|Author(s): Mimit Primyastanto, Sahri Muhammad, Soemarno, Anthon Efani, Zainal Abidin|
|Pages: 1-7||Paper ID:145901-8585-IJCEE-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract:This study purpose is to examine process of entrepreneurship spirit in Madura Strait fishermen, and factors that affecting sailing fishermen income. Method used in this research is descriptive qualitative and quantitative descriptive analysis by linear regression. Data was collected by interview, observation, documentation, (group discussion forum) FGD and questionnaire. Determination of sample (respondents) is purposive sampling with 104 respondents. This studi result demonstrate fishermen entrepreneurship spirit is obtained early with starting his career as boat nurse as much as 9.62 %, Boat crew as much as 15:38 %, helmsman as much as 8.65 %, and boat owner as much as 28.85 %. Business development on land as trader, fish processing is 23.08 % agents, and other businesses is 14.42 %. Amount of capital assets and turnover by Act No.20 Th.2008 on SMEs included in small and medium businesses category with asset between 500 million - 10 billion is 66.7 %, while for the turnover of 2.5 billion - 50 billion is 60 %. Factors that statistically significant affect total amount of fishermen income at Mayangan is education, sailing experience and sea asset. If these factors increased will increase total revenue of Mayangan entrepreneur.
|Keywords: Entrepreneurship, production factors, sailing revenue, fishermen, Madura strait. 1 : Lecturer at Fisheries and Marine Sciences Faculty of Brawijaya University. 2 : Lecturer at Agriculture Faculty of Brawijaya University.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 392 KB|
|Author(s): Ali , M. F, Shakrani, S. A.|
|Pages: 8-15||Paper ID:146101-9292-IJCEE-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract:The concentrations of selected heavy metals such as Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in soil irrigated with secondary treated wastewater were determined by means of ICP-OES and UV-Vis Spectrophotometer after combined acid wet digestion. The results revealed that heavy metals concentrations of secondary treated wastewater were significantly higher in the FSTW as compared to the BSTW suggested that seasonal variations and efficiency of the treatment system affected the wastewater quality. Besides, the heavy metals characteristics of soil irrigated with secondary treated wastewater were found to be relatively higher in the SPS as compared to the SEPS suggesting that cross sectional area of soil affected the accumulation of macronutrients and trace elements. Meanwhile, the comparative study between ICP-OES and UV-Vis spectrophotometer for detection of heavy metals in soil irrigated with secondary treated wastewater demonstrated the higher trends of heavy metals levels obtained in UV-Vis spectrophotometer as compared to ICP-OES suggesting that lots of interferences with other elements during analysis under UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Thus, ICP-OES is recommended for analysis of soil irrigated with secondary treated wastewater as the ICP-OES was found suitable for analysis of elements in soils with good accuracy due to high sample throughput capacity, rapid multielement characteristics, varies detection limits makes it suitable for this kind of application while HACH DR5000 UV-Vis Spectrophotometer was suggested to have better functionality towards water than soil analysis.
|Keywords: ICP-OES, heavy metals, secondary treated wastewater, soil, UV-Vis spectrophotometer.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 495 KB|
|Author(s): Ibrahim Mahamid, A. Al-Ghonamy, M. Aichouni|
|Pages: 16-20||Paper ID:144901-3737-IJCEE-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract:The study aims at identifying the factors affecting labor productivity in public construction projects in Saudi Arabia from contractors’ viewpoint. To do so, 41 contractors working in public construction completed a structured questionnaire survey and the factors were ranked according to their impact level. 32 factors were identified through literature review. These factors were grouped into five groups: labor, managerial, materials and equipments, project, and financial. The analysis of the identified 32 factors indicates that the top ten important factors negatively affecting labor productivity in public construction projects are: lack of labor experience, poor communication and coordination between construction parties, bad relations between labors and management team, payments delay by owner, misuse of time schedule, rework, labor’s low wage, financial conditions of contractor, poor site management, and frequent change orders.
|Keywords: Labors, productivity, contractors, public construction, Saudi Arabia.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 239 KB|
|Author(s): Anthony Nkem Ede (PhD)|
|Pages: 21-26||Paper ID:148101-7373-IJCEE-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract:Road infrastructure is one of the basic facilities needed for the growth and advancement of any modern economy. The growth of every country’s economy is measured by the growth of it’s transport infrastructure. This is very true of Nigeria as the state of failed roads all over nation gives a clear picture of the situation of the economy. The road network system has so failed that travelling within any part of Nigeria has turned to be the most assiduous venture for the citizens to undertake. For these reasons, this research examines the devastating effects of truck overloads on the road pavement failure in Nigeria. This research analyses the axle loads of heavy vehicles on Lagos- Ibadan Expressway to see how they influence the state of the road’s pavement condition. The expected pavement load was quantified through equivalent single axle loads (ESALs). Analysis of the data resulted in the existence of high vehicle damage factors caused by overloaded heavy vehicles.
|Keywords: Road Pavements, Truck Overloads, Damages.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 486 KB|