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Title: On Location-Centric Semantic Information Retrieval in Ubiquitous Computing Environments
Author(s): Raghda A. Fouad, Nagwa Badr, Hanaa Talha, Mohamed Hashem
Pages: 1-7 Paper ID: 106306-9898-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: In the era of endless connectivity and an emerging semantic web, the demand on portable data is increasing day after day. People rely on their mobile devices more and more on a daily basis. And, with the help of technology, mobile devices aid as powerful personal computers on the go especially with promising location-based services. On the other hand, the need to digest powerful data is as strong as the need for powerful mobile devices. Thus, mobile devices require rich data sources to provide seamless rich data, and not only data, but location-rich data. This paper describes an architecture that examines and reacts to an individual’s changing location. A location-centric prototype for mobile devices is presented, to display a map of the individual's current area, along with a semantic search data browser for querying location-rich data sources. The aim of the architecture this application is based on is to exploit a hybrid of geospatial semantic information retrieved from multiple data sources. For now, our architecture uses three data sources: GeoNames, LinkedGeoData, and DBpedia. Through experimental results, precision and recall measures applied to the proposed system prove its edge over existing systems.
Keywords: Geospatial Web, Location-based Application, Semantic Information Retrieval and Semantic Web.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 863 KB
Title: Characterization of Granular Type Capillary to Wire Bond Yield for Ultra-Fine Pitch Large Quad Flat Package of Semiconductor Packaging
Author(s): Ibrahim Ahmad, Nurul Hidayah Mohamad Nor, Huda Abdullah, Fuaida Harun, Azman Jalar
Pages: 8-15 Paper ID: 100206-5353-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: The objectives of this study are three-fold; firstly to improve the bond ability of high reliability gold wire with 99% purity of gold on fine pitch lead frame, secondly to improve second bond quality and reliability using optimal bonding tools and material selection and thirdly, to improve machine stability and efficiency during production mode. All the efforts will be done on the granular type capillary and comparing them with the conventional polished surface capillary. The bonding tool morphology on wire bond quality and production yield using 20 µm ultra fine pitch wire bonded on Argentums plating lead frame were characterized. Quantitative wedge pull test with statistical analysis and internal physical inspection using Scanning Electron Microscopy were carried out for both samples at 0 h after production, 96 and 192 h after high temperature storage and after 500 and 1000 cycle of thermal cycle test. Cross section analysis was also performed to study the alloy formation between wire and lead plating. Results show that significant improvement of wedge strength using granular type capillary as compared to conventional polished capillary with p-value of 0.000, 0.000 and 0.042 for samples at 0 and 96 h of high temperature storage and 1000 times of thermal cycle test. The second bond strength of granular type capillary still exceeds that of conventional polished capillary by 0.18 and 0.20 g force, as a result, a reduction of 62% on the capillary cost. In conclusion, granular type capillary offers a better bonding quality for ultra fine pitch package on lead frame packages as well as improvements on machine stoppages occurrence. This capillary also offers an effective and practical improvement in bonding and process robustness, which can be realized not only in development stage, but also in real production arena.
Keywords: Wire bond, second bond, ultra fine pitch, short tail, yield loss.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 351 KB
Title: Increasing Bandwidth Dual Frequency Triangular Microstrip Antenna For WiMAX Application
Author(s): Indra Surjati, Yuli KN, Yuliastuti
Pages: 16-20 Paper ID: 108706-2929-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: The narrow bandwidth of microstrip antenna is one of the important features that restrict its wide usage. This paper presents a bandwidth enhancement using array technique and combined with transformator ?/4 for the feed line matching is proposed and experimentally studied. The maximum bandwidth can be achieved by controlling the distance between the two patch antennas and by adjusting the length of the transmission feed line 50 Ohm. Return loss of -15.45 dB with VSWR 1.406 for the first frequency at 2.3 GHz and return loss of -32.77 dB with VSWR 1.047 for the second frequency at 3.3 GHz. The results show that the proposed antenna has the impedance bandwidth of 14.6% for the first frequency and 41.87% for the second frequency. Gain of 8.98 dB and radiation pattern with HPBW 200can be obtained.
Keywords: Array, triangular microstrip antenna, bandwidth, transformator ?/4, WiMAX.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 778 KB
Title: Meeting Load Demand at Least Cost in De-centralised Electricity Environment
Author(s): Hafiz T. Hassan, Kashif Imran, Muhammad F. Aslam, Intesar Ahmad
Pages: 21-26 Paper ID: 101406-9393-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: This paper presents a least cost method of operating a power plant in view of variable spot price of electricity and load demand greater than plant capacity. Manager of an industrial power plant has to operate its generators at appropriate operating levels. Furthermore, manager has to put up a demand bid to a power exchange in order to cover the remaining load demand such that overall cost remains minimal. Fuel consumption data of three generators has been used in this paper to determine generators operating levels and a demand bid over a range of spot prices. Our results demonstrate that electricity trading through a power exchange leads to considerable savings when spot price drops below fixed price.
Keywords: De-centralised Electricity Environment, Demand Bid, Least Cost Operation, Spot Price.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 462 KB
Title: Developing a Reputation Model for Electronic Markets
Author(s): Nagwa E. Elgohary, Ahmed A. Elfetouh, Shereif I. Barakat
Pages: 27-37 Paper ID: 107406-3535-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: In multiagent electronic markets buyer agents would benefit by modeling the reputation of seller agents, in order to make effective decisions about which agents to trust. A major weakness of electronic markets is the raised level of risk associated with the loss of the notions of trust and reputation. In this paper we develop a trustworthy model of selling agents in multi-agent based electronic marketplaces (buyers and sellers), first allowing a buyer to model the private and public reputation of an mentor (other buyers have previous experience with sellers and put reputation rates about them, the buyer use their rates as an advice ) based on their ratings for sellers then flexibly weight the private and public reputation into one combined measure of the trustworthy of the mentor; all buyers can play the role of mentors to other buyers, mentors provide ratings only when a transaction occurs. We assume a marketplace where sellers are offering similar kinds of goods. Experimental results show that the approach can effectively model trustworthy of buyers.
Keywords: Trust, Reputation, Buyer/Seller agents, Trustworthy, E-Markets, Multiagent, Mentor, Unfaithful.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 737 KB
Title: Design of a Wireless Temperature Acquisition System for Laser Cutting Process
Author(s): M. Mokhtar, M. S. A. Mansor, O. Sidek, M. Q. Omar, H. Edin, M. A. Miskam
Pages: 38-41 Paper ID: 106606-4141-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: This paper presents the development of a wireless temperature acquisition system for the laser cutting processing of an advanced engineering material. The wireless system effectively automates the temperature monitoring activities. The system is comprised of hardware, software, and a personal computer (PC). The wireless system module architecture consists of a power subsystem, a sensor subsystem, and a main node system mainly based on wireless radio frequency (RF) technology. The advantages of this system are management of data, response to temperature alert, ease, and accuracy of required documentation. The workability of the developed integrated wireless sensor was tested at the Manufacturing Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia. The collected data were used to evaluate the system workability. Data shows that the system can measure and monitor the temperature in the time and distance ranges. This work is a significant start towards temperature monitoring using wireless system networks (WSN) for laser cutting process monitoring.
Keywords: Temperature monitoring, wireless sensor, laser cutting, process monitoring.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 464 KB
Title: Advanced Carrier Based Pulse Width Modulation in Asymmetric Cascaded Multilevel Inverter
Author(s): Bambang Sujanarko, Mochamad Ashari, Mauridhi Hery Purnomo, Ontoseno Penangsang, Soebagjo
Pages: 42-46 Paper ID: 108606-5353-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: This paper proposes a new scheme Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) to overcome low performances of conventional PWM control strategy in Cascaded Multilevel Inverter (ACMLI). This scheme advance conventional Carrier-Based PWM (CBPWM) using triangle carrier in different amplitudes. By this scheme ACMLI can control by PWM that according to dc voltage amplitude used and finally the Total Harmonics Distortions (THD) can reduce to the settle standard. Simulation using Matlab Simulink used to verify the performance and result simulation shown than this proposed scheme can reach the goals.
Keywords: Asymmetric cascaded multilevel inverter, multi carrier pulse width modulation, power quality, total harmonic distortion.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 789 KB
Title: Intelligent Object and Pattern Recognition using Ensembles in Back Propagation Neural Network
Author(s): Hafiz T. Hassan, Muhammad U. Khalid, Kashif Imran
Pages: 47-54 Paper ID: 101506-7070-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: Object and Pattern Recognition applications are one of the most active research fields in the Neural Network research community today. Neural networks are mostly preferred in predictive and classification problems because they are unstable classifier that is little change in input causes drastic changes in output. Now in some scenarios the Neural Networks are not enough to do the required job such as classification or regression analysis so an evolved architecture called ensembles is used that is instead of one classifier such as a neural network many are used. In the paper we are going to incorporate Back Propagation Neural Network for the classification of two datasets (the sonar and ionosphere datasets) in bagging ensemble architecture using PCA and standalone architecture.
Keywords: Back Propagation, Bagging, Classification, Ensemble, Neural Network.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 548 KB
Title: Face Authentication System Based on FDA and ANN
Author(s): M. A. Teh Noranis, N. Shahrin Azuan
Pages: 55-62 Paper ID: 1010406-7575-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: Face authentication systems (FAS) are still in their infancy and many types of algorithms and techniques have been proposed to improve the ability of these systems. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been commonly used as the classifiers for FAS whereas Fisher’s Discrimination Analysis (FDA) has been used widely as the feature extractor. However, many current FAS still experiencing low accuracy rates using these techniques due to factors such as illumination, orientation and other disturbances. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the application of photometric normalization, linear subspace feature extraction, and ANN classification in enhancing FAS, and to build and evaluate the performance of the proposed FAS based on this approaches. We similarly used the popular ANN classification, namely Multi-Layer Perceptrons (MLP) as the classifier for our FAS as it has proven to be simple for implementation. Meanwhile, we proposed linear subspace feature extraction techniques based on FDA to reduce the dimensionality of the face image. In addition, the photometric normalization techniques based on Histogram Equalization and Homomorphic Filtering are used to improve the appearance of the face. The effect of different combinations of the photometric normalization techniques on the performance of the proposed FAS was studied and the effectiveness of these techniques was highlighted. The results of the proposed FAS were compared among Eigenface and Fisherface FAS. It was discovered that using AT&T datasets, the proposed FAS solution outperformed the FAS based on Eigenface and Fisherface in term of False Acceptance and False Rejection rate. Furthermore, the experimental results demonstrated that MLP was able to produce better classification model that can satisfy the model authentication tests with significant advantages over Euclidean Distance, and Normalized Correlation classifiers.
Keywords: ANN, face authentication, FDA, MLP.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 358 KB
Title: Towards Designing a Biometric Measure for Enhancing ATM Security in Nigeria E-Banking System
Author(s): Ibidapo, O. Akinyemi, Zaccheous O. Omogbadegun, Olufemi M. Oyelami
Pages: 63-68 Paper ID: 109106-3535-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: Security measures at banks can play a critical, contributory role in preventing attacks on customers. These measures are of paramount importance when considering vulnerabilities and causation in civil litigation. Banks must meet certain standards in order to ensure a safe and secure banking environment for their customers. This paper focuses on vulnerabilities and the increasing wave of criminal activities occurring at Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) where quick cash is the prime target for criminals rather than at banks themselves. A biometric measure as a means of enhancing the security has emerged from the discourse.
Keywords: Security, ATM, Biometric, Crime.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 320 KB
Title: Development of Electronic Government Procurement (e-GP) System for Nigeria Public Sector
Author(s): Adebiyi, Ayodele A., Ayo, Charles K., Adebiyi Marion O.
Pages: 69-76 Paper ID: 1010506-8484-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: Business-to-business electronic procurement success in business organizations (private sectors) has been a major driving force for government organizations (public sectors) in developed nations to adopt electronic government procurement in order to reduce cost and improve administrative efficiency. E-procurement within the government is recognized to be the main area of government-to-business that needs to be exploited by government of developing nations. In this paper, we examined the drawbacks of existing procurement process in Nigeria with a view to offering an improved approach. A prototype e-GP system was designed and developed to eliminate the associated bottlenecks with existing system and showcase the attendant benefits of the proposed system which can lead to an improved procurement cycle process flow.
Keywords: Electronic Government Procurement, e-Procurement, Procurement Processes, B2B and G2B.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 547 KB
Title: Spectral Analysis of Misalignment in Machines Using Sideband Components of Broken Rotor Bar, Shorted Turns and Eccentricity
Author(s): I. Ahmed, M. Ahmed, K. Imran, M. Shuja. Khan, T. Akram, M. Jawad
Pages: 77-85 Paper ID: 1010206-6767-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: This paper inspects the misaligned motors by using diagnostic medium such as current, flux and instantaneous power signal. Misalignments in machines can cause decrease in efficiency and in the long-run it may cause disastrous failure because of unnecessary vibration, stress on motor & bearings and short-circuiting in stator and rotor windings. The measurements have been performed at full-load to detect the misaligned motors and considered the fault frequencies characteristics of shorted turn, broken rotor bar (BRB) and eccentricity using current, flux and instantaneous power spectrums. Experimental study demonstrates that eccentricity fault frequency components (f1±fr) from the flux spectrum are more helpful for the purpose of detecting misalignment in machines as compared to any other side band components of shorted turn and broken rotor bar fault frequencies of current, flux and instantaneous power signals.
Keywords: Misalignment, Shorted turn, broken rotor bar, Eccentricity, Spectrum.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 532 KB
Title: Ontology-Based Query in Heterogeneous & Distributed Data Sources
Author(s): Najood al-Ghamdi, Mostafa Saleh, Fathy Eassa
Pages: 86-102 Paper ID: 101206-6363-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: Information sharing, exchanging and retrieving from heterogeneous data sources not only needs complete data accessibility, but also it needs solving data heterogeneity between these data sources. To solve this rising problems of heterogeneity, a lot of recent work has been done towards solving this issue. This research aims to develop a software system based on ontology to semantically integrate heterogeneous data sources such as XML and RDF to solve some conflicts that occur in these sources. We developed an agent framework based on ontology to retrieve data from distributed heterogeneous data sources. With this technique, user will be able to send a mobile agent with classical input query to a data source. Then the mobile agent will carry the needed module of the global ontology prepared by the user stationary agents and transport itself from the user site to a remote XML or RDF data source. At remote XML data source, stationary agents will transform the heterogeneous XML source into temporary local RDF ontology. The stationary agents in all sources perform a mapping between the local and global ontologies, convert the query to XML or RDF query, execute it and set the results in a suitable form. Finally, the mobile agent will return back with the results. A partial implementation of this framework has been carried out using some modules and libraries of Java, Aglet, Jena and AltovaXML.
Keywords: Ontology, Ontology generation, Schema mapping, Multi-Agent System, Heterogeneous data sources, Mobile Agent.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 524 KB
Title: M-ary FSK with Orthogonal Pulse Envelopes and its Noncoherent Detection
Author(s): Suhad Shembil
Pages: 103-106 Paper ID: 104705-06-0909-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: Frequency shift keying (FSK) systems enjoy the highest power efficiencies among the available modulation schemes but are accompanied by the lowest bandwidth (BW) efficiencies. Additional receiver complexities arise due to accurate phase estimations required for a large number of carrier frequencies in phase-coherent synchronous receivers, a problem that can be alleviated by the use of noncoherent detection. We propose a scheme of using M-ary FSK (MFSK) systems with orthogonal envelopes of the RF pulses to improve BW efficiency of MFSK modulation. Hilbert transform (HT) based RF pulse pairs are used in an otherwise MFSK system for the proposed orthogonal pulse MFSK (OP-MFSK) system and continuous time (CT) analysis is performed using noncoherent detection for a single user in an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel to obtain performance figures.
Keywords: Four dimensional (4D) signal space, Hilbert transforms, M-ary frequency shift keying, noncoherent detection, orthogonal waveform multiplexing (OWM).
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 341 KB
Title: FPGA Modules for Conversions between Fixed and Floating-point in Quartus-II Environment
Author(s): Erkan DUMAN, Hayrettin CAN, Erhan AKIN
Pages: 107-110 Paper ID: 107906-2626-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: This study presents the low-level hardware implementation of conversions between fixed and floating-point number systems for FPGAs in a modular way. All given modules and experiments were evaluated in a user-friendly development environment called Quartus-II that it supports the ability of block and schematic design, time or functional-based simulation and programming of Altera’s products in practical. Our proposed circuits for these conversions requires less time in comparison with previous studies because we used only basic gates and buffers in our designs, like OR, NOT, CARRY, etc. It means there was no need for a clock and so a control unit. The actual time for both conversions in both modes (signed and unsigned) were realized about 15-20 ns in worst-case. Moreover, the required FPGA logic areas were reduced. In the experiment, we used 16-bit fixed-point and single-precision floating-point formats in order to show the effective of the proposed implementation technique.
Keywords: Fixed and Floating-point, conversion, hardware implementation, FPGA, Quartus-II.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 229 KB
Title: On Two Dimensional Cellular Automata and its VLSI Applications
Author(s): Abdul Raouf Khan
Pages: 111-114 Paper ID: 102805-06-9393-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2010
Abstract: The study of cellular automata (CA) dates back to J.V. Neumann in the early 50’s. Since then many researchers have taken interest in the study of CA. One dimensional CA has been investigated to large extend. However, little interest has been given to Two Dimensional Cellular Automata (2DCA). In this paper, we summarize basic characterizations of 2DCA and its VLSI application.
Keywords: Cellular Automata, 2D cellular automata, characterization of CA, Image processing.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 348 KB