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Author(s): Lilian M. Gondim, Sandra A. Soares, Suelly H. A. Barroso
Pages: 1-8 Paper ID:162006-4848-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2016
Abstract:-- This research work aims to contribute to the development of a bio-binder for use at the paving industry, from the modification of a petroleum based asphalt by the sap of Euphorbia Tirucalli (Petroleum Plant). Thus, a base asphalt (PG 64-28) was modified with 3%, 5% e 10%, by weight, of sap of the petroleum plant. The functional groups present in the sap were characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy. The parameters chosen for the analysis of the modified binders were the empirical characteristics (softening point, penetration); the rheological behavior (Brookfield viscosity, complex module, phase angle); and the effects of oxidative aging (all the properties before and after aging at RTFOT). It was also carried out specific rheological tests for the determination of Performance Grade (PG) and the behavior related to permanent deformation by Multiple Stress Creep and Recovery (MSCR) test. The results showed that it was possible to replace up to 10% of the asphalt binder by sap without observe significant changes in the rheological properties, and still reducing the compaction and mixing temperatures. This result implies on major environmental and economical effects, once a material from renewable source reduces the consumption of fossil asphalt binder, and decreases the fuel expenditure for the mixing and compaction procedures as well.
Keywords: Bio-binders, Euphorbia Tirucalli, Asphalt Modifiers, Alternative Materials.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 436 KB
Author(s): Khaled Z. Ramadan
Pages: 9-20 Paper ID:161706-8585-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2016
Abstract:-- In this paper a hierarchal model for Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling (RCPS) problem is presented. The model consists of two steps; step 1 applies the longest path integer programming model to determine the critical path activities and the free floats of the non-critical path activities. In step 2, Genetic algorithm exploits the information found in step 1 to determine the start times of the non-critical activities such that the total cost of resources needed to perform the project is minimized. This proposed model differs from the conventional RCPS problem in that the proposed model seeks to minimize the total cost of resources to perform the project within the minimum makespan of the project while the conventional RCPS seeks to minimize the total cost of resources usually by extending the duration of the project beyond its minimum makespan. The effectiveness of the model were demonstrated using two illustrative examples. The results of these examples showed that the proposed model is effective in scheduling the non-critical activities within the minimum makespan of the project such that the total cost of resources needed to perform the project is minimized. This proposed model can be effectively used in projects that are very sensitive to durations such as steel bridge construction projects, multi-level steel building projects, air craft maintenance, any other major construction projects, or where ever it is applicable.
Keywords: RCPS, Genetic Algorithm, Project Scheduling, Longest Path Model, Makespan.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 544 KB
Author(s): Marcelo F. ZELLER, Luciane F. ALCOFORADO, Orlando C. LONGO
Pages: 21-28 Paper ID:162606-1717-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2016
Abstract:-- Nothing more current than the debates about the depletion of natural resources and the attitude of society on the problems arising from such an attitude. In construction, the situation is more delicate, given the excessive level of resources (renewable or not) extracted from nature; not to mention the high consumption of energy which cause the issue, in large quantities of greenhouse gases; or the high number of waste, some even harmful. In Brazil, sustainable construction began to be debated more vigorously from the Eco92 Conference at which culminated in the Agenda 21 (a document that shows the commitment of nations with a planning and environmental attitudes related to human productive activities). There are many questions about the challenges faced by companies in the construction and planning and control of an appropriate environmental management, the inclusion of sustainable processes in their activities; without burdening them, keeping costs within the required and planned. Some ideas come from waste minimization, or materials, manpower, money, either of time or energy. Win the company by reducing its costs, gains the environment, given that the disposal, most often occurs irregularly in wastelands or near rivers. Now, why not put the provision of important Brazilian economic activities, the benefits of an efficient engineering project in which sustainable aspects are covered in the construction and maintenance of a dedicated building for agribusiness? This study has this purpose, submit a technical proposal of clean construction and which would include sustainable aspects of a building (Processing Building) belonging to the construction project of a fishing terminal in the city of Campos dos Goytacazes / RJ. The universe of this research is related to construction of fishing terminals respecting sustainability and striving for clean building actions. This study is focused on the ongoing project in the city of Campos dos Goytacazes / RJ. The literature review presents books, articles, dissertations or theses and, behold, also, information about Seal Casa Azul and what the guidelines that best apply to this study. In particular, the gains made in choosing to build a building with sustainable premises.
Keywords: Clean construction, public fishing terminal, seal Casa Azul, sustainability.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 347 KB
Author(s): Ubiratan Rohan, Clézio Thadeu de Souza Dutra, Carlos Alberto Pereira Soares
Pages: 29-33 Paper ID:163806-7272-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2016
Abstract:-- This article presents the relevance of Ecological Footprint, Dashboard of Sustainability, Barometer of Sustainability e PSR - Pressure, State, Response under the viewpoint of the sustainability dimensions. We developed a field research in which we identified the perception of experts related to the relevance of sustainability measurement instruments for Environmental, Economic and Social dimensions. The results showed similar agreements of the experts with those identified in the literature. The Dashboard of Sustainability and the Pressure, State, Response were considered as high relevance for all dimensions. This result confirms the efficiency of these instruments to show that the dimensions of sustainability do interact during the evaluation of sustainability of a system. The environmental Footprint was considered of high relevance for the Environmental dimension and of low relevance for the other dimensions. The Barometer of Sustainability was considered of high relevance for Environmental and Social dimensions and of moderate relevance for the Economic dimension. The four Instruments for measurement of Sustainability contributed for environment preservation, and sustainability, therefore contributing also for managers and society.
Keywords: Ecological Footprint; Dashboard of Sustainability; Barometer of Sustainability; Pressure, State, Response; Measurement of sustainability.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 415 KB
Author(s): João Filipe de Oliveira Baptista, Orlando Celso Longo, Luciane Ferreira Alcoforado, PPGEC
Pages: 34-43 Paper ID:163406-7979-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2016
Abstract:-- This research presents the small and medium enterprises behavior in the civil construction to Problems related to the management of projects, watching them on two specific perspectives that are representative of the impact of the Problems for SMEs and the use of processes project management. the main Problems projects in general have been identified, the representativeness of the Problems for SMEs construction, project management processes most used by SMEs, the diagnosis of the relationship between the representation of the Problems and the use of processes; and also, pointed out a comprehensive solution to minimize project management Problems and their impacts.
Keywords: Project Management, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises, Civil Construction, Management Processes, Monitoring and Controlling.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 671 KB
Author(s): Marcos Motta Nazareth, Luiz Carlos Brasil de Brito Mello
Pages: 44-51 Paper ID:164806-1717-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2016
Abstract:-- Petroleum platforms require highly maintenance in their structure, mainly due to the risks involved to the activities in which they are framed. The name of that kind of maintenance is scheduled shutdown. Nowadays companies seek to reduce the plant production stop to maintenance execution due to the costs and risks involved in those activities. This study aim to present the project to a scheduled shutdown under the theory of constraints (TOC) perspective, comparing the critical chain methodology (CCPM) with the traditional critical path method (PERT/CPM). The enforcement of CCPM translated into runtime reduction in project execution, reflected directly in the reduction of the costs. The application of TOC results in scale gains for the company by reducing the execution period and cost.
Keywords: Theory of Constraints (TOC), Scheduled Shutdown Maintenance, Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM), Petroleum Platform, Critical Path Method (PERT/CPM).
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 520 KB
Author(s): Fábia K. G. Andrade, Matheus S. Cordeiro, Alberto C. Lordsleem Jr.
Pages: 52-58 Paper ID:165006-7474-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2016
Abstract:-- This article aims to evaluate the walls partitions of educational institution classrooms in relation to acoustic performance and reverberation time, whose methodology includes data collection in 26 classrooms in three buildings, according to the specifications of ISO 16283-1 (ISO 2014) and ISO 717-1 (ISO 2013) and compiled using the software dBBati. The acoustic performance results were analyzed in relation to international references in Portugal, United Kingdom, USA and New Zealand and the reverberation times in relation to Brazilian standard. Besides that acoustic performance and reverberation time were analyzed in relation to size classrooms and dimensions of the windows. The results correspond to 46 measurements, 17 to internal walls partitions and 29 to façades. The values obtained ranged from 41 to 49 dB (internal) and 22 to 34 dB (external), corresponding to 41% approved internal walls partitions and 24% approved external walls partitions. Beyond the influence of the size rooms and the dimensions and the opening of frames were confirmed to acoustic performance and the reverberation time values obtained. These results indicate that a significant portion of the classroom walls partitions aren’t approved in relation to acoustic performance, implicating the intelligibility of speech and the learning process of students.
Keywords: Acoustic performance, walls partitions, classrooms, reverberation time.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 664 KB