|Title: System Dynamics Sustainability Model of Palm-Oil Based Biodiesel Production Chain in Indonesia|
|Author(s): Akhmad Hidayatno, Aziiz Sutrisno, Yuri M. Zagloel, Widodo W. Purwanto|
|Pages: 1-6||Paper ID: 110903-5656-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: The nature of biodiesel production itself is complex with multi-sectors and multi-actors conditions, and with addition of sustainability issues from various stakeholder, created a complex challenges for developing the biodiesel industry. In order to understand of the complexity, this research developed a comprehensive sustainability model to draw the relationships and analyze the effects of government policy for stimulating biodiesel industry using the combination methods of process mapping, financial modeling, life cycle analysis (LCA) and business sustainability strategy. The model combines its output translated into a complete sustainability index of financial, social and environment. The model simulation results show that accomplishment of a sustainable biodiesel production within the target and timeframe is impossible without releasing the subsidized price of diesel fuel and further directions from the government.
|Keywords: Biodiesel, system dynamics, sustainability.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 682 KB|
|Title: Co-combustion of Biosolids with Wood Pellets in a Wood Pellet Stove|
|Author(s): Murari Mohon Roy, Animesh Dutta, Kenny Corscadden, Peter Havard|
|Pages: 7-13||Paper ID: 112003-4545-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: Co-combustion of biosolids with coal or other biomass fuel can play a significant role in combustion facilities for energy production and waste management policy context. This paper presents the results of an experimental study to investigate the use of biosolids for co-combustion with wood pellets in a wood pellet stove. Fuel property, gas emissions and stove efficiency are compared. In regard to fuel properties, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and heating values are determined and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) are measured and compared. Pilot scale combustion tests revealed that co-combustion of 10% biosolids with 90% wood pellets resulted in successful combustion without any significant degradation of efficiency and emissions. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were found to be proportional with the N2 content in the fuel. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions were negligible.
|Keywords: Biosolids, co-combustion, wood pellet stove, performance and emissions.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 259 KB|
|Title: Comparative Analysis Between Conventional Pre-treatment and Bio-Preparation|
|Author(s): Ms. Sonia Hossain, Md. Koushic Uddin|
|Pages: 14-19||Paper ID: 112503-8787-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: The textile is a growing sector which traditionally requires huge amounts of water, energy, harsh chemicals, starting from pesticides for growing cotton to a variety of finishing chemicals, which results in high amounts of wash water in waste streams causing environmental burdens. Thus the desired textile processing procedures are those environmental friendly and economic ones that can save water, time and chemicals, yet preserve product qualities. Enzymes are known for their specificity, high efficiency and ability to work under milder conditions and thus inexorably provide a promising solution to those problems. This research paper focuses on a comparative analysis between the conventional pre-treatment processes with bio-preparations using enzymes. Since use of the gentle enzyme process replaces the need for harsh processing with sodium hydroxide and other harmful chemicals, there is less contribution to the textile effluent and gives a softer textile product.
|Keywords: Pre-treatment, Conventional process, Bio-preparation, Enzyme.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 720 KB|
|Title: Identification and Assessment of Key Risks and Power Quality Issues in Liberalized Electricity Markets in Europe|
|Author(s): Meldina Kokorovic Jukan, Admir Jukan, Amir Tokic|
|Pages: 20-26||Paper ID: 114303-8787-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: Electricity market liberalization in Europe has led to increase of risk types facing electricity utilities with emphasis on risk related to quality of power supply. Regardless of poor development of electricity markets in South-Eastern Europe (SEE), electricity utilities from this region will face the same type of risks, once these markets become fully operational. This means that electricity utilities need to be prepared to manage risks associated with liberalization. Since risk identification and assessment is the first and most important phase in risk management process, the goal of this paper is to identify and assess key risks associated with business operations of electricity utilities in liberalized electricity markets. The main contribution of this paper is to produce clear list of risks related to electricity market liberalization. This list of risks is used to provide recommendations for electricity utilities in SEE how to formulate risk management strategies in new market conditions.
|Keywords: Electricity markets, Power quality, Risk analysis, South-Eastern Europe.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 369 KB|
|Title: Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of an Impinging Synthetic Air Jet under Sinusoidal and Triangular Wave Forcing|
|Author(s): Harinaldi, Damora Rhakasywi, Rikko Defriadi|
|Pages: 27-34||Paper ID: 114603-6262-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: This research investigated the flow and convective heat transfer characteristics of an impinging synthetic jet with different excitation modes. The synthetic air jet was generated by a vibrating membrane which pushed out the air from the cavity through the exit nozzles with oscillatory motion. The main purpose of this synthetic jet was to create vortices pair to come out from nozzle which will accelerate the heat transfer process occurring at the impinged wall. This heat transfer enhancement principles became the basis to simulate an alternative cooling system to substitute the conventional fan cooling in electronic devices due to its advantage for having a small form factor and low noise. The investigation combined computational and experimental works. The model was simulated to examine the distribution of heat flow on the impinged walls using a turbulent model of k-? SST. Meshing order was elements Tet/Hybrid and type Tgrid and the number of grid was more than 230 000 in order to ensure detail discretization and more accurate calculation results. In the experiment, sinusoidal and triangular waveform were generated with a function generator to oscillate the membrane. The frequency of membrane vibration were 80 Hz, 120 Hz, 160 Hz and the velocity amplitude was 1 m/s. Some results indicated significant influence of the excitation waveform to the rate of heat transfer obtained.
|Keywords: Heat transfer, impinging wall, synthetic jet, sinusoidal wave, triangular wave.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 989 KB|
|Title: A Proposed Test Case Generation Technique Based on Activity Diagrams|
|Author(s): Pakinam N. Boghdady, Nagwa L. Badr, Mohamed Hashem, Mohamed F. Tolba|
|Pages: 35-52||Paper ID: 114703-5858-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: Software testing is an essential and integral part of the software development process. The testing effort is divided into three parts: test case generation, test execution, and test evaluation. Test case generation is the core of any testing process and automating it saves much time and effort as well as reduces the number of errors and faults. This paper proposes an automated approach for generating test cases from one of the most famed UML diagrams which is the activity diagram. The proposed model introduces an algorithm that automatically creates a table called Activity Dependency Table (ADT), and then uses it to create a directed graph called Activity Dependency Graph (ADG). The ADT is constructed in a detailed form that makes the generated ADG covers all the functionalities in the activity diagram. Finally the ADG with the ADT are used to generate the final test cases. The proposed model includes validation of the generated test cases during the generation process to ensure their coverage and efficiency. The generated test cases meet a hybrid coverage criterion in addition to their form which enables using them in system, regression as well as integration testing. The proposed model saves time and effort besides, increases the quality of generated test cases. The model is implemented on three different systems and evaluated to show its effectiveness.
|Keywords: Automatic test case generation, Model-Based Testing (MBT), Cyclomatic complexity and testing coverage criteria.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 1,416 KB|
|Title: Investigating The Impact of Emotional Intelligence On Technology Learning|
|Author(s): Abeer Hmoud Ali Al-Faouri|
|Pages: 53-67||Paper ID: 114903-5757-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the impact of interpersonal self-awareness, self-confidence, and self-discipline, as well as intrapersonal empathy, optimism, and social responsibility- emotional intelligence (EI) dimensions on technology learning process levels (TLP). An empirical study with a questionnaire, was conducted on 124 voluntary respondents from 10 IT organizations in Jordan. The findings indicated that the EI intrapersonal sub dimensions were responsible for 30% in variation of the TLP basic level. Only the self-discipline variable could predict average, advanced, and world-class TLP levels in comparison with optimism which significantly predicted the TLP levels except for the average one, which was predicted by the social responsibility variable. This study is the first study to investigate the relationship between EI and TLP levels. The outcomes provide an empirical support for an interesting parallel between the both. Moreover, the practical implications of this study suggest considering EI competences when selecting and promoting the IT staff; and when designing the TLP training programs.
|Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Interpersonal Intelligence, Intrapersonal Intelligence, Technology Learning Levels.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 675 KB|
|Title: Momordica Charantia Extraction by using Pressurized Boiling System and Compounds Identification through Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry|
|Author(s): Nazlina Zulbadli, Habsah Alwi, Ku Halim Ku Hamid|
|Pages: 68-72||Paper ID: 116003-4545-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: In this study, pressurized boiler had been set up to extract locally cultivated momordica charantia. Momordica charantia is one of the members of Cucurbitaceae species and known for its medicinal properties. The pressurized boiler used water as solvent to boil and extract sample. The optimum operational condition of this pressurized boiling system was studied. The pressure applied was at excess pressure which was above atmospheric pressure. The build-up of pressure in boiler was from the steam formed when the water boiled. Analysis of the extract was performed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify compounds in the extract. The result from this study showed that the highest yield was determined at pressure 2.5 bar. The result was compared with conventional method extractions which was Soxhlet extraction and boiling. It showed that pressurized boiler was effective to extract valuable compounds from momordica charantia.
|Keywords: Boiling, GC-MS, pressurized, momordica charantia.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 349 KB|
|Title: Effect of Stitch Length on Drape co-efficient for Rib Fabric|
|Author(s): Sheikh Nazmul Hoque, Md. Ershad Khan|
|Pages: 73-77||Paper ID: 116103-0909-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: Drape is the outstanding property of a textile fabric which distinguishes it from other materials such as paper, steel, is its ability to undergo large, recoverable draping deformation by bulking gracefully into rounded folds of single and double curvature. Drape is the term used to describe the way a fabric hangs under its own weight. It has an important bearing on how good a garment looks in use. The draping qualities required from a fabric will differ completely depending on its end use; therefore a given value for drape cannot be classified as either good or bad. Knitted fabrics are relatively floppy and garments made from them will tend to follow the body contours. Stitch length is one of the most important and significant parameters. It has influence on almost every other properties of knitted fabric. This paper is to find out the relationship between the stitch length and drape co-efficient of the fabric.
|Keywords: Drape, Drape co-efficient, Rib, Stitch length, Yarn count.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 409 KB|
|Title: Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation from Glycerol and Water using Pt loaded N-doped TiO2 Nanotube|
|Author(s): Slamet, Anny, Setiadi|
|Pages: 78-82||Paper ID: 116503-8282-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: Photocatalytic hydrogen generation from glycerol and water was investigated using the Pt loaded N-doped TiO2 Nanotube (Pt-N-TNT). TiO2 nanotube (TNT) was prepared via hydrothermal and calcination post-treatments. The TNT doped by nitrogen and platinum by impregnation and photo-assisted deposition (PAD) methods, respectively. The effects of glycerol concentration, morphology of TiO2 as well as type of dopants were inspected. The results showed that modified TiO2 photocatalyst (TNT) could produce more hydrogen compare to Degussa P-25 (TiO2 nanoparticle). UV-vis Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS) analysis also shows that N-TiO2 nanotube was more responsive in visible light, thus drastically more active in producing hydrogen by visible light. In other hand, Pt-N-TiO2 has a superior activity in producing hydrogen if using a UV light. Comparing with other results, these achievements are quite superior, especially for the N-doped TNT in visible light photo-producing hydrogen from glycerol and water.
|Keywords: Photocatalysis, TiO2, platinum, nitrogen, hydrogen, water splitting, glycerol.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 307 KB|
|Title: Temporal Analysis of Basal Stem Rot Disease in Oil Palm Plantations: An Analysis on Peat Soil|
|Author(s): Azahar T. M., Jawahir Che Mustapha, Mazliham S., Patrice Boursier|
|Pages: 83-88||Paper ID: 116903-8484-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: The analysis of plant disease, especially in spatial and temporal terms is very complex process but with the advancement in computer technology, the task has been simplified to large extent. Furthermore, the application of GIS in plant disease analysis is becoming more popular, precise and advanced day by day. GIS helps plant disease analysis in many ways. The primary use is to understand where disease is occurring and based on that preventive measure can be taken. Various analyses can be performed in GIS environment and maps can be derived to benefit a farmer for an effective and comprehensive management of plant disease. For this study, Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease in oil palm plantation was analyzed. BSR, one of the lethal diseases of oil palm is caused by ganoderma boninense. The disease can kill up to 80% of the stand by the time when the palms are halfway through their normal economic life span. In the present study, the choropleth map, then the interpolated density approach followed by statistical technique shows the various steps to move from overall scenario of disease to pin pointing the disease incident location or hotspot analysis. The study resolves that the hotspots generated by choropleth and density map can be refined and more precisely located with the help of spatial statistical approach. The data acquired from these hotspots can be utilized for the study of advanced analysis such as disease distribution pattern.
|Keywords: Basal Stem Rot (BSR), temporal, hotspots analysis, GIS.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 796 KB|
|Title: An Application Of Backpropagation Artificial Neural Network Method for Measuring The Severity of Osteoarthritis|
|Author(s): Dian Pratiwi, Diaz D. Santika, and Bens Pardamean|
|Pages: 89-92||Paper ID: 117303-8585-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: The examination of Osteoarthritis disease through X-ray by rheumatology can be classified into four grade of severity. This paper discusses about the application of artificial neural network backpropagation method for measuring the severity of the disease, where the observed X-ray range from wrist to fingers. The main procedures of system in this paper is divided into three, which are image processing, feature extraction, and artificial neural network process. First, an X-ray image digital (200x150 pixels and greyscale) will be thresholded, then extracted features based on probabilistic values of the color intensity of seven bit quantization result, and statistical textures. That feature values then will be normalizing to interval [0.1, 0.9], and then the result would be processing on backpropagation artificial neural network system as input to determine the severity of disease from an X-ray had input before it. From testing with learning rate 0.3, momentum 0.4, hidden units five pieces and about 132 feature vectors, this system had had a level of accuracy of 100% for learning data, 80% for learning and non-learning data, and 66.6% for non-learning data
|Keywords: Backpropagation, Feature Extraction, Normalization, Osteoarthritis .|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 306 KB|
|Title: Evaluation of Split Mastic Asphalt Mixture Using Materials from Borneo|
|Author(s): Ludfi Djakfar, Yulvi Zaika, Aloysius Greg. Lake|
|Pages: 93-100||Paper ID: 118703-4545-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: This study assessed the physical characteristics of the aggregate of Bulungan, Kutai and Banjar in Borneo, Indoensia, and evaluated its performance when used in split mastic asphalt (SMA) mixture using Marshall Characteristic and dynamic charateristics (resilient modulus). As many as 90 samples were prepared and tested to obtain its optimum asphalt content, Marshall characteristics, and resilient modulus. The results showed that mixture specimens using Banjar materials performed better than those from Kutai and Bulungan in terms of Marshall Characteristics. In terms of its resilient modulus, however, the results were inconclusive sincesamples from Banjar materials did not perfomed better than the others. In addition, their performance fell below mixture specimens prepared from Java material. Based on the resuls, therefore, these materials were not recommended to be used in stone mastic asphalt, which requires high performance materials. However, it still can be used for asphalt mixtures designed for use in local road in which heavy traffics do not dominate.
|Keywords: Split mastic asphalt, Bornoe local aggregate, Marshall test, indirect tensile test, resilient modulus.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 452 KB|
|Title: Trends and Issues to integrate ICT in Teaching Learning for the Future World of Education|
|Author(s): Md. Aktaruzzaman, Md. Rashedul Huq Shamim, Che Kum Clement|
|Pages: 101-106||Paper ID: 118603-0202-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: Student learning is the focus of teaching learning process. Theorists and practitioners have always been made concerted efforts to facilitate students learning by enhancing the quality of learning experiences. Emergence of learning theories over time reflects the concern of educators to explore process, factors and conditions involved in human learning. Application of predominant learning theories have always been changing and modifying the methods of teaching and learning. Research conducted on young people shows a remarkable trend. It indicates that children retain 20% of what they hear, 40% of what they see and hear and 75% of what they see and do. That’s one of the key reasons why the latest educational technology has become essential to impart education. They combine the use of several ICTs- internet, video, audio, graphics, text, images, etc. to offer students a near live experience of what is learning. In this paper efforts have been made to analyze the present situations in order to identify the constraints and possibilities in the use of ICT in teaching profession.
|Keywords: ICT, Education, Teaching-Learning.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 541 KB|
|Title: Efficient Path Planning in Semi-Fault Tolerant Robotics|
|Author(s): Nazifa Fatima, Intesar Ahmad, Kashif Imran, Muhammad Shuja Khan|
|Pages: 107-112||Paper ID: 116603-9090-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: Optimal solutions evolved by convergence of functional spatial geometry is easier to implement in simulations but is difficult to show in real time robotics due to environment constraints. In robotics when people simulate locality issues, they try to minimize the gradient of function. Hence, during the course of path taken by robot, it tries to converge to a minimal point and the point is given by some function. We provide an implementation based on A*-search path planning algorithm, which can easily utilize the localization capabilities and perform its path planning. The rescue robot is designed to aid workers in tasks such as rescue operations. This paper provides the implementation details of practical path-planning algorithm that was used to generate real time plans for an autonomous robots operating in an alien environments. In such an environment the obstacles are detected by the robots sensors by the help of which it update the belief of maps and compute the paths.
|Keywords: ICT, Education, Teaching-Learning.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 553 KB|
|Title: Beneficiation of Low Grade Iron Ore with Manganese Content as Raw Material for Ferro|
|Author(s): Kusno Isnugroho, David Candra Birawidha|
|Pages: 113-117||Paper ID: 1110403-7878-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: Iron ore beneficiation process research mostly examines iron ore with laterite type, magnetic type or hematite type. In Lampung provinces, there is iron ore with manganese content, where it potential to become ferro manganese that is important to the industry. Has been carried out with iron ore beneficiation process of iron and manganese content with the way gravity separator where the first process namely destruction of ore boulders up to 2-4 cm size using a jaw crusher. Further ore produced was crushed using a hammer mill until smooth, to get fine ores with higher numbers used in ball mill. The next carried screened in which obtained the largest percentage of weight on the size of - 20 + 40 mesh ,while the Fe content of the largest in size - 200 mesh is 29.2 %. The next stage was the concentration of gravity using a shaking table, the highest recovery is obtained at - 100 + 200 mesh of 66.43% with Fe content in concentrate 34.50%. The process of shaking table followed by a magnetic separator where the highest recovery is obtained at - 100 + 200 mesh of 83.12% with Fe content in concentrate 53.54%. By using magnetic concentration sample who have undergone the process of roasting at a temperature of 1000 oC have recovery results obtained at 88.5 % with Fe content in concentrate 60.52%, and 83.31 for Mn
|Keywords: Iron ore, flotation, manganese, gravity concentration, magnetic.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 749 KB|
|Title: Comparative Study of Fatigue Assessment Methods with and without Considering Residual Stress on Resistance Spot-Welded Unequal Sheet Thickness Stainless Steel|
|Author(s): Triyono, Jamasri, M. N. Ilman, R. Soekrisno|
|Pages: 118-122||Paper ID: 1111703-02-8686-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: This paper compares various fatigue assessment methods with and without considering residual stress on resistance spot-welded unequal sheet thicknesses-austenitic stainless steels between sheet thicknesses of 3.0 and 1.0 mm. A set of fatigue data were obtained from fatigue tests that carried out at a room temperature using a sinusoidal wave input with a constant stress amplitude whereas the stress ratio and frequency used were 0.1 and 8 Hz respectively. The modified Goodman equation was used to calculate the stress amplitude with considering residual stress at the edge of the spot weld nugget. Both based on nominal and net-section stress, consideration of residual stress on fatigue strength shift the S-N curves toward lower stress. The S-N curves shifting based on the net section was higher than that based on the nominal stress.
|Keywords: Austenitic stainless steel, fatigue, residual stress, resistance spot-welded, unequal sheet thickness.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 482 KB|
|Title: Tiro (Antimony-Sulphide) And Potash As Local Substitutes To Imported Barite And Lignosulphate In Drilling Mud Weighting Additives|
|Author(s): Adebayo, Thomas A., Imokhe, Omolegho|
|Pages: 123-127||Paper ID: 118803-6767-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: A variant of Antimony Sulphide, locally called Tiro (stibnite), which has been used locally for centuries by Northern Nigerian women as a beauty product was employed as a drilling mud weighting material, due to its weight and apparent health safety, as a substitute to expensive and imported Barite. Potash, locally called Kaun, was also used, as a local substitute to Lignosulphate, as a thinner in drilling mud. The implication of using the Tiro and potash were compared with that of barite and Lignosulphate respectively in this research. Results obtained show that less weight of Barite is needed for equivalent weight of Tiro as the mud weight increases and it was also observed that effect of Barite on mud pH is lower than that of corresponding Tiro. Unfortunately, it was observed that the effect of Barite on mud viscosity as weight of Barite in the mud increases has a dangerous effect on the viscosity of the mud. In the case of Tiro, viscosity of mud was maintained until a 5% weight of Tiro in mud. Viscosity is the measure of the ability of the mud to suspend drill cuttings and clean the well for faster drilling. Maintaining viscosity of drilling mud is of paramount importance and for a mud that is employed for drilling dangerous zone, Tiro may be a better alternative to barite if the safety of the well is of high consideration due to Tiro's lower negative effect on viscosity than barite. For the thinners, it was observed that both Lignosulphate and Potash have same reducing influence on weight of mud up to 1.58% weight component of the thinners in the mud mixture after which the potash caused a drastic reduction in mud density with increasing weight percentage of the additive. The two thinners had reducing effect on the pH of mud up to 0.67% weight of additive after which the pH of mud remains constant no matter the increase in percentage thinner additive weight. While potash caused a decrease of 8.7% in pH value, Lignosulphate caused an equivalent 12.6% reduction in mud pH value. This reduction in pH by weighting materials is significant because it makes the mud to become more acidic and pH of a drilling mud actually affects the performance of the mud. Usually mud pH is desirable between 8.0 and 9.0 for optimum hydration . This gives Potash more relevance than Lignosulphate. Also when there is need to rapidly reduce the mud density due to the possibility of lost circulation as a result of over-weight mud, especially when abnormal low pressure zone is encountered during drilling, potash will be a more effective thinner as it caused rapid reduction in mud density. From the observations and measurements carried out during this research, some model equations were proposed.
|Keywords: Tiro, Antimony sulphide, Potash, Lignosulphate, drilling mud, weighting additives and thinners.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 373 KB|
|Title: Simulation and Optimization Modeling Of Performance of a Cereal Thresher|
|Author(s): C. O. Osueke|
|Pages: 128-137||Paper ID: 117803-9494-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: This work presents a comprehensive mathematical model of the performance of a cereal thresher. The essence of this work is to improve on the performance of grain thresher through a model that will optimize the performance characteristics (velocity, crop feed rate, concave clearance, threshing drum impact force, crop flow rate) of a thresher and minimize its grain damage or losses. To achieve this, equations were derived which describe the threshing rate, threshing loss, grain damage, efficiency and threshing capacity. The equations were used to simulate and optimize the threshing performance of the model. The model was validated with published threshing performance data and it was found generally to fit well, taking R2 values equal to or greater than 0.9 which is highly significant (a=0.000). The developed model enables optimal parameters to be selected for a design in which the objective function (grain damage or losses) is minimized. At 16% moisture level, minimal loss is 3.6792% and efficiency of 92.32% while the performance characteristics are v = 9m/s, Q = 0.12kg/s, c = 0.015m,
|Keywords: Model, Optimal parameters, Performance, Threshing.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 993 KB|
|Title: The Effects of kv/kh on Gas Assisted Gravity Drainage Process|
|Author(s): B. K. Tham, B. D. Mehmet Raif, I. Mohd Saaid, E. Abllah|
|Pages: 138-163||Paper ID: 1111303-5858-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: Gelama Merah field is located in offshore west Sabah, Malaysia. Gas Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) was proposed to overcome the gravity segregation effect from continuous gas injection in the conventional horizontal flooding patterns as well as water shielding, decreased in oil relative permeability and reduced in gas injectivity which happened in Water-Alternating-Gas (WAG) process. This research was done based on heterogeneous reservoir, which has not yet been attempted by any published GAGD research. The objectives of the research are to investigate the effect of kv/kh on gravity segregation in the visual physical model; to study the effect of operating parameters on the oil recovery (RF) and breakthrough time; to visualize and understand the development of the downward movement towards the horizontal producer; to study the relationship of kv/kh to oil recovery and breakthrough time at their respective gravity number (NG); to scale up the production time to real reservoir condition; to compare the simulation results with laboratory results. Investigations have been done by using Schlumberger ECLIPSE 100 which have been prior history-matched with laboratory results. Results show that for heterogeneous reservoir, kv/kh of 0.8 show the highest RF (64.73 %ROIP). Since the gas density did not show a significant change in RF, it was suggested that compress gas might can be apply for GAGD process.
|Keywords: Enhanced oil recovery (EOR), gas-assisted gravity drainage (GAGD), vertical and horizontal permeability (kv/kh), Water-Alternate-Gas (WAG).|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 1,743 KB|
|Title: Numerical Investigation of flow through Annular Diffusing Duct|
|Author(s): P. K. Sinha, A. K. Das, B. Majumdar|
|Pages: 164-173||Paper ID: 113003-9292-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: ¬ In the present investigation the distribution of mean velocity, static pressure and total pressure are experimentally studied on an annular curved diffuser of 37.5° angle of turn with an area ratio of 1.273 at Reynolds number 1.85 x 105 based on inlet diameter and mass average inlet velocity. The experimental results then were numerically validated with the help of Fluent and then a series of parametric investigations are conducted with same centre line length and inlet diameter but with different area ratios varying from 1.25 to 2.0 with change in angle of turn from 30º to 75º.The velocity distribution shows high velocity fluids shifted and accumulated at the concave wall of the exit section due to the combined effect of velocity diffusion and centrifugal action. It also indicates the possible development of secondary motions between the concave and convex walls of the test diffuser. The maximum values of the mass average static pressure recovery and total pressure loss are 27% and 18% compared to the predicted results of 31% and 21% respectively, which shows a good agreement between the experimental and predicted results. From the parametric investigation it is observed that static pressure recovery increases up to an area ratio of 2 and pressure recovery decreases steadily up to angle of turn 75º. The coefficient of total pressure loss almost remains constant with the change in area ratio and angle of turn for similar inlet conditions.
|Keywords: Annular curved diffuser, k-e model, Fluent solver, Five-hole probe.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 529 KB|
|Title: Characterization of the Conducting Threads|
|Author(s): Lefayet Sultan Lipol|
|Pages: 174-179||Paper ID: 1111703-5050-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: The report describes resistance measurement of some novel conducting threads and the measurement method. All of the measurements were performed in the EMC Lab at SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås. The conducting threads were received from the Polymer Laboratory at School of Engineering, University of Borås. We measured two types of conducting threads (we named them A for PE-1292 and B for PE-1304) with a number of different draw ratios. The draw ratios were 4/24, 4/20, 4/16, 4/12 and 4/8. And they were named A1, A2, A3, A4 and A5 for sample PE-1292 of the draw ratios 4/24, 4/20, 4/16, 4/12 and 4/8 respectively. The same thing was applied for sample B. We measured 12 samples for each draw ratio. The conductive additive used for the two different types of threads was Carbon Black. The resistance was measured using two different methods: The two terminal measurement method and the four terminal measurement method. A result from the comparison of the two methods was that the two terminal measurement method provided more information than the four terminal method. There seemed to be no advantage using the four terminal method at all, for the studied resistance range. We also studied the non-linear behaviour of the resistance as function of the applied voltage as well as the thermal breakdown of the different samples of conducting fibre and the result is the samples are not conducting up to some lower applied voltages but they are conducting from a specific higher voltages. The large percentage of the samples could not bear the highest applied voltage 500V.They are showing the lower conductivity from the lower draw ratios to higher draw ratios.
|Keywords: Conducting fibres, two terminal resistance measurement method and four terminal resistance measurement method.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 531 KB|
|Title: Implementation of a Passive Tune Filter to Reduce Harmonics in Single Phase Induction Motor with Varying Load|
|Author(s): M. Shuja Khan, I. Intesar, M. S. Raheel, M. Babar Ali, U. Asad, M. Farid, U. Ahmed, P. Ali Ayub|
|Pages: 180-184||Paper ID: 119703-02-5454-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: Technology has its limitations and problems. Power generation and transmission systems also have some intricacies. Major hindrances involved in achieving efficient power transmission are the effect of harmonics that distorts the required waveform. The paper proposed a methodology that detects the harmonics present in the current drawn by the induction motor by analyzing current waveform through oscilloscope. And then design the harmonic filter using MATLAB programming and implement it on a single phase induction motor for removing the harmonics. The starting and overall performance of motor is important to all the applications. When the motor is started, it draws high starting current. This high current cause’s dip in the voltage therefore it is necessary to take into account the remedial measures to remove harmonics in single phase induction motor.
|Keywords: Induction Motor, MATLAB, Filters, Harmonics. Modeling.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 663 KB|
|Title: Dielectric Probe: a New Electrical Diagnostic Tool for Atmospheric Pressure Non-Thermal Plasma Jet|
|Author(s): A. Begum, M. Laroussi, M. R. Pervez|
|Pages: 185-191||Paper ID: 119703-4545-IJET-IJENS||Published: June, 2011|
Abstract: Atmospheric pressure, non-thermal plasma jet is a non-equilibrium plasma generated by electrical discharge, which is in general in room temperature. A new tool, dielectric probe is designed and used to diagnose the plasma properties of this plasma jet. To understand the jet propagation phenomenon, the plasma jet front velocity, jet current is measured by using this dielectric probe. The jet current density, reduced Electric Field (EF), and the electron density of the plasma jet along the jet axis are estimated from the current density and the jet velocity. Estimated electron density along the propagation phase of the plasma jet is in the order of 1011 cm-3 and reduced EF is around 250 Td.
|Keywords: Plasma diagnostic, Plasma jet, Non-equilibrium non-thermal plasma.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 729 KB|