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Author(s): Jibrin, M. U., Ejeh, S. P.
Pages: 1-7 Paper ID: 1216606-1301-3838-IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: Chemical concentration and percentage composition of reinforcing steel in the Nigerian Construction Industry were studied to ascertain their chemical properties. A total of 14 companies supplied nineteen samples that were used for the tests. An analar was used to form the stock solution which was applied to determine the chemical concentrations of the samples in milligram per litre. In the case of the percentage chemical composition, the XRF Spectrometer was used to take direct readings. While the former method identified only 13 elements, the later method was able to identify twenty seven elements. Most of the bars showed conspicuous absence of vital alloying minerals such as Molybdenum, Vanadium, etc that have been indicated by BS4449(1997) as strength and coefficient of weldability determinants. For example, under the percentage composition, Magnesium appeared in all the 19 samples, Nickel appeared in 16 out of the 19 samples, while Vanadium appeared in only 3 out of the 19 samples. The presence of some elements such as Silicon and Phosphorus that are considered impurities coupled with the possible lack of Nitrogen control during production seem to have impacted negatively on the strength and deformation characteristics of the bars.
Keywords: Analar, Stock Solution, Chemical Concentration, Percentage Composition, XRF.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 558 KB
Author(s): Naglaa Eid
Pages: 8-12 Paper ID: 131401-4646-IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: The shortage of drinking water is a major problem in the arid regions. In these regions, precipitations are insufficient to meet the demand for water and it is, therefore, necessary to resort to underground resources. In recent times, many of these aquifers have been over exploited and suffer serious problems of saline contamination. Groundwater aquifers are major sources of water in most of the Middle East countries. As such, seeking the best and optimal techniques in remediating brackish water becomes a necessary and critical target for these countries. Most of the desalination technologies rely on either distillation or membranes to separate salts from the product water. However, Membrane processes are currently the fastest-growing techniques. Ultimately, the selection of a desalination process depends on site specific conditions, including the salt content of the water, economics, and quality of water needed by the end user, and the local engineering experience and skills. This paper evaluates various membrane technologies adapted to improve the quality of brackish water and to make it suitable for different human uses. The presentation includes describing those technologies and discussing their advantages, disadvantages, and other implications associated with their current applications.
Keywords: Membranes Technologies, Brackish Water
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 259 KB
Author(s): L. Shahsavar, Vahid, Tofighi, Samira
Pages: 13-22 Paper ID: 133001-7575-IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: After earthquakes it becomes very visible what types of building construction have withstood the forces of the earthquake and which did not perform adequately. Analyzing the nearly collapsed and broken structures gives a good insight in the possible architectural and engineering design mistakes, faults in the detailing and the mismanagement of the construction by the building contractors. Stability calculations are critical in structural design can cause significant damage to structural column members. In discussing the stability of structural systems, the goal is the investigation of the equilibrium condition from the point view of stability and instability and determines the conditions which make the system unstable. The stability is considered for relatively thin columns with small cross section area like steel sections and is rarely discussed in usual problems of structural engineering related to reinforced concrete sections and is propounded in special structures. Concrete is a non-homogeneous and anisotropic material. Modeling the mechanical behavior of Reinforced Concrete (RC) is still one of the most difficult challenges in the field of structural engineering. There are some factors which cause the mechanical factors of concrete in right dimension are not uniform and isotropic in high columns. These factors effect on concrete elasticity modulus, Poisson coefficient and regular relations of columns critical load. In this research, sensitivity analysis of critical load or stability of inhomogeneous orthotropic reinforced concrete columns based on various design codes has been investigated. Due to the numerous outputs obtained, software package have been written in Matlab and analysis on data and drawing related charts have been done.
Keywords: Concrete Columns, Elastic & Inelastic Stability, Inhomogeneous, Sensitivity Analysis.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 965 KB
Author(s): Ibrahim H. Elsebaie
Pages: 23-28 Paper ID: 134901-2525-IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: Study of sour bridge piers is extremely important for the safe design of the piers and other hydraulic structures. An experimental investigation of local scour around circular bridge piers in sand is presented. The principal objective of this study is to carry out a much longer duration Tests to evaluate the time development of the local scour at cylindrical pier in addition to the evaluation of the effectiveness of a pier shape and different flow rates on the depth of local scour. This study describes the variation of scour depths that may occur at bridge piers. There has been a difficulty in estimation of accurate scour depth, which includes similitude aspects of laboratory experiments on scour at bridge piers, complicate the development of reliable scour-estimation relationships. In a practical sense, the difficulties imply that estimation relationship can only be of approximate accuracy. Experimental investigations have been studied to examine the maximum depth of scour and its pattern along longitudinal as well as in transverse directions.It was found that the scour depth increases with time. In addition, the maximum depth of scour is dependent on both time as well as flow rate, it was noticed that maximum depth of scour was increasing with increase of flow and time as well. However results presented here are encouraging and are very much in the agreement with the previous studies related to scour at bridge piers.
Keywords: Bridge pier, Scour, Time dependence, Equilibrium scour depth, Sediment transport.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 519 KB
Author(s): Setiyawan, Hangtuah Salim, Ricky Lukman T., Safwan Hadi, Iwan K. Hadihardaja
Pages: 29-34 Paper ID: 135201-4747-IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: India ocean in optimation theoretical wave spectrum only wide spectrum and peak frequency equalized but peak energi not yet equalized hence in this research will equalize wide spectrum, peak frequency and peak energi for indonesia ocean that is Pacitan coast and Meulaboh coast. About 12 mounth measured wave spectra from the Pacitan Coast and 2 month from the Meulaboh Coast, were analyzed so as to determine the frequency of occurrence of peaked spectra in sea states of different intensity. This type of spectrum did not occur so often close to coast and in high sea states. A four-parameter theoretical formulation was proposed to represent peaked spectra and was shown to provide an excellent fit to measured spectra. The average values of the spectral parameters describing the two peaks did not show any clear dependence on significant wave height. The mathematical spectrum models are generally based on one or more parameters, e.g., significant wave height, wave period, shape factors, etc. The most common single-parameter spectrum is the Pierson-Moskowitz model based on the significant wave height or wind speed. There are several two-parameter spectra available. Some of these which are commonly used are Bretschneider, Scott, ISSC and ITTC. JONSWAP spectrum is a five-parameter spectrum, but usually three or the parameters are held constant. Qualitative as well as quantitative comparisons of the optimation-yielded spectra with target spectra indicated that the developed optimation could model the wave spectral shapes in a better way than commonly used theoretical spectra.
Keywords: Pacitan Coast; Meulaboh Coast; Peaked spectra; Scott spectra; Significant wave height; Spectral energy
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 752 KB
Author(s): Fitri Suryani, Tommy Ilyas, Suyono Dikun, Suparti A. Salim
Pages: 35-40 Paper ID: 139701-1818-IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract: Settlements included in national priorities, but has not been included in the projects offered in the PPP Book, although very large housing needs of 5.8 million units. This caused one of them is a low investment value. Given the importance of housing needs in urban development, the PPP can be done in the area with the help of technical assistant by the central government. This study discusses the problems of any obstacles or things that both encourage rejuvenation of an area that suffered a setback function (decaying urban) in order to be returned to the original function or even enhanced function to the ideal with the main supporting infrastructure such as housing, transportation, energy availability, as well as distribution of clean water which will strengthen the city to operate the function that consists of 5 pillars, namely: community service centers, trade and distribution center, financial center, the center of tourism-related community development. Articulation between the major stakeholders such as: government, private, and community become the main concern in this research, including in determining the appropriate financing schemes.
Keywords: Public private partnerships, setlements, infrastructure, and articulation.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 246 KB
Author(s): M.Cetin
Pages: 41-50 Paper ID: 132101-9898-IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2013
Abstract:Considering architecture as a spatial art, the paper examines the nature of ongoing change in the design of architectural spaces, in accordance with the profound conversion in the nature of social existence on Earth. The study aims to tackle the issue mainly from a morphological standpoint with cross-references to sociological dimension of space. Recently, some started to believe that virtues of modernity were not capable of coping with the emerging diversity and complexity brought by new bodies, who were gradually introduced into the urban scene through democratisation. Therefore, the de(con)struction of the canons of the modernism was the only solution in order to achieve a new phase in the material evolution of humankind. Spatial reflection of such an ongoing social transformation, that is to say, a major shift from ‘an ideal society centrally controlled by corporate groups’ to a much more pragmatic one with ‘flexibility of control systems’ is of prime concern in this study. In other words, a paradigm shift from ‘rational and sensible’ state to a ‘chaotic, yet, perverse’ state of human condition, in the name of freedom, is central to the discussion of the evolution of space design. In brief, newly emerging social and corresponding spatial phenomena seem to have took over, our cultural landscape via guerrilla war tactics, and was supported by scholars, who advocated the ‘death of architecture’ for the sake of proliferation of low culture. Albeit, an initiative with good intentions of integrating all parties of the community, turned out to be working against the sense of community. Hence, the very same issues of social concerns seem to have shifted from socialist rhetoric towards the hands of a more capitalist rhetoric. Therefore, the new power and her weapons should be disguised in a seducing new skin... Fluid architecture of late 90’s was the ideal new mediatic solution... In result, values characterised by grace, coherence, consensus, durability, order, have been replaced by pride, unquestioned wealth, corruption, falsification, distortion, humour, irony, nihilism, and ‘in-your-face-attitude’ of the new generation of citizens. Masochistic experience of contemporary urban life, grotesque images of environment, the parasitic and violent character of architecture, yet seductive outlook of their figures have fascinated the minds of the new (yet perverted) urban population. Hence, a fluid, vague, indeterminate archi-tectonic language was becoming politically correct decor for a rapidly eroding society. In fact, this new architecture should be evaluated within the web of concepts like otherness, utopia, fantasy, media, Post-Modern popular culture, consumption, marketability, pluralism, as well as the shift in the conception of “reality and simulation”. In this study, it is argued whether architects, as spatial artists, should shift their focus from the timeless qualities, tectonic virtues and ethical principles of modernism towards transient, ephemeral imagery of this fashionable formalism, simply because, capital is shifting hand from the former-elite towards neo-elite (formerly accepted as underground, grunge, illegal, disapproved, etc.). The decision obviously constitutes a fine line between architecture and prostitution in an age of social hysteria, schizophrenia, fetish, frenzy, disintegration, fragmentation, and thus, perversion. The argument is primarily based on the question of whether new vocabulary of fantastic images is an avant-garde formal jamborine, recurrent trend or fashion-like movement, or alternatively a major breakthrough in the sociological, epistemological, hence architectural frameworks.
Keywords: Spatial Design, architectural frameworks
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 1,643 KB