|Title: Electrical Behavior of Garut Citrus Fruits During Ripening Changes in Resistance and Capacitance Models of Internal Fruits|
|Author(s): J. Juansah, I W. Budiastra, K. Dahlan, K. B. Seminar|
|Pages: 01-08||Paper ID: 121404-5757-IJET-IJENS||Published: August, 2012|
Abstract: The electrical behavior of Garut citrus fruits have been studied using impedance measurement at various levels of acidity, firmness, and frequencies. This research has been done as a step in order to study the internal citrus properties that do not damage it. So, the aim of the present study was to investigate the behavior of electrical properties and modeling of citrus fruits including internal resistance and its capacitance changes using nondestructive test. Electrical circuit models have been constructed using series and parallel configurations adopted from literature. The new model has been constructed on the based of the internal structure of citrus fruits. In the specific parameters of the resistor and capacitor which describes the internal condition of fruit, the results of simulations have high compatibility and the best deterministic coefficient is the new model. Profile graphs of electrical modeling results have shown the same form with the experimental results. Electrical conductance of intact citrus Garut increased exponentially while the impedance and capacitance decreases exponentially when the frequency is increased. The acidity and firmness changes lead to changes in internal electrical properties of Garut citrus fruits. Based on the new model, membrane capacitance and tissue resistance also can describe the acidity and firmness phenomenon of fruits. The resistances of part component of circuit model were declined as pH increases. While, both of capacitance and pH have positive correlations. In the firmness phenomenon, both of firmness and resistance have a line change, where increasing firmness, it also increases the value of resistance. But it not happens in capacitance behavior as firmness change. The capacitances were decreased as firmness improved.
|Keywords: Electrical impedance spectroscopy, Electrical models, Membrane capacitance, and Garut citrus|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 219 KB|
|Title: Uranyl Nitrate induce histological changes in the Kidney|
|Author(s): Widad Jumaa Hamid|
|Pages: 09-13||Paper ID: 123203-04-4545-IJET-IJENS||Published: August, 2012|
Abstract: Although the kidneys are the main target organs for uranium (U) toxicity, the aim of the present study is to examine the histological changes in kidney’s rats administrated with uranyl nitrate compared with controls by light microscope. The present study was carried out on 60 albino rats. 20 animals control and 40 animals were administrated with 75mg/Kg body weight of uranyl nitrate (UN ) per day orally for one month Half the animals sacrificed on 30nd day(group1). Small pieces of kidney were procured, fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections of 5 µ thickness were cut and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin for general morphology. The remain animals (group2) were left for another month and used the same treatment of (group1) after two months of the experiment this treatment added as long term study. Significant histological changes were observed. Significant increment changes were observed in kidney’s rats treated with uranyl nitrate for two months more than kidney’s rats treated with uranyl nitrate for one month, degenerative changes were seen more in cortex as compared to medulla .Hemorrhage and inflammatory cell reaction was also observed in cortex, tubular necrosis were seen. Melanodyldehyd (MDA) as Lipid Peroxidation was significantly higher in homogenized kidney’s tissue of rats than in the controls, while (GSH) was significantly lower in homogenized kidney’s tissue of rats than in the control subjects.
|Keywords: Uranyl nitrate, Uranium toxicity, Histopathological changes in kidney, kidney toxicity|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 1604 KB|
|Title: Treatment of Wastewater Contaminated with Nickel using Khulays Activated Bentonite|
|Author(s): S. S. Al-Shahrani|
|Pages: 14-18||Paper ID: 123804-4545-IJET-IJENS||Published: August, 2012|
Abstract: This research project investigates the application of Khulays activated clay (bentonite) to remove nickel from wastewater. The removal characteristics of nickel ions from wastewater using Khulays activated bentonite were investigated under various operating variables like shaking time, solution pH, clay dosage and initial metal concentration. The results showed that the sorption of nickel ions on Saudi activated clay was relatively fast and the equilibrium was reached after 40 min. They also showed that increasing the initial nickel concentration decreased nickel removal percentage due to the saturation of clay with nickel ions. Furthermore, the adsorption of nickel increases from 70 to 100 % with an increase in solution pH from 2.0 to 9.0. The adsorption isotherm data were well fitted with both the linearized Langmuir and Freundlich models. Nickel adsorption onto Saudi activated bentonite was well represented by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.
|Keywords: Removal of nickel, Saudi bentonite, adsorption of nickel, heavy metals removal, adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetic|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 261 KB|
|Title: Verification of 3-D Stereoscopic PIV Operation and Procedures|
|Author(s): Normayati Nordin, Safiah Othman, Vijay R. Raghavan, Zainal Ambri Abdul Karim|
|Pages: 19-26||Paper ID: 125804-9595-IJET-IJENS||Published: August, 2012|
Abstract: Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a non-intrusive, whole-field velocity measurement technique that has been used since the mid-1980s. The accuracy, flexibility and versatility offered by PIV systems have made them extremely valuable tools for flow studies. 3-D stereoscopic PIV is the package capable of measuring 3-dimensional velocity components. It involves a very sophisticated routine during setup, calibration, measurement and data processing phases. This paper aims to verify the procedures of operation used for 3-D stereoscopic PIV measurements. This is important to ensure that the best data representation with low associated uncertainty is obtained. A free-diffuser inlet of rectangular cross-section, 14.2 cm x 6.2 cm, with known local air velocities (i.e. measured using pitot-static probe), is presently considered. The flow is assumed to be fully developed turbulent since sufficient hydrodynamic entry length, 4.4DhRe1/6< Lh,turb < 50Dh and Reynolds Number, Re>10000 are introduced. Images that are captured by CCD cameras are interpreted using Dantec Dynamic software providing 3-dimensional velocity vectors. The velocities obtained from PIV and pitot-static probe are compared in order to justify the quality of PIV measurement. The range of velocity obtained using probe is 2.31 – 2.58 m/s, whereas using PIV is 2.31 – 2.91 m/s. It thus gives the average discrepancy of 0.8%. Besides, there is also a close agreement between the air velocities measured by PIV and theories with average discrepancy of 1.2%. This discrepancy is mainly due to some uncertainties in the experiments such as imperfect matching of coordinate between probe and laser sheet, unsteadiness of flow, variation in density and less precision in calibration. The operating procedures of 3-D stereoscopic PIV have successfully been verified thus are justified to be used for future PIV measurement, provided minor discrepancies are recorded.
|Keywords: 3-D stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV), uncertainty analysis (UA)|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 6279 KB|
|Title: A Two-Dimensional Analytical Modeling of the Current-Voltage Characteristics for Submicron Gate-Length GaAs MESFET’s|
|Author(s): Saadeddine Khemissi, and Cherifa Azizi|
|Pages: 27-33||Paper ID: 126104-7373-IJET-IJENS||Published: August, 2012|
Abstract: A two-dimensional physics-based analytical model for simulating the performance of submicron gate-length GaAs MESFET devices is presented in this paper. After a two-dimensional analysis for the potential distribution under the gate and incorporating an electric field dependent mobility in the channel, the drain current expressions are determined as a function of the drain-source and gate-source voltages in different operation regimes (linear, non-linear and saturated). In this frame, a numerical simulation based on the different expressions established previously is elaborated. The model has been verified by comparing the results with experimental data found in the literature. It is shown that good agreements are obtained between the proposed model and the experimental data results, so the present model can be employed for the computer aided design of analog and digital circuits containing these devices.
|Keywords: GaAs MESFET, I-V characteristics, two-dimensional modeling|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 265 KB|
|Title: Usability of PFBC– Coal Ash/Glass Wastes for Heat Insulators Production|
|Author(s): Mohammed Al-Naafa|
|Pages: 34-38||Paper ID: 127004-2323-IJET-IJENS||Published: August, 2012|
Abstract: Thermal insulating bricks were produced from treated fly ash/glass pastes. The pastes were prepared by mixing dried fly ash wastes with water at different water to ash weight ratios. The fly ash samples utilized were derived from a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor, PFBC, and were used as-received (9.7 µm mass median diameter) and after grinding (7.1 µm mass median diameter). The effect of adding car-window glass waste fragments at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 weight ratios to the wet ash was also investigated. Tests of the density, thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of the resulting brick were done to evaluate the produced heat insulator properties. The insulators prepared from water to ground ash weight ratio (W/A) of 0.5 showed good specifications in terms of low density and thermal conductivity, and high mechanical strengths. The addition of 10-wt% glass to the wet ground ash enhanced the mechanical properties of the insulating material produced but had no significant effect on its density and thermal conductivity.
|Keywords: Heat Insulator, Pozzolan, PFBC, Coal, Fly Ash, Calcium Silicate Hydrate|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 116 KB|
|Title: Local Exhaust Ventilation and Application: A Review|
|Author(s): Nor Halim Hasan, M. R Said and A.M Leman|
|Pages: 39-43||Paper ID: 127904-7575-IJET-IJENS||Published: August, 2012|
Abstract: The industries that are involved in the production of dangerous chemicals requires Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV) for separating employees to hazards. LEV purpose is to separate contaminants from the source it generated. The objective of this paper is to look at a number of studies related to the LEV and its applications. The discussions are divided to several parts such as application in construction industries, buildings, manufacturing industries, workshops and paint manufacturers. Ongoing monitoring, maintenance and effective personal protective equipment (PPE) are necessary to ensure the spray booths can be managed properly and avoid employee exposure to contaminants. Ventilation design in buildings, equipment selection and use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is highly suggested in that application. There are no exposures to hazardous materials to the building users in the construction of hospitals and others. Use of push-pull ventilation method is an efficient. The future phase of ventilation system in airplanes and hawker centre will be the consumer's attention.
Keywords: Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV), Occupational Safety and Health, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), Computerized Fluid Dynamic (CFD), Threshold Limit Value (TLV)
|Full Text (.pdf) | 70 KB|
|Title: Dissolved organic carbon production and runoff quality of SungaiKerayong, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia|
|Author(s): Norlida Mohd Dom, Ismail Abustan, Rozi Abdullah|
|Pages: 44-47||Paper ID: 1211004-8383-IJET-IJENS||Published: August, 2012|
Abstract: A runoff quality sampling was performed in a catchment area of Sungai Kerayong, which represents a highly multi-urbanized area in the heart capital of Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur. Eight storm events comprise of 2,304 automatic runoff quality samples in five-minute intervals were analyzed. The runoff quality showed large variations in concentrations, especially during the storms, for DO, COD, BOD, TOC, and DOC. The concentration values (mg/L) were DO (3.0), COD (29.0), BOD (6.0), TOC (10.0), and DOC (4.0). The first 20%–30% of the runoff volume evacuated between 21% and 60% DO, 20% and 46% COD, 18% and 54% BOD, 20% and 45% TOC, and 17% and 54% DOC.
|Keywords: Event mean concentration; First flush phenomenon; Pollutant loading|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 809 KB|
|Title: Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) for C-Band Optical Communication System|
|Author(s): M.A.Othman, M.M. Ismail, M.H.Misran, M.A.M.Said, H.A.Sulaiman|
|Pages: 48-50||Paper ID: 1214104-8383-IJET-IJENS||Published: August, 2012|
Abstract: One distinct feature of an optical fiber is that there is a wide spectral region where signals are transmitted in optical fiber. Since most light sources used in high-capacity optical communication systems emit narrow wavelength or less than 1nm, whilst most full-spectrum fibers for communication application operates in C-band. Thus, the paper reviews the technology of optical amplifier in telecommunication network applications. The main scope of this paper is to implement Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) in the range of C-band. The gain and noise figure at each changes of both length and pump power are observed, simulated by using OptiSystem software. The EDFA optical amplifier is inserted in the Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) system to trigger in various inputs at different wavelength in the range between 1538 to 1565nm.
|Keywords: Component; EDFA, WDM, fiber length, pump power, gain, noise figure|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 214 KB|
|Title: Product Development and organizational Management with Digital Tools in Textile industries|
|Author(s): Lefayet Sultan Lipol, Jahirul Haq|
|Pages: 51-62||Paper ID: 1215604-0303-IJET-IJENS||Published: August, 2012|
Abstract: The report illustrates about the digital tools those are used for product development and organizational management (apparel sector) based on Lectra Sverige AB, Systeam DTS AB at Borås. The article illustrates about Lectra Fashion PLM, PISA PDM, and ERP Garp system (CRM, SRM, and MRM). For Lectra, the report focused on general idea about this software, its different divisions, its working procedure, its advantage to use, its possibility to use for every company. On the other hand, we concentrated on almost similar way of Lectra for PDM, PLM, ERP (CRM, SRM, and MRM). Lectra has different divisions, namely- Kaledo, Modaris, Diamino, Optiplan are using for various purposes, like - design, pattern making, marker making, spreading and cutting. In addition, if companies implement PDM, PLM and ERP system, those can assist to manage the whole business chain very easily for instance- product development, order, purchase, manufacturing, stock/distribution, economy and logistics etcetera. It is expensive to buy those software’s and require special skill to operate so it is not prolific for all company.
|Keywords: Compter Aided Design, Lectra Fashion, Textile Industries|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 2862 KB|
|Title: Existence and uniqueness solution of an inverse problems for fractional evolution equations|
|Author(s): Mahmoud M. El-borai, Osama L. Mostafa, Hoda A. Foad|
|Pages: 63-75||Paper ID: 1211304-8989-IJET-IJENS||Published: August, 2012|
Abstract: In this paper we concerned with study an inverse problem in a Hilbert space H for fractional abstract differential equation of the form
dα u(t)/ dtα = Au(t) + γ(t)u(t)
with the initial condition
and the overdetermination condition
(u(t), v) = w(t)
where (.,.) is the inner product in H, γ is a real an unknown function, w is a given real function, A u0 and v are given elements in H, 0 < α <= 1,u is unknown and A is a linear closed operator L defined on a dense subset D(A) in H into H. It assumed that A generates an analytic semigroup Q(t).This condition implies
ǁQ(t) ǁ ≤ B for all t >= 0, β is a positive constant.
|Keywords: Initial and overdetermination conditions; Solutions in Hilbert space; Fractional differential equations|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 265 KB|
|Title: Oil and Gas Expertise for Gas Shale Fracturing|
|Author(s): Mingxing Bai, Xiaohua Pan, Lingyu Wang, Xue Sun, Renke Petersen|
|Pages: 76-81||Paper ID: 1211604-7575-IJET-IJENS||Published: August, 2012|
Abstract: Unconventional shale gas is especially common right now and the development of unconventional gas has been a frequent topic of discussion lately. They are normally related to ultra-low permeabilities and have to be developed with extra processes like fracturing or multistage fracturing. Over the past decades, the oil and gas sector has developed high level technologies, including stimulation technologies, to explore oil and gas. Since the shale formation has very special characteristics, the fracturing processes are somehow different from traditional fracturing technologies in the oil and gas sector. The oil and gas expertise should be transferred to the shale gas production. In order to better understand the most important yet complex process in developing shale gas, this paper is going to provide an overview of the basic knowledge of oil and gas fracturing with explanations of the important characteristics of fracturing processes and then the focus will be on the explanation of horizontal wells fracturing for shale gas production. The following questions will be discussed throughout the paper:
|Keywords: Fracturing, multistage fracturing, oil and gas expertise, refracturing, shale gas|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 320 KB|
|Title: Numerical Study of Automotive Doors|
|Author(s): Said Darwish, H. M. A. Hussein, Ahmad Gemeal|
|Pages: 82-92||Paper ID: 1211904-2828-IJET-IJENS||Published: August, 2012|
Abstract: Cars have various types of doors. The swinging doors which are the most common are almost the most complicated parts in a car since they not only determine the general guidelines of car style, but also are vital for passenger's safety by protecting humans from side crashes. Comparison between FEA results and targets led to the necessity to split lower opening of front door into two parts to increase stiffness. Also, thickness of window regulator engine fixing in both front and rear doors are increased. Predetermined values from previous works conducted on a similar existing SUV vehicle were used as targets to be achieved by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of car doors. Mobile hinge fixing is duplicated for both front and rear doors Inner panel opening in front door window lower mechanism are also decreased.
|Keywords: Finite element analysis, Car door, Door sag/modal analysis, static analysis|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 1290 KB|
|Title: Review: Development of Blood Flow through the Heart Valve Leaflet in Experimental Model|
|Author(s): Mohd Azrul Hisham Mohd Adib, Kok Yin Hui, Nur Hazreen Mohd Hasni (MD), Mohamad Yazid Mohamad Yassin|
|Pages: 93-97||Paper ID: 1213704-9090-IJET-IJENS||Published: August, 2012|
Abstract: Heart is a complex structure unit which pumps the blood throughout the body at a relevant high fluid velocity and pressure. The heart valve leaflet ensures the unidirectional flow of blood during a complete cardiac cycle. Many researches study on the structure and working principle of heart using both experimental and numerical principles and result a strong and value findings. Undeniable, experimental modeling of heart valve leaflet gives a better understanding toward heart function and thus enhances the development in biomechanics as well as artificial heart valve. This paper provided the detail review about the development in modeling of heart structure and heart valve leaflet experiments with respect to its method, material used and limitations.
|Keywords: Blood Flow, Heart Valve Leaflet, Ventricle, Biomechanics|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 534 KB|
|Title: Investigation of mixed Filler Effect on Optical and Structural Properties of PEMA Films|
|Author(s): E.M. Abdelrazek, A.M. Abdelghany, A.H. Oraby, G.M. Asnag|
|Pages: 98-102||Paper ID: 127804-4343-IJET-IJENS||Published: August, 2012|
Abstract: Poly ethyle methacrylate (PEMA) films doped with different contents of mixed salt (CoCl2 and LiBr) were prepared using the casting technique. The amorphous feature of the filled polymer was depicted using XRD scans and degree of crystallinity was found to decrease with increasing filler content. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy display significant structural changes within the polymeric matrix indicating a complexation between the pristine polymer and mixed filler. UV-Vis. optical absorption spectrum indicate a variation in both intensity and optical energy gap with different doping level. Both values of direct and indirect energy gaps are calculated and discussed. Obtained data shows a defect formation which increases with increasing filler content and supported by both XRD and UV-Vis. data.
|Keywords: Mixed filler ; PEMA, FTIR, UV-Visible; X-ray diffraction|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 215 KB|
|Title: On Some Abstract Stochastic Fractional Differential Equations|
|Author(s): Mahmoud M. El-borai, Khairia El-Said El-Nadi, Hanan S. Mahdi|
|Pages: 103-107||Paper ID: 1212404-7676-IJET-IJENS||Published: August, 2012|
Abstract: In this paper we shall study the mild solution for stochastic fractional integro-differential equations of the form….
|Keywords: Stochastic Integro-Differential Equation, Fractional Order|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 828 KB|
|Title: Simulation of Slider Crank Mechanism Using ADAMS Software|
|Author(s): Assad Anis|
|Pages: 108-112||Paper ID: 129204-3939-IJET-IJENS||Published: August, 2012|
Abstract: This paper presents the kinematic and dynamic analysis of slider crank mechanism. The slider crank mechanism is simulated in ADAMS software to observe the response of the slider block and the reaction forces at joint R2(joint between crank shaft and connecting rod). The dynamic analysis has been performed by applying moment of 4.2 Nm at joint R1 (the revolute joint between connecting shaft and connecting plate). The applied moment is removed by imposing rotational motion at joint R1 with angular velocity of 6 rad/sec to perform dynamic analysis. These simulations were performed with different time steps and durations. The friction was assumed to be negligible during these simulations. As a result of this work, the longitudinal response of the slider block is observed with applied moment as well as slider block response along with reaction forces at joint R2 is investigated in case of imposed rotational motion.
|Keywords: ADAMS, joint R1, joint R2, Reaction forces, Slider crank mechanism|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 410 KB|
|Title: Computer Aided Bus Skeleton Design (BUS-CAD)|
|Author(s): H. M. A. Hussein, Alexander Harrich|
|Pages: 113-117||Paper ID: 1213604-8585-IJET-IJENS||Published: August, 2012|
Abstract: The designing and manufacturing of a new bus is a process which need of a large number of technical labors and a great consumption time, starting from designing operation until full production process. Bus Industry in the Arab region realized some success and is equivalent to their counterparts in Europe and America. This makes the interest in reducing the time and efforts spent in the design, planning and production processes in the bus industry is an added value. The bus steel structure (skeleton) building process is the starting base for all the following manufacturing processes. Planning Department -based on it – start writing the operating pages and determine the required raw materials for the bus manufacture. The logistic department starts to provide the necessary raw materials for the bus construction. Tool department starts to design and manufacture of production facilities, and main fixtures (drilling and welding) for constructing the bus skeleton. The administration department collects all the information’s to estimate the bus cost and expect the profit from the implementation of this product. The virtual world created by the computer in nowadays our life puts a strong chance to simulate many of the manufacturing processes before they occur, and this was not available before. Bus skeleton design, planning and manufacturing operation represent a good example can be implemented entirely by using computer simulations. The present paper discuss the basic lines for construction a program to reduce the design, planning and manufacturing processes of the bus structure. Objective of this proposed work is designing a parametric program for the bus skeleton design (all types) with a possibility in parametric design modification in the bus skeleton – Automatic creation of technical documents – Bus welding assembly fixture construction - determine the initial cost estimation of the bus.
|Keywords: Parametric design, Bus skeleton, CAD, Concurrent engineering, Process Planning|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 636 KB|
|Title: An Effective Procedure in Monitoring the Process Variability of Soleplate|
|Author(s): Lee Siaw Li and Maman A. Djauhari|
|Pages: 118-121||Paper ID: 1217904-8484-IJET-IJENS||Published: August, 2012|
Abstract: In industrial practice, monitoring the process variability is as important as monitoring the process mean. Recently, in 2009, the application of Wilks’ statistic in process variability monitoring based on individual observations was introduced by Mason, Chou and Young. However, this statistic is only sensitive to the large shift. This paper deals with a combination of Wilks’ statistic and the Frobenius norm of covariance matrix, introduced by Djauhari in 2010, to monitor soleplate production process variability at a Malaysian plastic manufacturing industry located in Johor Bahru. The advantages of the combination of the statistics will be discussed and a promising result will be reported.
|Keywords: Forbenius norm, multivariate statistical process control, process variability, Wilks’ statistic|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 436 KB|
|Title: Role of Human Resource in Improving Indonesian Transport Safety Case Study : Traditional Sea Transport|
|Author(s): Malisan Johny, Jinca M.Y, Saleng Abrar|
|Pages: 122-127||Paper ID: 1218304-2626-IJET-IJENS||Published: August, 2012|
Abstract: Construction and shipbuilding of traditional ships are individual character, and should be preserved. Traditional shipping is generally managed by middle economic groups of people, but very strategic in distributing public commodities, especially to the islands that are difficult for other transport modes. Their activities are not well developed compared to the fact that Indonesia is an archipelagic country. The problems happened were high number of accidents, unable to compete with other ships, and low quality of human resources. Focus of this research is to analyze factors of human resources that influence safety aspect. This paper tries to point out the most significant factors that can be considered to affect safety management system in traditional shipping and the approaches that should be taken into account for realizing a real competency.
|Keywords: Transport safety, traditional ship, seafarer competence|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 425 KB|
|Title: Methodology and Design of an Adaptive Overcurrent Protection for Distribution Systems with DG|
|Author(s): Andrés Felipe Contreras C., Gustavo A. Ramos, Mario A. Ríos|
|Pages: 128-136||Paper ID: 1214304-8585-IJET-IJENS||Published: August, 2012|
Abstract: In this paper we present the design of an Adaptive overcurrent protection for Distribution Power Systems with penetration of Distributed Generation, based in a proposed methodology. The methodology takes into account typical protection schemes, normative, general protection requirements, protections coordination and distributed generation impact to protection system, and its applicable to planning systems or for existing systems initially without DG. This work apply a part of IEEE 13 nodes Radial Distribution test Feeder, to study the impact of Distributed Generation to the protection system, apply and prove the proposed design methodology.
|Keywords: Adaptive overcurrent protection, Distributed Generation impact, protection coordination, relay reconfiguration|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 819 KB|