mg/kg, 17.2 mg/kg and 356.3 mg/kg respectively). The Pb content was highest in the top soil of CW during dry (833.3 mg/kg) and wet season (544.8 mg/kg). Slightly different with the concentration of Cd in soil of all sites due to the undetectable concentration of this heavy metal in dry season but traceable in wet season.
Keywords: Human activities, heavy metal concentration, wet and dry seasons.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 425 KB
Author(s): Suharjoko, Mohammad Bisri, Rispiningtati, Muhammad Ruslin Anwar
Pages: 34-41 Paper ID: 1210106-3737-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: An analysis of the groyne placement on the river bend based on current flow is a modeling groyne placement having a goal to development the good placement of groyne to be considered an analysis of the current flow on groyne field be occurred. A good layout of groyne placement yield that the river bank protection longer. To solved modeling groyne placement would be simulation many case of groyne placement using mathematical modeling approach by finite different method. The research result to the case of groyne placement on the river bend had radius bend equal 40 m was the groyne in the ¼ upstream of arc curves bend, was the best effect to control the flow and the case of groyne placement on the river bend had radius bend equal 30 m was the groyne in upstream of arc curves bend, was the best effect to control the flow. Analysis result to the relationship between groyne length factors (L/B) with the protection factor (D/B) be occurred that the length factor (L/B) is equivalent to 1/5 of the river width had indicated was give a better effect to protection factor (D/B) than another groyne length factors be purposed.
Keywords: Groyne placement, riverbend, current flow analysis, mathematical modeling.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 1018 KB
Author(s): Tatheer Zahra, Yasmeen Zehra
Pages: 42-45 Paper ID: 1210806-9393-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: Earthquake is an unexpected event which cannot be predicted earlier. The only way to survive through this disaster is by taking careful considerations while planning and designing buildings in urban areas. Karachi, the largest urban center of Pakistan, lies very near to a major fault line and three other minor fault lines are also passing through the city. Moreover Makran-Sindh coastal areas are prone to tsunami as well. In recent years there has been a resurgence of high rise construction in this city. All buildings in Karachi inclusive of high rise are designed for seismic zone 2B as defined in UBC. However, studies and researches after deadly earthquake of 2005 shows that Karachi is more vulnerable to earthquakes than it is been considered while planning and designing the buildings. In this research notable impacts on analysis and design of high rise buildings have been studied when seismic zone is changed from 2B to 3. It has been found that the existing and proposed tall buildings do not have sufficient capacity to withstand higher seismic risk.
Keywords: Earthquakes, design, high rise, seismic risk, seismic zone, tsunami.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 290 KB
Author(s): Ayuddin, H. Parung, M.W.Tjaronge, R. Djamaluddin
Pages: 46-52 Paper ID: 1214006-9393-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: The Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) have been increasingly used in concrete construction as the confinement of RC columns. The purpose of this program is to investigate the effect of CFRP material as external reinforcement. Compressive strength analysis is done by creating several column interaction diagram in order to describe the column interaction diagram that does not have confinement, column confined with transverse reinforcement, column confined with transverse reinforcement and CFRP tensile, and interaction diagrams for columns confined with transverse reinforcement and the CFRP tensile-compressive. Analytical results obtained from the increase in maximum compressive axial force between the column that are not confined to the column confined with transverse reinforcement is 16.75 %, the column that are not confined to the column confined with transverse reinforcement and CFRP tensile is 64.61 %, and the column that are not confined to the column confined with transverse reinforcement and CFRP tensile-compressive is 92.74 %. This analysis indicate that the effect of CFRP confinement can increase the strength significantly.
Keywords: Column, CFRP Confinement, column interaction diagram, maximum axial compression.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 467 KB
Author(s): Ziari Hasan, Rahim-of Kamran, Fazilati Mohammad, Goli Ahmad, Farahani Hosein
Pages: 53-59 Paper ID: 120106-3838-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: Asphalt has been widely used for pavements building for long time. Actually, the increase in traffic loading and in the number of vehicles together with the adverse environmental conditions, conduce to a rapid structural damage of pavements. In order to enhance the mechanical properties and the long time behavior, a new generation of blend asphaltic has been developed through the incorporation of different kind of polymers. Nano-reinforced materials hold the potential to redefine the field of transportation materials both in terms of cost effectiveness and long term pavement performance. This study focuses on the exploratory analysis of the mixing procedure of carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) with asphalt cement (AC). In this paper, the impact of different mixers on the mixture conditions of asphalt and carbon nano tube is investigated. CNT, having three percent of asphalt weight, and asphalt are mixed together by using mechanical, high shear and ultrasonic mixer, and then examined by a scanning electronic microscope. According to the pictures of different samples, the ultrasonic mixer creates the best form of asphalt and CNT mixture.
Keywords: Bitumen, Carbon Nano Tube (CNT), mixing, Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM), Ultrasonic Mixer.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 467 KB
Author(s): Govinda Bhandari
Pages: 60-70 Paper ID: 121005-06-4848-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: Agriculture is the largest sector and the backbone of the Nepalese economy and also it is the major source of livelihood of the majority of population in Nepal. In addition to modern technology, soil fertility, farm management practices, variety of seeds, prevalence of diseases and insects, and the weather are responsible for the variation of agricultural production. The total yield and average yield of five major cereals (viz. paddy, wheat, maize, millet and barley) in the years 1979, 1982, 1986, 1992 and 1994 has been reduced sharply. Dadeldhura of far western development region is the district where the total yield of cereals has significantly reduced and is below average in all the five different years.
Keywords: Agricultural, far western region, yield, Nepal.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 467 KB
Author(s): Caroline Peter Diman, Wardah Tahir
Pages: 71-75 Paper ID: 127006-9393-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to explain the potential of dam flooding caused a prolonged flooding. Dam flooding is a rapid and uncontrolled release of reservoir volume which, leads to severe flood at the downstream, specifically towards the people and environment of the affected region. Apart from causing severe flood, dam flooding also can accumulate stagnant water within a second or worsen the stagnant water if it already exists due to heavy rainfall. In other words, it caused prolonged flooding. Due to significant impact at the downstream, it is important to evaluate the potential of dam flooding. This will enable the authorities to analyze the downstream human safety, especially where no dam flooding and prolonged flooding histories are documented. Furthermore, there is no warning were issued for dam flooding.
Keywords: Dam flooding, prolonged flooding, stagnant water; flood.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 467 KB
Author(s): Sabirullah Muradi
Pages: 76-84 Paper ID: 1214406-8585-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: The Balkh University New Campus construction area is situated in eastern part of Mazar-i-Sharif city. The city, the capital of Balkh province is located at the north of the Afghanistan and at the north foot hill of Allburz-Marmul range. Preparation of engineering geology information on foundation practice and soil exploration for the area is a vital tool for planner and decision maker to reduce subsurface geo-environmental impacts from urbanization. In this paper, the foundation practice within Quaternary deposits of area is examined. The methodology comprises from desk investigation, field investigation, interviews as well as some laboratory works. For this purpose, a large amount of surface and subsurface data derived from 5 boreholes and 5 test pits and information from field investigation was collected and analyzed The combinations of the collected geotechnical and geological information have led to the making of any hoped engineering geological evalvition of the area for the Practical applications of the preliminary design purposes of shallow foundations of engineering structures. Although, the results of the study are still limited due to the constraints from various situations, it is hoped that the findings could be utilized for the construction of the area and all around it.
Keywords: Balkh University, engineering geology, foundation practice, Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 467 KB
Author(s): Abdullah I Alhomidan
Pages: 85-99 Paper ID: 1216406-7373-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: In this paper, an experimental investigation was carried out to study the turbulent flows and flow characteristics through sloping and adversely sloping rectangular culvert in rectangular channel of constant width using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). Also, experimental study was carried out to investigate the characteristics of the hydraulic jump occurring in a sloping and adversely sloping rectangular culvert with pressurized flow downsream from the jump and a submerged culvert outlet. Experiments were conducted on a culvert with relatively small slopes to study the variation of the relative tailwater depth with the main parameters affecting the jump in sloping and adversely sloping culverts. These parameters include the channel bottom slope, the initial Froude number, and the ratio of the initial depth to culvert height. To study the turbulence characteristics, precise and accurate measurements of the mean fluctuating flow quantities such as streamwise and vertical mean velocity components, and streamwise and vertical turbulence intensity components and turbulence shear stress. Also, this paper presents the results of a Laser Doppler velocimetry study of hydraulic jumps in a culvert with the different relative tailwater depth and different initial Froude number. Major how characteristics of hydraulic jumps were discussed and analyzed. Non – dimensional design curves are provided to relate the jump characteristics. The maximum vertical velocity in the recirculating zone for all jumps is about 6% of initial velocity. Also, the results show that the maximum streamwise velocity near the center plane was smaller than that near the side wall. The turbulence shear stress near the center I about (35-45)% higher than that near the side wall. After the jump, the flow will recover into a two dimensional flow.
Keywords: Turbulent flows, Laser Doppler Velocimetry, rectangular culvert, channel bottom slope, initial Froude number, ratio of the initial depth to culvert height.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 4562 KB