|Title: Performance Investigation of the UTeM Eco-Car Disc Brake System|
|Author(s): M. K. Khalid, M. R. Mansor, S. I. Abdul Kudus, M. M. Tahir, M. Z. Hassan|
|Pages: 01-06||Paper ID: 114305-06-8989-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the braking performance of the UTeM Eco-Car disc brake system. The disc brake system utilized a single cross-drilled rotor with fixed calliper design. The brake system performance in term of its thermal property was determined in transient condition using ABAQUS CAE finite element analysis software. Results from the thermal analysis showed that the maximum temperature generated at the brake disc surface was 119.2oC, which is within the allowable service temperature of the disc material. This indicates that the UTeM Eco-Car disc brake system is able to perform safely as per design requirement.
|Keywords: Perodua Eco-Challenge, UTeM Eco-Car, Disc Brake System, Thermal Analysis.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 688 KB|
|Title: Measuring hospital’s units efficiency: A data envelopment analysis approach|
|Author(s): Adel Mohammed Al-Shayea|
|Pages: 07-14||Paper ID: 110106-8787-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is a fractional linear programming based technique that has gained wide acceptance in recent years due to its effectiveness in comparing efficiencies of departments, sectors, organizations, etc. The effectiveness of such techniques in measuring and comparing efficiencies of microeconomic systems, such as health and medical care industry, is debatable. In addition, managers of all health centers and hospitals in the last few years were keen to satisfy the needs of the out-patients and the in- patients of all kinds, and to give them a top quality service. The way to achieve this aim requires testing the performance and efficiency of every department in the health center or hospital. One technique which could be used to measure the efficiency of units such as general practices is Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). It is a well established technique for measuring the relative efficiencies of units delivering similar services. It has advantage of being able to deal with multidimensional nature of input/output variables. This technique is applied in this paper to study the performance and efficiency of King Khalid University Hospital departments. The results showed that only two departments out of nine have 100% efficiencies throughout the 12 months period.
|Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, departments' efficiency, Hospital units, out-patients clinics, in-patients clinics.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 279 KB|
|Author(s): Mohd Faiz Muaz Ahmad Zamri, Sharif Hussein Sharif Zein, Ahmad Zuhari Abdullah, Nor Irwin Basir|
|Pages: 15-21||Paper ID: 110506-9494-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: This paper reports the synthesis and characterisation of nanofibre composites consisting of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and manganese dioxide (MnO2) synthesised using the electrospinning process. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show the presence of MWCNT-MnO2 nanocomposites inside the PVA nanofibre, whereas the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) data revealed the cross linking network of the nanofibre composite obtained from the electrospinning process. The sizes of the pores of the nanofibre composite are smaller compared to those in the neat PVA nanofibre. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed the addition of MWCNT-MnO2 nanocomposite into PVA created interaction within the composite structure. The PVA/MWCNT-MnO2 nanofibre composites showed an enhanced electrical conductivity of 6.99×10-6 Scm-1compared to 5.26316 ×10-6 Scm-1 for PVA/MWCNT without MnO2 and 1.25 ×10-15 Scm-1 for neat PVA.
|Keywords: Nanofibre composite; electrospinning; electrical conductivity|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 1,016 KB|
|Title: Street and House Lighting Using Photovoltaic Panels|
|Author(s): Shara Kamal Mohammed, Rizgar Bakir Waly|
|Pages: 22-25||Paper ID: 110706-8383-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: In this work, the experimental investigation includes determination of (power output, monthly average daily energy generation, and efficiency) for the solar module (BP1211SR) at four different tilt angles (0º, 26º, 36º, 46º) in Erbil city (latitude=36º11' N, longitude=44º E, and 430m above sea level), also determining PV area required for demand loads after selecting the best tilt angle for Erbil city. The data has been taken for one year; the data of each month represents the average of (4-5) times in the month taken in three different day times. The experimental results show that maximum average energy production in Erbil city for one year is (781.080 W.h/m² day) recorded at angle (β=36º), resistance load (20Ω), and at solar noon (ω=0). The area required for the PV module depends on the demand load, and type of solar module, for example for house lighting (5A, 220V, for 6 hours) it will need (18.5m²) PV area, for street lighting a lamp of (200W, for 10 hours) need (5.6m²) PV area, and finally for DC power of (5A, 12V, for 6 hours) it needs (1m²) PV area.
|Keywords: Photovoltaic, solar system, lighting|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 974 KB|
|Title: The influence of different casting method on solidification time and mechanical properties of AL- Sn castings|
|Author(s): Eman J. Abed|
|Pages: 26-33||Paper ID: 110806-7474-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: Solidification time is one of the very important parameters used for assessing the properties of the material. Aluminum casting alloys with tin as the major alloying elements are the most important commercial casting alloys because of their superior casting characteristics. This paper presents influence of different casting method on solidification time and mechanical properties of Al-(20%-40%) Sn alloys against both the molding conditions and tin content. Experimental investigation is carried out to measure the solidification time in cylindrical parts by using sand and die casting methods. The results showed different cooling rates and solidification times can produce substantial variation in the resulting structure and properties. However, decrease of both the ultimate tensile strength and the hardness is obtained by the increase of the tin content. For instance, die casting, which uses metal molds, has faster cooling and produces higher-strength castings than sand casting, which uses a more insulating mold material.
|Keywords: Solidification time, die, sand, AL-Sn alloy, properties|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 755 KB|
|Title: An Empirical Study About the Use and Implementation of Software in Statistics at Higher Education Institutions|
|Author(s): Said Taan El Hajjar|
|Pages: 34-41||Paper ID: 111006-3939-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: This study inspects features influencing the use and implementation of software in statistics at Higher Education Institutions with lectures learned from Ahlia University(AU) and the Arts, Sciences and Technology University of Lebanon(AUL).The aim of this research article was to examine and determine the factors which promote the use of statistical software in developing the teaching-learning process, and try to find out if it is possible to predict student capability for vocation success. Although the survey was done on two universities and we must be careful with final conclusions from the research group, the research shows that, in terms of technological competence, it is possible to predict student capability for vocation success in the practical line of works. The results were supported by experimental designs and statistical analysis outputs.
|Keywords: Knowledge, software, statistics, technology, understanding|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 726 KB|
|Title: Design of n-Butane Radial Inflow Turbine for 100 kW Binary Cycle Power Plant|
|Author(s): Bambang Teguh P., Suyanto, Taufan Surana, Panca Kurniawan, Euis Djubaedah, Kornel Ola|
|Pages: 42-46||Paper ID: 111106-7373-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BBPT) has successfully developed a model of a 2 kW binary cycle power plant using brine as a heat source. The working fluid using in this model is n-pentane. The type of turbine used is a single stage axial flow. This model was tested at Wayang Windu geothermal field. Based on these successes experience, BPPT further develop larger models for binary cycle power plant i.e. 100 kW with a working fluid is n-butane. For the purposes of this study, the design of an n-butane radial inflow turbine was carried out. Turbines are designed to operate with the following data: inlet pressure 21.8 bar, outlet pressure 4.5 bar, inlet temperature 120 oC, mass flow 2.49 kg/s, electric power output 100 kW, and turbine power 141 kW. From a design analysis, the turbine used is a single stage radial inflow turbine, 500 mm rotor diameter, 26 number of blades, 9.7 mm inlet width of blade, and 4.9 mm outlet width of blade. This turbine is designed to operate at 6000 rpm and 79.43 % of turbine efficiency.
|Keywords: Binary cycle plants, brine, n-butane, radial inflow turbine|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 869 KB|
|Title: Effects of Temperature Dependent Conductivity on Natural Convection Flow along a Vertical Wavy Surface with Heat Generation|
|Author(s): M. A. Alim , Shahidul Alam, M. Miraj|
|Pages: 47-54||Paper ID: 111406-7676-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: In this paper, the effect of temperature dependent thermal conductivity on natural convection flow of viscous incompressible fluid along a uniformly heated vertical wavy surface with heat generation has been investigated. The governing boundary layer equations are first transformed into a non-dimensional form using suitable set of dimensionless variables. The resulting nonlinear system of partial differential equations are mapped into the domain of a vertical flat plate and then solved numerically employing the implicit finite difference method, known as Keller-box scheme. The numerical results of the surface shear stress in terms of skin friction coefficient and the rate of heat transfer in terms of local Nusselt number, the stream lines as well as the isotherms are shown graphically for a selection of parameters set consisting of thermal conductivity variation parameter g, heat generation parameter Q and Prandtl number Pr. Some results of the skin friction coefficient and the rate of heat transfer have been presented in tabular form and comparison of numerical results with other published data has been shown in other table.
|Keywords: Natural convection, heat transfer, wavy surface, temperature dependent thermal conductivity, heat generation|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 702 KB|
|Title: Selection of appropriate ring traveller number for different count of cotton hosiery yarn|
|Author(s): Jamal Hossen, Subrata Kumar Saha|
|Pages: 55-61||Paper ID: 111906-8585-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: Traveller has a great impact on yarn quality parameters specially hairiness. Yarn quality varies due to different traveller number. The traveller imparts twist to the yarn and enables winding of the yarn on the cop. However, cooperating assembly, the spindle is required for the winding operation. High contact pressure (up to 35 N/mm2) is generated between the ring and traveller during winding, mainly due to centrifugal force. This research was established according to yarn parameter of hairiness, U%, IPI, i.e. imperfection index and end breakage rate per 1000 spindle-hr. It is very important for the technologist to understand this and act on them to optimize the yarn production. Specific number of traveller should be used for a particular count of yarn.
|Keywords: Traveller number, carded yarn, combed yarn, Uster Tester, hosiery yarn|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 463 KB|
|Title: Producing Slow Release Urea by Coating with Starch/Acrylic Acid in Fluid Bed Spraying|
|Author(s): Suherman, Didi Dwi Anggoro|
|Pages: 62-66||Paper ID: 112506-7474-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: The controlled release technology by coating for increasing the efficiency of fertilizer can reduce fertilizer’s losses and minimize environmental pollution. Starch mixed with acrylic acid, PEG and water were used as coating solution. The coating process of granular urea was conducted in fluid bed spray coater. The influence of bed temperature, and concentration of starch on properties of coated urea product was investigated. Microscopic analysis by SEM shows the formation of a thin layer on the surface of coated urea product that has a different morphology, more compact, and any irregularities of the crystal. The dissolution rate of the product decraesed with increasing concentration of starch and decreasing bed temperature. The percent coating of the product increased with increasing concentration of starch and decreasing bed temperature. The dustiness of the product increased with increasing starch concentration and bed temperature.
|Keywords: Coating, controlled release, fluid bed, spraying, starch, urea|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 669 KB|
|Title: Adsorption and Kinetic Modelling of The Uptake of Water from Ethanol – Water Systems using Starchy Adsorbents|
|Author(s): Okewale, A.O., Etuk, B.R., Igbokwe, P.K.|
|Pages: 67-74||Paper ID: 112906-0707-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: In this work adsorption and kinetic modelling of the uptake of water from ethanol – water mixtures using starchy adsorbents was undertaken. These include modified cassava starch (MSAD), cassava starch (CSAD), cassava pellet (CPAD), and cassava shred (ABAD). The kinetic data were obtained in a finite volume bath cell circulation at room temperature (28oC). Five kinetic models including First order, Pseudo – first order, Pseudo – second order, Pore diffusion and Elovich equations were tested for uptake of water by these starchy adsorbents from ethanol – water systems. The results revealed that the adsorbents types and molecular diffusion of water molecules on the surface of the adsorbents play an important role in the uptake of water by these adsorbents. The performance of the adsorbents for the net uptake of water was found to be in the order; MSAD> CSAD> CPAD> >ABAD.
|Keywords: Cassava based Adsorbents, Ethanol, Adsorption, Kinetic|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 474 KB|
|Title: Optimization of doubling at draw frame for quality of carded ring yarn|
|Author(s): Subrata Kumar Saha, Jamal Hossen|
|Pages: 75-80||Paper ID: 112006-9595-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: Sliver has a huge impact on yarn quality parameter like evenness, imperfection index, Cvm%, U% of yarn. In general doubling means the increase in weight per unit length. Doubling is a process used in yarn manufacturing by which a single product is produced from a several intermediate feed product. The study was performed on 0.12 hank card sliver which was used to produce 24/1 Ne carded yarn. At first the number of doubling in the breaker and finisher drawing was 6, 7, and 8 respectively. The paper is to find out whether the change of number of doubling has any effect on yarn quality or to find out the suitable number of sliver doubling in passage 1 and passage 2.
|Keywords: Doubling, Draft, Hairiness, count, unevenness, imperfection index|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 266 KB|
|Title: Mechanical and Damping Properties of Silicon Bronze Alloys for Music Applications|
|Author(s): I Ketut Gede Sugita, R. Soekrisno, I Made Miasa, Suyitno|
|Pages: 81-85||Paper ID: 114706-9393-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: An alloy for musical instruments should have high enough strength, hardness, specific elastic properties and low damping capacity. The high tin bronze alloys with composition 20-22 wt.% Sn has good acoustical properties, which is capable of producing long-lasting slowly damping vibrations but there is brittle materials. Cracks and fracture may appear on these materials. The study on mechanical and acoustic characteristic becomes the primary consideration in determining the new material as a musical instrument. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of silicon fraction of Cu-(2.5-7.5) wt. % Si on mechanical and acoustical properties of bronze alloys for music instruments. As-cast Cu-(2.5-7.5) wt. % Si were cut from 250 x 55 x 15 mm of billet and manufactured for tensile, hardness, impact, and damping test specimen. Simply supported beam model was used for measuring damping capacity. Mechanical and damping properties of silicon bronze (Cu-Si) were studied. Investigation of bronze 20 wt. % Sn alloys was conducted as comparison. The results show that the mechanical properties and damping capacity of Cu-xSi is higher than Cu-20 wt. % Sn bronze alloys. The ductility and impact strength of silicon bronze also higher than this of tin Cu-20 wt.% Sn. It is recommended that Cu (5-7.5) wt. % Si are suitable to substitute tin bronze (Cu-20 wt.% Sn) for music instrument applications.
|Keywords: Tin bronze, silicon bronze, mechanical properties and damping capacity|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 649 KB|
|Title: Finite Element Modeling for Thermal Stresses Developed in Riveted and Rivet-Bonded Joints|
|Author(s): Essam A. Al-Bahkali|
|Pages: 86-92||Paper ID: 115306-5757-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: A three-dimensional finite element modeling is developed using ABAQUS® software. This includes riveted and rivet-bonded joints models. Both models undergo thermal heat caused by hot-driven rivet process and then are subjected to a constant velocity at one of its strip edges to simulate the shear tensile test up to the failure point. The developed FE models were based on elastic-plastic properties and ductile fracture limit criteria. In addition, the adhesive layer was modeled based on traction separation. Detailed experiments were conducted to evaluate these material properties and provide the FE developed models with these necessary data. The thermal stresses developed in riveted and rivet-bonded joints are assessed and reported. The present work shows that introducing an adhesive layer to riveted joints vastly reduces the stresses developed in these joints. In addition, the complete load-displacement curve for each joining model is obtained and compared with the finite element models without including the effect of thermal analysis.
|Keywords: Adhesive Layer, Load-Displacement Curve, Rivet, Rivet-Bonded, Thermal Stresses|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 1,100 KB|
|Title: Effects Of Combed And Carded Yarn On Weft Knitted Finished Fabric Quality|
|Author(s): Nasrin Akter, Nahida Akter|
|Pages:93-97||Paper ID: 112306-0909-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: Yarn is the fundamental unit of fabric. Yarn contains a lot of properties (variables) which can affect knitted fabric finished quality. Carded and combed yarns of same count have many different properties because of different manufacturing process. Combed yarn is of superior quality and carded yarn is of inferior quality. The main purpose of this paper is to find out or investigate carded and combed yarn effect on knitted fabric finished quality such as GSM, Shrinkage, Spirality, Resistance of Pilling and Color fastness properties.
|Keywords: Combed, Carded, Single jersey, Rib, Interlock, GSM, Spirality, Shrinkage, Color fastness|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 379 KB|
|Title: Development of a Dropped Weight Impact Testing Machine|
|Author(s): Leonardo Gunawan, Tatacipta Dirgantara, Ichsan Setya Putra|
|Pages: 98-104||Paper ID: 115606-9393-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: This article presents the development of a dropped weight impact testing machine. The machine was developed as a facility to provide experimental data to validate numerical simulations of impact loads on crash boxes, parts of car structure that absorb kinetic energy during collision. The dropped weight impact machine was designed to produce impact load to a specimen that represents a crash box. The machine was equipped with sensor systems to measure the velocity of the impactor just before it hit the specimen and the force that crushed the specimen, and with a data acquisition system to record the crushing force for further analysis. The development process included the design, fabrication, and function tests of the machine. The function tests performed after the machine was built indicated that the dropped weight impact testing machine can fulfill the design objectives. Results of several experiments using specimens in form of columns with square, hexagonal, octagonal and circular cross sections showed that the experimental results are in good agreements with the results of impact simulations carried out using Finite Element Method.
|Keywords: Crash box, design, impact load, experiments|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 585 KB|
|Title: Correlating Driver Characteristics and Behavior to Radar Related Traffic Accidents Using Simulation|
|Author(s): Noha M. Hassan|
|Pages: 105-116||Paper ID: 116706-9595-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: One of the reasons that contribute to unsafe traffic is the credibility of the speed limit from the driver’s perspective. The objective of this research is to correlate the driver physical characteristics to his perception to the set speed limits and behavior towards traffic enforcement systems. A survey was distributed in Abu Dhabi (the capital of the United Arab Emirates) among drivers aged from 18 to 50 to collect information on their personal characteristics, response to the set traffic speed limits and driving response when encountering photo radar located in rural as well as highway streets. Real life data was gathered from different radar locations monitoring the driver speed before and after radar. A model was developed to simulate the driver behavior near a radar location and calculate the number of vehicles violating the 3 seconds rule as a result. The gathered data from the survey and field was embedded into the developed model to represent the variability in speed and response as a function of the driver characteristics. In addition to correlating the response to the driver characteristics, results highlighted the group with higher contribution to traffic accidents. Results revealed that the driver behavior has a great impact on the traffic safety. The way the driver responds may lead to more disastrous consequences if not properly thought. Recommendations are proposed for countermeasure development.
|Keywords: Driving Safety, Risk Perception, Radar, Driver Characteristics, Simulation|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 853 KB|
|Title: The Effect of Variation Index Plasticity and Activity in Swelling Vertical of Expansive Soil|
|Author(s): Agus Tugas Sudjianto, Kabul Basah Suryolelono, Ahmad Rifa’i, Indrasurya B Mochtar|
|Pages: 117-123||Paper ID: 117106-9595-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: The expansive soil will swelling upon wetting and shrinngking to drying. This behavior can damage on construction structures, particularly, light building and road. The phenomenom is very interesting to be researched, how far the effect of variation plasticity index and actiyity toward the behavior swelling of expansive soil. The material expansive soil of selected from Soko Ngawi region East Java Privince. For to make variation of plasticity index and activity, soil from Soko (Ngawi) mixed with Na-bentonite. The research of swelling is done using remolded with diameter 6.35 cm and high 1.50 cm, with initial water content 32% and dry density 1.26 g/cm3 with Oedometer tools. The results of research indicate, the plasticity index and activity have linear relation wuth swelling vertical.
|Keywords: The expansive of clay, Na-bentonite, plasticity index, activity, swelling vertical|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 804 KB|
|Title: A Decision Chart for Applying Integrated Technologies Throughout Urban Design Projects Stages|
|Author(s): Sherif M. El-Wageeh|
|Pages: 124-130||Paper ID: 118306-7575-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: Recent years have witnessed a rapid development in the technologies that are related to digital visualization and simulation together with the technologies that try to link between digital and physical modelling. Many engineering and design practitioners have begun to apply selective technologies in their practices. The research attempts to classify the possible technologies that can be used throughout stages of urban design projects according to their purpose. An overview of different applications of such technologies in urban design is conducted. A decision-making chart for engaging technology in different stages of urban design projects is developed.
|Keywords: Collaborative work, Data Acquisition, Simulation, Urban Design|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 469 KB|
|Title: Prototype Cloud Computing for E-Government in Indonesia|
|Author(s): Taqwa Hariguna|
|Pages: 131-134||Paper ID: 119306-4747-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: e-government is not something new in Indonesia, its existence has been around since early 2003, but its implementation has not touched the perceived roots of the problem, a lot of funds issued for the procurement of e-government infrastructure, but its benefits have not been much felt by the people. At its two factors cause the failure of e-government, the first human resources that are not ready, the second an expensive infrastructure. Cloud computing can be used as a reference to reducing the e-government failure which caused both of these factors, by using the SOA model will provide a new solution for e-government in Indonesia.
|Keywords: Cloud Computing, E-government, SOA|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 262 KB|
|Title: Phytochemical Analysis and Mineral Elements Composition of Ocimum Basilicum obtained in JOS Metropolis, Plateau State, Nigeria|
|Author(s): Daniel, V. N.; Daniang, I. E.; Nimyel, N. D.|
|Pages:135-137||Paper ID: 1110006-8989-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: Phytochemical screening of aqueous extract and elemental analysis of Ocimum basilicum were carried out with the view to assess the therapeutic value and the safety of the plant. The result revealed the presence of saponins, tannins and cardiac glycosides in the plant. The mineral composition indicated high concentrations of potassium, K, (28770mg/kg), calcium, Ca, (17460mg/kg) and appreciable concentrations of sodium, Na, (280mg/kg) and magnesium, Mg, (266mg/Kg). It is therefore concluded that, ocimum basilicum contains bioactive compounds and minerals that could enhance the curative process of health.
|Keywords: Ocimum basilicium, Phytochemicals, Mineral Elements, Therapcutic value|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 289 KB|
|Title: Reducing the Mechanical Wear in a Dusty Environment (Cement Factory)|
|Author(s): A. M. Sheikh, M. I. Khashaba, W. Y. Ali|
|Pages: 138-144||Paper ID: 1110606-3535-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: The solid particle contamination is a challenge for the cement industries due to the highly dusty environment. The contaminants cause severe wear between moving surfaces and this in turn leads to rapid mechanical failure of the machine elements. The solid particle contaminants get into the lubricant among the metal surfaces due to the environmental conditions. The conditions get more severe in cement factories due to the excessively dusty atmosphere leading to high rates of mechanical component failure. In this study, the effect of solid contaminants on the wear process for a cement factory was experimentally quantified. Several contaminants were collected from different areas in the cement factory including the air cooled slag with low ferric particles, fatty clay, sandy clay, water cooled slag with medium ferric particles, lime stone, iron ore and air cooled slag with high ferric particles. HDPE, LDPE, MoS2, Al Powder, PTFE, and PMMA were used as lubricant additives in paraffin oil to reduce the effect of the solid contaminants. The experiments were carried to reproduce the working conditions in the factory and the results were obtained using cross pin wear tester. The performances of the pure and mixed lubricant were tested and the results showed significant reduction in wear with the addition of the proposed lubricant additives into the oil.
|Keywords: Lubrication, solid particle contaminants, three body friction|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 868 KB|
|Title: Development of Small Scale Equipment for Depulpping Locust Bean Seeds|
|Author(s): J. O. Olaoye|
|Pages: 145-154||Paper ID: 1110306-8484-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: This study focused on the development of small scale equipment for depulpping of locust bean seeds. Processing of African locust bean seed starts with the pretreatment of the harvested fruit before the seed can be converted into its numerous derivatives. Depulpping of locust bean seed is a crucial pretreatment operation, preceding fermentation of the seed. This operation is tedious, time consuming and energy sapping for women and children that are involved in the processing of locust bean. Small Scale equipment for depulpping of African locust bean seed was designed, constructed and tested. Techno-economic status of the women in the rural areas who are directly involved in the processing of locust bean and its derivatives was taken into consideration. The depulpping machine comprises of a vertical cylindrical tank, cylindrical sieve and a vertical rotating shaft which carries both the paddles and brushes. The vertical shaft was mounted at the central axis of the depulpping unit. The machine has a capacity to depulp 10 kg of locust bean seed during a unit batch operation. Five levels of soaking time corresponding to five levels of locust bean moisture contents and five levels of shaft speeds were tested. Test results indicated that the depulpping efficiency varied between 64 and 98 %. The seed membrane damage and seed loss were less than 5 and 9.2% respectively at 45 minutes soaking time and at 350 rpm depulpping shaft speed. The maximum power requirement was 2.25 kW at a shaft speed of 550 rpm. The operating conditions of shaft speed at 350 rpm, 45 minutes soaking time indicated higher depulpping efficiency, lower seed membrane damage and seed loss during depulpping operation. Result of process performance showed that the final depulpping process compared favourantly with that of traditional method.
|Keywords: Depulpping, Locust Bean, Soaking Time, Fermentation|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 434 KB|
|Title: Kinetic Methods Applied to the Assessment The Life Time of Artillery Powders|
|Author(s): Mohammed J. Barzanjy|
|Pages: 155-158||Paper ID: 119606-2727-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: An artillery powder undergoes slow exothermic decomposition because of their nature, even at moderate temperature. Nitrate esters and especially Nitrocellulose are not stable in nature. Add a certain amount of stabilizer material to the artillery powder to prevent a self - acceleration of its decomposition. Such a product, generally Diphenylamine or Centralite, reacts with nitrogen oxides evolving during the degradation and absorbs them. When it is fully consumed, there is some auto – ignition risks and then the powder is considered to be dangerous. So the predication of time when such a phenomenon happens would be much appreciated. Chemical kinetic methods have been proposed 20 years ago by Jack and Trenchant. Recent progress, especially in an analytical chemistry, allows us to re – examine the question. Stability tests, now performed on artillery powder, give only and even not always an idea of real stability of the product which may be defined as the slowness of its decompositions. They do not allow assessing any life time value. Only Stan ( 60 days of artificial aging at 65.5 oC and spectro – photometric determination of stabilizer content decrease ) assures a 5 years life time in normal storage conditions as positive. All usual tests involve high temperatures and their results can not be easily connected with the real stability of powders. Moreover, the determination of life time of powder requires several experiments. It is possible to manufacture an artillery powder satisfying stability tests and, in fact, being instable. Therefore; there is a need to define a scientific method assessing the life time of an artillery powder.
|Keywords: Artillery Powders, Kinetic Methods|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 224 KB|
|Title: Plane Turbulent Wall Jets in Limited Tailwater Depth|
|Author(s): Shazy A. Shabayek|
|Pages: 159-163||Paper ID: 1111206-4848-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: This paper presents laboratory study of plane turbulent wall jets with finite tailwater depth. The main objective was to show that there is a distinct difference between the behavior of wall jets with relatively shallow and those with relatively deep tailwater depth ratios. A set of six experiments, with tailwater depth ratios varying from 5.3 to 20, were conducted to observe and quantify the growth of the wall jet, the decay of the velocity scale and the variation of the volume flux, and momentum flux. The results from these experiments were compared with previous studies with relatively deeper tailwater depth ratios. This study contributes to an understanding of the behavior of plane turbulent wall jets when the ambient fluid has a limited extent.
|Keywords: Turbulent flow, Wall jets, Tailwater|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 507 KB|
|Title: Influence of milling time on the microstructure and mechanical properties of nanostructured Al–7% Si alloy|
|Author(s): A. A. Ebnalwaled, M. Abou Zied|
|Pages: 164-170||Paper ID: 117306-8282-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2011|
Abstract: The microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-7%Si alloy prepared by ball milling technique under different milling time were studied. The results indicate that the grain size decrease with increasing the milling time, the average dislocation density, r, was found to exhibit a drastic increases by increasing the milling time, the median diameter, m decreases, while the value of width parameter,s is approximately constant with increasing the milling time. The value of Vickers hardness (HV) increases by increasing milling time, this increase was attributed to the refinement of grains with increasing milling time.
|Keywords: Ball milling, Nanocrystalline, Microstructure, Microhardness and Al–Si alloys|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 348 KB|