|Author(s): Heni Pujiastuti, Ngudiyono|
|Pages: 1-4||Paper ID:143906-7272-IJCEE-IJENS||Published: December, 2014|
Abstract:Waste issue becomes complicated problems in urban areas, especially plastic waste and Calcium Carbide Residue (CCR). Clay without stabilization are unsuitable for earth structure and pavement. One of the clay stabilizing agent utilizing the waste material is CCR, trass and plastic waste fiber. To study the properties of clay stabilized do experimental tests in the laboratory, ie an initial test to see soil physical properties, soaked and un-soaked CBR test with variations curing 0 day, 7 days, 14 days and 28 days, SEM and XRD test to see mineralogy of pozzolanic reactions, repeated wetting and drying treatment for see the durability of the soil to the weather. The results showed that both the CBR value un-soaked and soaked increases with increasing curing time, the highest CBR value at 28 days curing for samples tested. From the SEM and XRD test states with increasing curing time then there is agglomeration of the wide sheet into smaller sheets, but the reaction has been running mineral pozzolanic CSH and CAH has not been formed. CBR and durability index values decrease with increasing drying-wetting cycles.
|Keywords: Clay, calcium carbide residue, trass, plastic waste fibers, curing, repeated drying-wetting.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 300 KB|
|Author(s): Meng-Chieh Lee, Ling-Tim Wong, Kwok-Wai Mui, Wai-Hou Lam, Chia-Feng Chang|
|Pages: 5-18||Paper ID:144906-7676-IJCEE-IJENS||Published: December, 2014|
Abstract:The energy consumption of natural ventilated classrooms (NVs) is less than air-conditioned classrooms (ACs) in hot and humid Taiwan. Energy conservation is related with the thermal comfort of occupants in these classrooms. This study proposed an electronic questionnaire and instruments to facilitate the continuous monitoring of the physical parameters to investigate the satisfied level of thermal comfort of students in classrooms. The investigated results show the average clothing value (clo) around 0.7. During the hot days (clo<0.7), students’ acceptable range of temperature range in NVs was between 26.2?–28.2? (neutral temperature=27.3?, neutral humidity=59.9%) and 24.2?–27.7? (neutral temperature =26.3?, neutral humidity=57.2%) in ACs. During the cold days (clo?0.7), students’ acceptable range of temperature in NVs was between 20.9?–25.1? (neutral temperature = 23.0?, neutral humidity=55.3%) and 22.0?–25.4? (neutral temperature=23.7?, neutral humidity=55.6%) in ACs. The maximum acceptable thermal temperature of students in NVs is 1? higher than that in ACs and 2? higher than the ASHRAE Standard 55. The result implies that turn on the ceiling fans in NVs can be saved 5.0kWh (95%) energy between NVs and ACs under the occupants’ acceptable temperature range to achieve the balance between the energy saving and comfortable environment.
|Keywords: Thermal comfort; Clothing value; Energy conservation; Natural ventilated classrooms; Air-conditioned classrooms.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 1,657 KB|
|Author(s): Cahyono Ikhsan, Adam Pamudji Raharjo, Djoko Legono, Bambang Agus Kironoto|
|Pages: 19-23||Paper ID:145206-8181-IJCEE-IJENS||Published: December, 2014|
Abstract:The movement of water over a bed of sediment results in the entrainment of particles. In water worked graded river beds, the finer sediment will be entrained earlier than the larger particles or armour layer. Basic questions regarding armour layers need to be resolved is mechanism armour layers and the relevant properties of an armour layer can they be predicted. The study focused on observations of shear stress on the condition of passive and active conditions on the formation of armor layer at a constant discharge. Hydraulics laboratorium studies using the main sediment-recirculating flume of plexiglass dimensionless width 0.60 m, length of 10.00 m, a depth of 0.45 m and a channel slope of 1% to 2,6%. The flume experiments created armoured beds testing 5 sediment mixtures with a composition of 70% gravel, 30% sand, and 4 flow rates constant discharge capacity of 25 l/s, 30 l/s, 40 l/s and 45 l/s. Running on low flow 3 phases which phase graded, phase equilibrium and phase armour The instruments used between digital currentmeter, point gauge meter, sediment feeder, trap sediment, and surfer software version 8.0. The results are shown armour layer structure changes and changes in surface topography. While the grain size profile armour layer more upright, this condition indicates that the formation of armour layer effect on the stability of the channel.
|Keywords: shear stress, armour layer, bedload, grain size, flume.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 424 KB|
|Author(s): Anas Puri, Hary Christady Hardiyatmo, Bambang Suhendro, Ahmad Rifa’i|
|Pages: 24-30||Paper ID:147506-2323-IJCEE-IJENS||Published: December, 2014|
Abstract:The Nailed-slab System is a kind of rigid pavement. It is not a soil improvement method, but rather as an alternative method to improve the performance of rigid pavement on soft soils. This system consists of a thin reinforced concrete slab, and short piles attached underneath. The installed piles under the slab were functioned as slab stiffeners. This research is aimed to learn the behaviour of Nailed-slab System under repetitive loadings and its consideration for practical application. The full scale Nailed-slab System was conducted on soft clay which consisted of 6.00 m x 3.54 m slab area with 0.15 m in slab thickness, 15 short micro piles (0.20 m in diameter, 1.50 m in length, and 1.20 m in pile spacing) as slab stiffeners which installed under slab. Piles and slab were connected monolithically, then in due with vertical concrete wall barrier on the two ends of slab. The system was loaded by vertical repetitive loadings. Results show that the installed piles under the slab which embedded into the soils were functioned as slab stiffeners and were able to response similarly in 3D. This system has higher resistance due to vibration. Thereby, the Nailed-slab system is promising for practical application.
|Keywords: Rigid pavement, soft clay, nailed-slab, micro piles, bearing capacity, repetitive loads.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 652 KB|
|Author(s): Damanhuri Jamalludin, Fauziah Ahmad, Roslan Zainal Abidin|
|Pages: 31-37||Paper ID:143106-2929-IJCEE-IJENS||Published: December, 2014|
Abstract:Slope failures usually occur in Malaysia during the rainy season from the months of October to January annually causing damages to properties and fatalities. The common laboratory tests conducted to determine the soil characteristics include soil classification, moisture content, particle density, field bulk unit weight and Atterberg limit tests. In the case of Atterberg limit tests, only the silt and clay portions of the sandy soils were tested. Disturbed soil samples were collected from 10 slope failures in Baling and also from 19 slope failures in Penang. The slope failures in Penang are within the granitic residual soil while the slope failures in Baling are within the sedimentary residual soil. Field bulk density tests were carried out at all the locations where soil samples were taken. The objective of this research is to compare the characteristics of soils taken from slope failures within the granitic and sedimentary residual soils. The particle density and field bulk unit weight are very consistent at slope failures in both the sedimentary and granitic residual soils. In general, all the soil characteristics and properties found in this study are near or within the range that was found by earlier researchers for Malaysian residual soils.
|Keywords: Granitic residual soil, Sedimentary residual soil, Slope failure, Soil characteristics.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 783 KB|
|Author(s): Sarangerel D., Altangerel A., Munkhzaya Ts., Sukhbaatar B., Amarzaya B.|
|Pages: 38-45||Paper ID:1410306-7272-IJCEE-IJENS||Published: December, 2014|
Abstract:In this study, removal efficiency of the Reactive blue 50 and sorption mechanism on the zero valent iron were investigated. Reactive blue 50 which is used to wool and cashmere dyeing was selected due its non-biodegradable and metabolic stability. Zero valent iron particle has been synthesized by wet chemical method and a systematic characterization of zero valent iron was performed using X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope. The optimal condition of sorption of reactive dye 50 onto zero valent iron was determined as initial concentration of 150 mg/L, adsorbent dosage of 0.2 g and pH 6.0 of aqueous media at room temperature. The correlation coefficients show that the sorption process could be described by Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo II order kinetics model. The mechanism of heterogeneous reaction using zero valent iron is considered.
|Keywords: sorption, reactive dye, zero valent iron.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 508 KB|