|Title: Isomerization and Kinetics of Glucose into Fructose|
|Author(s): Mohamed H Gaily, Basheir Mohamed Elhassan, Ahmed E. Abasaeed, Mohammad Al-Shrhan|
|Pages: 1-6||Paper ID: 102503-4848-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2010|
Abstract: Isomerization of glucose to fructose experiments was conducted using immobilized Sweetzyme enzyme, IT®. The experimental investigations covered a wide range of parameter values: isomerization temperature range 40-70 ?C; initial enzyme loading range 0.5-1.5 g; initial glucose concentration range 10-20%. For all experimental operating conditions, glucose concentration decreased with reaction time until equilibrium was reached. Higher reaction temperatures and/or initial enzyme loadings and/or lower initial glucose concentrations led to faster reactions, thus shorter required equilibrium times. Two kinetic models were suggested. Model 1 is a simple model with no complex formation, while Model 2 is a one-step complex formation model. The parameters associated with each model were evaluated using regression analysis. Based on R2 values, Model 2 was found to represent the experimental data slightly better than Model 1.
|Keywords: Isomerization, kinetics, glucose, fructose, sweetzyme.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 327 KB|
|Title: Dealing with quality of service in Hybrid Wired-Wireless Networks|
|Author(s): Ahmed Sameh, Sherrif Wageih, Qussay Salaema|
|Pages: 7-11||Paper ID: 101203-5757-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2010|
Abstract: The Quality of Service (QoS) research investigations in Wired and Wireless networks have been conducted mostly in isolation . Recently, a need for an end to end quality of service over hybrid networks (containing wired and wireless segments) has become evident. IEEE 802.11e work group has set up the standards for wireless network quality of service which became part of the comprehensive approved 802.11 wireless networks standards late 2006. The most recent version of IEEE 802.11 standard states that there is plenty of room for improvement and development in the area of integrating QoS in wireless and wired networks. On the other hand, Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) is widely accepted to be the complex of all QoS technologies on wired networks. It ensures, to a great extent, the quality of any given connection on the network. Some researches have been done to extend RSVP to wireless networks. Moreover, RSVP-TE is an extension of RSVP that allows the establishing of MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching) LSPs (Label Switching Paths) in the network. MPLS is a newer technology that offers service integration, layer 2 switching and connection orientedness, that allows traffic engineering controlled flows in the network. MPLS is a technology that delivers a unified control mechanism with its multiprotocol capabilities for running over mixed media infrastructures. MPLS defines signaling mechanisms to support both Class of Service (CoS) and QoS. In this paper we are investigating how the MPLS hierarchical architecture for label-switched networks can be used for supporting wireless users. This architecture involves requirements at the mobile terminal for initiating or hopping label switched paths at the air interface, and allowing end to end interconnection to the backbone network. We are utilizing aspects of the 802.11 QoS standards and techniques proposed in recent research to propose a technique to extend RSVP-TE into the WLANs (aka Wi-Fi) domain using MPLS.
|Keywords: WLAN, RSVP-E, MPLS, QoS, LSP.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 324 KB|
|Title: The Study for Transient Neutron Transport with Pomrning-Eddington Approximation|
|Author(s): Awatif A. Hendi, Essam M. Abulwafa|
|Pages: 12-19||Paper ID: 100903-6767-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2010|
Abstract: The time-dependent neutron transport problem is approximated using the Pomraning-Eddington approximation. This approximation is two-flux approximation that expands the angular intensity in terms of the energy density and the net flux. This approximation converts the integro-differential Boltzmann equation into two first order differential equations. The Adomian decomposition method that used to solve the linear or nonlinear differential equations is used to solve the resultant two differential equations to find the neutron energy density and net flux, which can be used to calculate the neutron angular intensity through the Pomraning-Eddington approximation.
|Keywords: Transient neutron transport theory, Pomraning-Eddington approximation, integro-differential Boltzmann equation, Adomian decomposition method.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 255 KB|
|Title: Use of Transition Metal Ions to Enhance Flame Retardancy of Ammonium Polyphosphate Treated Back coated Cotton Fabrics|
|Author(s): Sharfun Nahar Arju|
|Pages: 20-23||Paper ID: 100703-6969-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2010|
Abstract: Flame retardancy of cotton fabrics were investigated by using transition metal ions in back-coating method. Semi-durable finish containing ammonium polyphosphate was used as flame retardants in this study. Fe (II), Cu (II) and Mg (II) metal ions were introduced by this method. Flame retardancy of samples was measured by vertical srip test and cone calorimetry. Fe (II) and Mg (II) ions have been seen to be effective in this coating formulation.
|Keywords: Flame retardancy, Transition metal ions, Back coating.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 157 KB|
|Title: Preliminary Study of the Heat Release From Esterification Process|
|Author(s): Syed Azhar Syed AB. Rahman, Mohd Zailani Abu Bakar, Zainal Ahmad|
|Pages: 24-27||Paper ID: 104403-5656-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2010|
Abstract: Esterification is one of the popular processes in chemical engineering. Various important products are produceD from this reaction and their applications are varies. Esterification process can be classified as exothermic reaction where in every reaction; a few amount of heat will be released to the surrounding. Hence it is a quite simple reaction; the study on heat releases should not be exceptional. In this study, two different parameters (effect of different catalyst concentration and different operating temperature) are applied to determine the amount of heat release and the possibility of the reaction in creating runaway reaction. The study has selected an esterification reaction between acetic acid and methanol because of their well known reaction and it is a moderated exothermic process.
|Keywords: Esterification reaction, exothermic reaction, runaway reaction.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 132 KB|
|Title: Complex Resistivity of Shaly Sandstone: Study on Pressure and Saturation Effect|
|Author(s): Hilfan Khairy, Zuhar Zahir Tn. Harith|
|Pages: 28-35||Paper ID: 104103-7575-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2010|
Abstract: Measurement of complex resistivity was accomplished on shaly sandstones in low to medium frequency range from 1 Hz until 0.2 MHz. The experiment was conducted at any different partial water brine saturation and different confining pressure. Interfacial and water saturation were observed to evaluate their effect to electrical resistivity. It is found that a pore geometry change due to pressure is recognizable only by using imaginary resistivity rather than real resistivity in low water saturation. This reflects that confining pressure influence a small defect to pore geometry. Meanwhile, bulk volume conductivity is more dominant in high water saturation degree, thus the interfacial conductivity contribution become less important. Relaxation time and its distribution are then estimated by using joint inversion of real and imaginary resistivity. Cole-Cole model inversion is applied to obtain those parameters. It is applied the integration of Lavenberg-Marquardt and Singular Value decomposition (SVD) to avoid singularity problems. The result exposes time distribution decreases as confining pressure is increased from 1000 psi until 3000 psi.
|Keywords: Complex resistivity, Interfacial effect, Dispersion, Pore geometry, Confining pressure, Partial saturation.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 522 KB|
|Title: Application of Artificial Neural Network in Fault Detection Study of Batch Esterification Process|
|Author(s): Syed Azhar Syed AB. Rahman|
|Pages: 36-39||Paper ID: 104503-9898-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2010|
Abstract: The complexity of most chemical industry always tends to create a problem in monitoring and supervision system. Prompt fault detection and diagnosis is a best way to handle and tackle this problem. There are different methods tackling different angle already proposed in literature. One of the popular methods is artificial neural network which is a powerful tool in fault detection system. In this study, a production of ethyl acetate by a reaction of acetic acid and ethanol in a batch reactor is applied. The neural network with normal and faulty event is executed on the data collected from the experiment. The relationship between normal-faulty events is captured by training network topology. The ability of neural network to detect any process faults is based on their ability to learn from example and requiring little knowledge about the system structure.
|Keywords: Fault detection, artificial neural network, esterification process, batch reactor.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 124 KB|
|Title: Molten Metal-Slag-Refractory Reactions During Converting Process|
|Author(s): Hady Efendy, Mochamad Safarudin, Haeryip Sihombing|
|Pages: 40-43||Paper ID: 103303-8787-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2010|
Abstract: Magnesia–carbon (MgO-C) refractories are widely used in converter because of their favorable properties such as low wetting by corrosive steelmaking slags chemical compatibility with basic slags and better thermal properties. The molten slag is in contact with the refractory during the converting process, where temperatures >1450°C are common. Local convection currents develop near the slag–refractory–nickel mette–air intersection that leads to small-scale circulating flows that increase dissolution. In this report the effects of dissolution of MgO-C refractory samples into nickel matte and Fe2O3-SiO2-MgO slag were observation by optical microscope and SEM/EDS. The experimental results show that the rate of dissolution of MgO-C refractory materials increased with the temperature and immersion time. This supports the assumption that the diffusion of magnesium through the slag boundary layer formed around the refractory samples would be the rate-determining step. The formation of a thin oxide layer at the interface is due the reaction between magnesium vapor and the CO generated by the reaction MgO and C in the refractory walls. The oxide inclusions formed in the matte have been shown mainly to consist of MgO, Fe2O3 and a mixture of them. The rate of corrosion increased with temperature and immersion time and decreased when the slag was nearly saturated with MgO. The experimental results confirm the assumption that the diffusion of magnesium oxide through the slag phase boundary layer controls the corrosion process. The corrosion mechanism seems to be the dissolution of elements in the refractory materials into the slag, followed by penetration into the pores and grain boundaries. Finally, grains are loosened from the refractory into the slag.
|Keywords: Re-oxidation, converter, inclusions, refractory, molten slag, corrosion rate, corrosion mechanisms.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 548 KB|
|Title: Fully Automated Attendance Record System using Template Matching Technique|
|Author(s): Tabassam Nawaz, Amber Assad, Zunaira Khalil|
|Pages: 44-49||Paper ID: 108003-7474-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2010|
Abstract: This research paper “Fully Automated Attendance Record System using Template Matching Technique” focuses on the need to design a system that will automatically arrange the record and calculate the average attendance of each student. Manual attendance record system is not efficient and requires time to arrange record and to calculate the average attendance of each individual student. The Attendance Record System is intended to replace the manual model of attendance record keeping. The paper describes an efficient image processing algorithm that reads the scanned hard copy accurately and further calculates the absence or presence accordingly. In Image processing, noise is present in scanned images. This noise must be removed from scanned images. The Paper also describes a noise removal method that will remove noise efficiently from scanned images.
|Keywords: Median Filter, Region based segmentation, template matching, pattern recognition, convolution.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 401 KB|
|Title: The Method Review of Neuro-Fuzzy Applications in Fault Detection and Diagnosis System|
|Author(s): Syed Azhar Syed AB. Rahman, Fahmi Asyadi MD Yusof, Mohd Zailani Abu Bakar|
|Pages: 50-52||Paper ID: 104603-0202-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2010|
Abstract: As a result from the demanding of process safety, reliability and environmental constraints, a called of fault detection and diagnosis system become more and more important. This statement can be seen from literature covering different aspects and applications implementation. A variety of methods already proposed whether applied single or combined method. One of the feasible ways is by combining artificial neural network (ANN) and fuzzy logic (FL). This method gains a lot of attention from the researchers and viewed as a powerful method to solve problems in industrial application. This paper will discuss the applications of neuro-fuzzy in detection and diagnosis system covering their advantages and disadvantages.
|Keywords: Fault detection, fault diagnosis, neuro-fuzzy.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 223 KB|