|Title: Flow Separation Control of Thick Airfoil by a Trapped Vortex|
|Author(s): Mohammad Mashud, Mausumi Ferdous|
|Pages: 1-4||Paper ID: 120206-9494-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: The aim of the thesis is to control the flow separation of an airfoil by trapped vortex cavity on the upper surface without steady suction and also to compare the results. The presence of friction in the flow causes a shear stress at the surface of the body, which in turn contributes to the aerodynamic drag of the body, that is, skin friction drag. However, friction also causes another phenomenon called flow separation, which in turn creates another source of aerodynamic drag called pressure drag due to separation. Thick airfoils are greatly affected by flow separation phenomena. But, in order to carry large load thick airfoils are beneficial. From a fluid dynamist’s point of view, the performance of an aircraft is essentially controlled by the development of the boundary layer on its surface and its interaction with the mean flow. This interaction decides the pressure distribution on the airfoil surface, and subsequently the aerodynamic loads on the wing. In this test, the behaviour of a 2D model, equipped with a span wise oriented circular cavity, has been investigated. Pressure distribution on the model surface and inside the cavity and the complete flow field around the model and inside the cavity have been measured. An extensive test campaign has been carried out in an open circuit wind tunnel, with test section size of 36x36x100 cm3. The model represents a two dimensional high thickness airfoil with a chord length of 250mm. The model angles of attack are 4°, 8°, 10°, 12°, 15°. Tests have been performed varying the wind tunnel speed, and varying the model angle of attack. In the paper the performed test campaign, the adopted experimental set-up, the data post-processing and the results description are reported.
|Keywords: Flow Separation, Trapped Vortex Cavity, Airfoil, Aerodynamics.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 475 KB|
|Title: Effect of PH Variation on Particle Size and Purity of Nano Zinc Oxide Synthesized by Sol-Gel Method|
|Author(s): Radyum Ikono, Putri Riskia Akwalia, Siswanto, Wahyu Bambang W, Agus Sukarto, Nurul Taufiqu Rochman|
|Pages: 5-9||Paper ID: 120906-9494-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: In recent years, there have been many methods developed to synthesize Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles. Nevertheless, a simple yet cheap method to prepare single crystal with high purity nano ZnO was still yet to be established. In this research, nano Zinc oxide (ZnO) was prepared by sol-gel method. The pH variation effect to the resulting ZnO product was also observed. (CH3COOH)2Zn.2H2O powder and NaOH solution were used as precursors. NaOH solution was added to (CH3COOH)2Zn.2H2O solution by titration until colloids with different pH were obtained, then precipitates of nano ZnO were formed. From the precipitation profile, it can be observed that increasing pH led to shortened precipitation time, which also means increasing particle size. It was also further confirmed that particle size at pH 7 and pH 12 was 1.3 nm and 73.8 nm, respectively. XRD profile showed that increasing pH led to increasing purity of nano ZnO: 42.9%, 62.2%, 64.7%, and 100% at pH 7, pH 8, pH 10, and pH 12, respectively. To conclude, nano ZnO synthesized by Sol-Gel method was highly affected by pH of the working solution. Increasing pH led to increasing particle size, however led to higher purity of nano ZnO produced.
|Keywords: Nano ZnO; sol-gel; pH variation.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 313 KB|
|Title: The Effect of Additional Polysiloxane in Composite of Polyester-Nanosilver on Antibacterial Stability|
|Author(s): Asep Handaya Saputra, Joddy Arya Laksmono, Agus Haryono, Muhamad Hilman A.|
|Pages: 10-13||Paper ID: 121106-7575-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: The Colloidal Nanosilver has an antibacterial activity and has potential application in textile materials. However, nanosilver can not adhered permanently on the textile fibers. In this research, the composite of polyester fibers with nanosilver was added with polysiloxane compound as binding substance. The composite of polyester-nanosilver was prepared by deposition method of nanosilver on to polyester fibers. From spectrum analysis of FTIR for the composite of polyester-nanosilver indicates that there are clusters of hydroxyl, ether, vinyl alcohol, and siloxane. The Antibacterial experiment result showed that the addition of polysiloxane compound on composite of polyester-nanosilver give a good result of antibacterial stability, after several times of washing treatment.
|Keywords: Nanosilver, polyester, polysiloxane, antibacteria.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 437 KB|
|Title: Design and Implementation of 2-Way Wilkinson Power Divider at Intermediate Frequency 456MHz using FR4 Substrate|
|Author(s): Taufiqqurrachman, Hana Arisesa|
|Pages: 14-19||Paper ID: 123706-4848-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: This paper presents design and implementation of 2-way Wilkinson power dividers at intermediate frequency 456MHz using FR4 substrate. This design using Wilkinson Power Dividers method where consist of one resistor is connected on the both of output port. Design of the 2-Way Power Dividers presented by simulation result with ADS2011.10 and have been implemented using FR4 Substrate. The measurement results of this design provide an insertion loss, return loss (or VSWR) and isolation with the good result. The 2-way Wilkinson Power Divider with lumped element can be replaced by design on microstrip.
|Keywords: FR4 Substrate, Wilkinson Power Dividers.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 627 KB|
|Title: Queuing Analytic Theory Using WITNESS Simulation in Hospital Pharmacy|
|Author(s): Maryam Mohammadi, Mehdi Shamohammadi|
|Pages: 20-27||Paper ID: 123806-9494-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: Managing healthcare systems plays an important role for healthcare providers in order to have high-quality service performance. Inpatient pharmacy delivery system is one of those that have a key role in the hospital service quality. Simulation is one of the best tools to analyze the hospital pharmacy operations, and help making good operational decisions. Similarly, this paper focuses on modelling and simulation of a pharmacy delivery system in a Malaysian hospital to determine the relationship between system components, reduce the delays and increase customers’ satisfaction. The findings of this study will help the hospital management to make intelligent scheduling in order to decrease the queue length in the hospital pharmacy, and dispense medications to the patients as rapidly as possible. The simulation system based on WITNESS is used for this study.
|Keywords: Hospital pharmacy, pharmacy delivery system, simulation, WITNESS.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 884 KB|
|Title: Comparison of Polyester and Araldite Impregnated Ignition Coils Using SQC|
|Author(s): Ahmad Nawaz, Bilal Islam, Naeem Khattak, Sahar Noor|
|Pages: 28-35||Paper ID: 127906-3838-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: In this paper initially we analyzed the market claims in ignition coils from after sale department of Motorbike assembling company. By using Pareto Diagram fault severity was noted down. Purpose of this research was to find out the one particular defect of crack propagation in lamination of araldite and polyester impregnated ignition coils. Both of these coils were compared on the basis of this Nonconformity (crack propagation in lamination) using SQC tools. This cracking of lamination gives result to a phenomenon known as corona effect. Corona effect is basically results in failure of high voltage electric equipments due to unnecessary sparking. SQC tools i.e Hypergeometric Distributions and Binomial Distribution were used in this paper to evaluate the probability of finding zero nonconformity (crack propagation in lamination) in the samples collected from both types of impregnated coils. On the basis of this analysis it was concluded that Polyester Impregnated Coils are better than Araldite impregnated ignition coils.
|Keywords: Market Claims, Cracking of lamination, Corona, SQC|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 527 KB|
|Title: Determination of Optimal Cut Point Temperatures at Crude Distillation Unit using the Taguchi Method|
|Author(s): Syed Faizan Ali, Nooryusmiza Yusoff|
|Pages: 36-46||Paper ID: 1210606-3939-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: This paper proposes a technique for optimizing crude cut points. Taguchi method is applied in the selection of the significant variables and their respective optimal levels for a fractionation process. The variables considered were the cut point temperatures of products, namely, naphtha, kerosene, light and heavy diesels, atmospheric gas oil and the residue. The variables were assigned lower and upper bounds with a difference of ± 13.9°C (± 25°F) from the standard straight-run cut points. A steady-state model of a Crude Distillation Unit (CDU)is used as a virtual plant to carry out the fractionation of 100 kilo barrels per day of crude oil. Straight-run cases comprising of three Malaysian crude oils, namely, Bunga Kekwa, Bintulu and Tembungo, were analyzed as single, binary and ternary crude feeds. In each case, an optimal configuration of variables was determined by minimizing the energy required for the production of one kilo barrel/day of diesel.
|Keywords: Crude Distillation Unit, Cut-point Optimization, Diesel Production, Taguchi Method|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 588 KB|
|Title: Photocatalytic Reforming of Glycerol-Water over Nitrogen- and Nickel-Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles|
|Author(s): Slamet, Eny Kusrini, Agus S. Afrozi, Setiadi|
|Pages: 47-53||Paper ID: 128706-6262-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) and nickel-doped nitrogen-titanium dioxide (Ni-N-TiO2) nanocomposites resulting from various Ni-doping levels were successfully synthesized and characterized. The glycerol has been effectively as sacrificial electron donor for photocatalytic hydrogen production using heteregeneous catalysts of N-TiO2 and Ni-N-TiO2. The effects of Ni contents in various concentrations from 0 to 10 wt% as well as the effect of N-doped titanium dioxide in the photocatalysts of Ni-N-TiO2 nanoparticles were studied. Efficient photocatalytic reforming of glycerol over Ni-doped N-TiO2 nanocomposite with Ni content of 5 wt% under visible light irradiation was observed. The greatest amount of hydrogen produced (109 µmole) resulted from Ni doping of 5 wt% in a photocatalytic reaction for 4 h. Simultaneous N- and Ni- doping contributed to an eightfold increase in hydrogen production compared to the fourfold increase resulting from N doping. The synthesized Ni-doped N-TiO2 5wt% exhibited much higher hydrogen production activity than the commercially available TiO2 Degussa P25.
|Keywords: Reforming; Glycerol; Heterogeneous catalyst; Photocatalysis.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 319 KB|
|Title: Statistical Detection of Abnormal Ozone Levels Using Principal Component Analysis|
|Author(s): Fouzi Harrou, Mohamed N. Nounou, Hazem N. Nounou|
|Pages: 54-59||Paper ID: 1210706-8484-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: Ozone is one of the most severe air pollution problems in the world. The concentration of ozone in the troposphere is of great interest because of its negative influence on the human health, vegetation and materials. The complexity of ozone (O3) formation mechanisms in the troposphere, the complexity of meteorological conditions in urban areas and the uncertainty in the measurements of all the parameters involved, make fast and accurate modeling of ozone a challenging task. In the absence of a process model, multivariate statistical techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA) have been successfully used in fault detection (FD) of highly correlated process variables. This paper presents an application of PCA in detecting abnormalities in ozone measurements, which are caused by air pollution or any incoherence between the different network sensors or sensor faults. Practical data from various ozone surveillance network stations in Upper Normandy, France, are used in this analysis.
|Keywords: Ozone pollution, fault detection, principal component analysis.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 427 KB|
|Title: Rapid Quenching of Liquid Lead Base Alloys for High Performance Storage Battery Applications|
|Author(s): Mustafa Kamal, Abu-Bakr El-Bediwi, Mohammed .s. Jomaan|
|Pages: 60-67||Paper ID: 1215206-7979-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of alloying and rapid solidification processing in direct structural control in lead base batteries. A detailed investigation on rapid quenching of liquid lead base alloys for high performance storage battery applications was made in order to choose suitable lead grid alloys for lead acid batteries as melt-spun ribbons. So this paper provides a comprehensive review of the physical metallurgy and mechanical properties of the melt-spun ordered alloy based on Pb, Egyptian grid battery, Germany grid battery, Pb-13.1wt.%Sb, Pb-13.1wt.%Sb-6.9wt.%Sn, Pb-13.1wt.%Sb-5.9wt.%Sn-1wt.%Ca, Pb-13.1wt.%Sb-4.9wt.%Sn-1wt.%Ca-1wt.%Al, Pb-1wt.%Ca and Pb-0.5wt.%Sn-0.1wt.%Ca for storage battery applications. The results indicate that the composition of alloys plays an important role on grid batteries performed. It is found that Pb-0.5wt.%Sn-0.1wt.%Ca can be used to make the grids used for ribbon grid lead-acid batteries.
|Keywords: Rapid quenching – Lead battery grids – Resistivity – Elastic Moduli – Internal Friction – Thermal Diffusivity – X-Ray diffraction – Pb-Ca-Sn alloys.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 427 KB|
|Title: The Index Of PMV tap Reformulation Of Thermal Comfort Index Model Base On Thermo-Adaptive-Psychological Paradigm|
|Pages: 68-76||Paper ID: 129706-4949-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: This paper is a outhor research publication that was purposed to reformulation the thermal index base on thermo-adaptife- psychological paradigm. The reformulation was done by developing PMV thermal comfort index at indoor of building in Yogyakarta, Indonesia therefore the psychological adaptive thermal comfort index PMVtap model and its parameters were formulated This research was an ex post facto field research with rationalistic approach. There were 7 buildings in warm humid tropical location and 1040 respondents involved as samples. Climatic data were collected by appropriate measurement tools. Physiological data were collected by questioner and observation. Derivate data were processed by manual and software calculation. There were 3 stage analyses in the PMVTAP formulation: (1)regression analysis, (2)reliability test analysis and (3)practice feasibility test analysis. The results of this research were the formulation of PMVTAP index for general and specific condition. PMVtap represents thermal comfort as a product of physiological and psychological adaptation process. The basic of PMVTAP formulation is PMVTAP=PMV+ Yvorpmv. This research also concluded that PMVtap is defined by the physic and physiological parameters of PMV and the psychological parameters of Yvorpmv. Yvorpmv is defined by parameters of psychological individual differences variables that contain with 2 groups of variable. Those are thermal experience in the past and thermal experience at present. Among the parameters, there are 12 potential parameters that contain with 6 parameters of physics physiological variables and 6 parameters of psychological variables. The six parameters of physic physiological variables are (1) air temperature, (2) radiant temperature, (3) relative humidity, (4) air velocity, (5) activity and (6) clothing. The six parameters of individual psychological differences variables are (1) the image of the thermal comfort of the occupant to the room whether comfortable or not , (2) the image of the thermal comfort of the occupant to the room whether slightly cool/cool/hot or not, (3) the type of the responded ventilation room ( AC or not), (4) the length of staying in AC room, (5) economic status signed by the private income, (6) the quality of the room density; seen from occupant’s assessment toward the stimulus of the dense room filled with goods or equipment. Based on this research also can be known that the thermal comfort for each individual are different and unique therefore the individual differences must be noticed to develop further individual standard. This research also can find the implication of the parameters fluctuation to the thermal neutral.
|Keywords: Thermal comfort; Thermo-adaptive-psychological thermal comfort; PMVtap; Psychological individual differences; Thermal experiences at present and at the past; Warm-humid-tropical climate.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 407 KB|
|Title: Novel PAPR Reduction Technique Based On Conventional Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS)|
|Author(s): Maha Gaber Ahmed Mahmoud, Ghouz H. H. M., Nelly M.Hussien.|
|Pages: 77-81||Paper ID: 1210306-5757-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: In this paper, a novel approach combining two well known signal processing techniques with traditional partial transmit sequence (PTS) has been proposed and analyzed. This includes convolutional code (CC) and repeating clipping filtering (RCF) techniques. The main objective is to reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signal. The proposed PAPR method is referred to as convolutional-repeating clipping filtering PTS technique (CRCF_PTS). Simulation results show that our proposed PAPR achieved better power reduction factor as compared to the conventional PTS technique (about 2.3 dB). In addition, the overall bit error rate (BER) of OFDM system has been evaluated with and without our proposed PAPR for different standard channel models (Additive Gaussian Noise and Rayleigh fading channels). The results show that our PAPR technique has insignificant slightly changes in the bit BER in case of fading channel model. Therefore, proposed CRCF_PTS technique is practically feasible for OFDM system with no additional processing time.
|Keywords: OFDM, PTS, and PAPR reduction techniques|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 606 KB|
|Title: Transverse Vibration of a Beam Structure Attached With Dynamic Vibration Absorbers: Experimental Analysis|
|Author(s): M.H. Zainulabidin, N. Jaini|
|Pages: 82-86||Paper ID: 1210506-2525-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: In this paper the transverse vibration of a fixed-fixed end beam attached with dynamic vibration absorbers (DVA) has been analyzed experimentally. The DVA is composed of a flexible beam with two masses symmetrically mounted at its both sides. The fixed end beam was clamped to a static frame structure where the DVAs were then being attached onto it. One side of end of the beam is harmonically excited in transversal direction by an electric shaker. An accelerometer was attached to the beam centre to measure its vibration response amplitudes and natural frequencies. The dynamic vibration absorbers were tested in four different conditions according to its location of placement. The beam amplitudes before and after the absorbers attachment were compared and discussed. The experimental results proved that the DVA has significantly absorbed the beam vibration hence reduced the vibration amplitude of the beam structure. The knowledge and result obtained from this study can help engineers control the vibration level of beam structure.
|Keywords: Beam, dynamic vibration absorber, natural frequency, transverse vibration|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 606 KB|
|Title: Ash Base-Catalysed in Promoting Ozonolysis of Used Cooking Oil|
|Author(s): Lieke Riadi, Edy Purwanto, Melisa, Yogi Chandra|
|Pages: 87-90||Paper ID: 1211106-8989-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: Biodiesel is very important alternative energy as it can address the increased environmental pollution and depletion of the non-renewable fuels. Simultaneously ozonolysis and transesterfication of used cooking oil have been studied in the synthesis of biodiesel. There was 52.8 weight percent of unsaturated fatty acid in the used cooking oil which is potential for biodiesel synthesis. The experiment was carried out at several isothermal conditions 20 and 30oC, atmospheric pressure with the ratio of methanol and used cooking oil of 5:1, the ozon rate was maintained at 5.8 mol percent. The study aimed to observe the effect of ash from empty fruit bunches from palm tree as catalyst beside the KOH solution. The presence both of extracted ash and KOH solution promoted ozonolysis. There was 8 % of ozonolysis yield increased in the presence of both KOH and extracted ash. There were methyl hexanoate, methyl octanoate and methyl nonanoate as short chain methyl esters in the product as a cracking result from ozonolysis.
|Keywords: Biodiesel, fuel, methyl ester, ozonolysis, used cooking oil.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 606 KB|
|Title: The Electropolymerization of Conductive Polymer Ppy-PANi on Gold Electrodes for Uric Acid Biosensor|
|Author(s): Robeth Viktoria Manurung, Erry D. Kurniawan, Chandra Risdian|
|Pages: 91-94||Paper ID: 1211306-7575-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: Conducting polymers have emerged as potential candidates for biosensors. Due to their straightforward preparation methods, unique properties, and stability in air, conducting polymers have been applied to energy storage, electrochemical devices, memory devices, biosensors, and electro catalysts. Many research studies have been conducted on the use of conjugated polymers in the construction of chemical sensors including potentiometric, conduct metric and amperometric sensors or biosensors over the last decade. This paper will describe the galvanostatic electropolymerization of conducting polymer polypyrrole-polyaniline on gold electrodes of uric acid biosensor. The combined layer of conducting polymer Ppy-PANi will be used as immobilization interfacial membrane of uricase enzyme to increase the sensitivity and response of uric acid biosensor. The gold electrodes has been fabricated using thick film technology on alumina substrates. The characterization of uricase has been evaluated as preliminary process before the enzyme immobilized on the surface of conducting polymer Ppy-PANi.
|Keywords: Conducting polymer, electropolymerization, biosensor, thick film technology.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 606 KB|
|Title: Effect of Polyacrylic Acid Addition to Improve Nano Zinc Oxide Dispersion Stability|
|Author(s): Radyum Ikono, Nurwenda Novan Maulana, Tanti Dewinggih, Mukhtar Effendi, Wahyu Bambang Widayanto, Agus Sukarto, Nurul Taufiqu Rochman|
|Pages: 95-99||Paper ID: 1213206-4747-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: Zinc Oxide (ZnO) possesses high tendency to agglomerate in dispersion system, thus making it difficult to be stable. This research is intended to find out the effect of addition of polyelectrolyte Polyacrylic Acid (PAA) to improve the stability of nano ZnO dispersion. Two parameters that will be observed here are particle size and zeta potential. 5% nano ZnO was dispersed with different condition of stirring (1 hour and 5 hour) with different concentration of PAA (0,5%, 1% dan 3%) also with different temperature (27°C and 57°C). Results showed that in all conditions, PAA addition gave significant effect in particle size and zeta potential, compared to control without PAA addition. Most optimum condition for PAA addition was obtained on PAA addition of 0.5%, 1 hour stirring duration and temperature of 57°C with particle size in range of 193.4 – 253.8 nm and zeta potential of -74.86 mV. From all results and discussions, it can be concluded that PAA addition could improve the stability of nano ZnO dispersion.
|Keywords: ZnO; Dispersion stability; Particle size; Zeta Potential|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 379 KB|
|Title: A Comparative Study On first Shift Diploma in Engineering Result with Second Shift in Polytechnic Institutes of Bangladesh|
|Author(s): Md. Rashedul Huq Shamim, Shamim Ahmed, Md. Abu Raihan|
|Pages: 100-108||Paper ID: 126506-7474-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: The main aim of the study was to examine the performance of the result of first-shift students and second-shift students in the Polytechnic Institutes in Bangladesh. The research subjects were the TVE students of Chittagong Polytechnic those SSC score were preserved in the Institute-record. Specifically, the data consisted of SSC results and the Diploma in Engineering results of the students for the session 2004-2005, 2005-2006, and 2006-2007. The students’ results were collected from the records of Chittagong Polytechnic Institute and from Bangladesh Technical Education Board (BTEB). The‘t’-test techniques have applied by the research to compare SSC and diploma in engineering results. Finally, tob was calculated and compared with tc value which represent by some Bar-graphs in the article. In most cases, it was found that the significant difference in SSC results of first-shift and second-shift students in the levels of 0.05 (95%). However, the results of diploma in engineering students were not statistically significant in terms of their academic performance. It means, the study revealed that SSC results of the students could not have any effect on the results of their Diploma in engineering. Though, the students of the first-shift were better in SSC yet, they did not perform better in diploma in engineering. So the study recommends that the authority of TVE should consider the matter critically with necessary actions to find out the actual reason and to solve the problems of students’ achievements.
|Keywords: Technical and Vocational Education (TVE), Diploma in Engineering, Socio-economic development.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 491 KB|
|Title: An Attempt to Establish National Dose Reference Levels for Head CT-Scan Examinations in Indonesia: Preliminary Results from Malang Hospitals|
|Author(s): Johan Andoyo Effendi Noor, Indrastuti Normahayu|
|Pages: 109-114||Paper ID: 127606-1515-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: CT-scanners are becoming more and more popular imaging modality amongst medical practitioners as their tools for diagnostic practices. Yet, since CT-scanners employ ionizing x-ray beam as the source of imaging light, protection against its damaging effects must be observed closely to ensure that the harmful effects to patients are minimum. Our study involved three Departments of Radiology in three major hospitals in the city of Malang, East Java, Indonesia. We took at least 100 (50 males and 50 females) patients who were sent to the department CT facility to have non-contrast head CT examination in each hospital. The effective dose of each patient was calculated using the CTDosimetry version 1.0.4 dose calculator software. Our results reveal that the effective doses received by patients were in range 1.25 – 2.51 mSv for male patients and 1.14 – 2.39 mSv for female patients. In general, male patients received more doses than the female counterparts as predicted.
|Keywords: CT-scanner, ionizing x-ray beam, radio-diagnostic, medical imaging|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 382 KB|
|Title: Effects of Non-linear Composite Barriers on Tree Growth in Solid Insulation|
|Author(s): Abdur Rashid, Faisal khan,Syed Riaz ul Hassnain|
|Pages: 115-120||Paper ID: 129506-4747-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: The consequences of zinc oxide (ZnO), Aluminum oxide ( ) and Titanium oxide (TiO2) on tree growth have been comprehensively investigated in this paper. Zinc oxide (ZnO), II-VI compound semiconductor, is used in varistors in power insulation life. Due to its excellent electrical properties such as nonlinearity of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, high fast-transient response and high discharging capability, it is extensively used in polymeric insulation materials. Titanium oxide (TiO2) polycrystalline is used in electronic devices as varistor (voltage dependent resistor). Titanium oxide is also used for surge arrester applications due to its nonohmic behavior. In present work, zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium oxide (TiO2) are used in clear polyester resin as barriers. High voltage 28kV rms is applied. Polariscope is used to investigate the behavior of growth of tree on regular intervals. The results of zinc oxide (ZnO) barrier specimens are compared with titanium oxide (TiO2) barrier specimens. When zinc oxide (ZnO) barrier and Titanium oxide barrier specimens were tested, the life time of zinc Oxide barrier was more than the titanium oxide barrier. It is experimentally proved that by using semi conducting filler material with nonlinear conductivity characteristics can raise resistance against electrical tree propagation.
|Keywords: Zinc oxide, Titanium oxide, Insulation, Barrier, Electrical tree|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 334 KB|
|Title: Using Blood Pressure Data to Detect Premature Ventricular Contraction Beat|
|Author(s): G.M.A Ehsanur Rahman, Nahid Hasan, M Saddam Hossain Khan|
|Pages: 121-124||Paper ID: 1213006-9494-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: In this paper we present an algorithm to detect premature ventricular contraction beats (PVCs) which based on blood pressure measuring data technique. A PVC beat is chosen and compared with the number of heart beats per unit time (Heart rate) using Mat lab. The heart rate may be too fast or too slow. PVC beats are then detected using a decision parameter which is a discrete function of two unequal indices. One of the indices is linearly dependent on inter-beat duration time and the other is a total beat duration time of the premature ventricular contraction coefficient between blood pressure beat and the PVC beat. Potential of this proposed method was examined using Mat lab algorithm database. Results show high sensitivity of beat recognition.
|Keywords: Blood Pressure Pulse (BPP), Beat rate (BR), Blood pressure (BP), Heart rate (HR), Premature ventricular contraction (PVCs).|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 544 KB|
|Title: Detecting Shaft Misallignment in Gearbox of Helicopter Using Average Synchronous Analysis|
|Author(s): Leila.nacib, Komi Midzodzi.pekpe, Saadi.sakhara|
|Pages: 125-129||Paper ID: 1217006-8585-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: This paper deals with signal processing techniques for non-destructive fault detection on gearbox of helicopter by using time synchronous averaging. Time synchronous averaging is a signal processing technique that is used to extract repetitive signals from additive noise. This process requires an accurate measurement of the repetitive frequency of the desired signal or a signal that is synchronous with the desired signal. The raw data is then divided up into segments of equal length blocks related to the synchronous signal and averaged together. When sufficient averages are taken, the random noise is canceled, leaving an improved estimate of the desired signal. Time synchronous averaging is a feature extraction technique that have been used successively to gearbox condition monitoring.
|Keywords: Time synchronous averaging, misalignment, diagnosis, cepstrum, spectrum.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 218 KB|
|Title: Optimization of Experimental Conditions for Biodiesel Production|
|Author(s): Ayoola Ayodeji A., Hymore Fredrick K., Obande Mathew A., Udeh Ifeoma N.|
|Pages: 130-133||Paper ID: 127206-3838-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: This study is based on optimizing the experimental conditions of biodiesel production by base-catalyzed transesterification using waste cooking oil (WCO). In this study, the key parameters varied were methanol (20, 25, 30, 35, and 40%), sodium hydroxide (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0g), reaction time (40, 60, 90, 100 and 120 minutes) and reaction temperature (50, 52, 55, 58, and 60 oC). Maximum biodiesel yield of 86% was obtained at optimum conditions of 30% methanol concentration, 0.4g of NaOH concentration, 60oC reaction temperature and 90 minutes of operation. Biodiesel produced meets American Standard of Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards of biodiesel fuel: viscosity (4.0564 – 4.9824cSt), density (0.8790 – 0.8819g/cm3), flash point (157 – 168oC), pour point (0 to -3oC) and calculated cetane index (7.45 – 8.26).
|Keywords: Biodiesel, fossil fuel, methanol, transesterification, waste cooking oil.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 357 KB|
|Title: New Types of δ-Transitive Maps|
|Author(s): Mohammed Nokhas Murad Kaki|
|Pages: 134-136||Paper ID: 1214906-8383-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to define and introduce a new type of topological transitive map called d- transitive and investigate some of its properties in , where denotes the d–topology of a given topological space (X, t ). Further, we introduce the notions of d-type minimal mapping. We have proved that every topologically transitive map is a d-type transitive map but the converse not necessarily true, unless the space X is regular and that every minimal map is a d- minimal map, but the converse not necessarily true.
|Keywords: Topologically d- type transitive maps, d- minimal systems, d- irresolute maps, d- dense set.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 614 KB|
|Title: Effect of Magnetic Field on The Friction and Wear Displayed by The Scratch of Oil Lubricated Steel|
|Author(s): Mohamed M. K., Alahmadi A., Ali W. Y., Abdel-Sattar S.|
|Pages: 137-143||Paper ID: 1211806-9494-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: The present work discusses the effect of magnetic field on the friction and wear of steel scratched by TiC insert. The steel was lubricated by oil and dispersed by iron, copper and aluminium powders as well as polymeric powders such as high density polyethylene (PE), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polyamide (PA6). Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and graphite (C) were added to the oil as dispersant. Paraffin oil was used as lubricant. Friction coefficient and wear of the tested composites were investigated using a tribometer designed and manufactured for that purpose. It was found that application of induction magnetic field decreased friction coefficient. The decrease was significant for oil lubricated steel and oil dispersed by aluminium, copper, PMMA and PA6 + 10 wt. % C, while addition of iron, PE and MoS2 particles showed slight friction decrease. At no magnetic field friction coefficient for oil dispersed by aluminium and copper particles showed values lower than that observed for oil dispersed by iron particles. The lowest values of friction coefficient were displayed by oil dispersed by PE particles. Magnetic field caused significant wear increase for oil lubricated steel, where aluminium, copper and PA6 + C particles displayed relatively higher wear, while addition of iron, PE, PMMA and MoS2 particles showed slight wear increase. At no magnetic field wear decreased due to the action of aluminium particles which formed a continuous layer on the steel surface and consequently decreased wear. Wear of oil lubricated steel dispersed by PE particles displayed relatively low values. Magnetic field showed no significant change on wear of the steel surface.
|Keywords: Induction, magnetic field, scratch, friction coefficient, wear, iron, copper, aluminium polymethyl methacrylate, polyethylene, polyamide, molybdenum disulphide, paraffin oil.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 724 KB|
|Title: Friction Coefficient Displayed by Rubber Sliding Against Flooring Tiles|
|Author(s): Mohamed M. K., ElKattan A. A., Ali W. A.|
|Pages: 144-149||Paper ID: 1212006-3535-IJET-IJENS||Published: December, 2012|
Abstract: The present work describes the frictional behaviour of ceramic tiles as flooring materials when soft and hard rubbers slide against them. The values of friction coefficient displayed by sliding of rubber against different types of flooring materials would be compared to that obtained from ceramic tiles under different sliding conditions: dry, water, water/detergent dilution, oil and water/oil dilution. Based on the experiments carried out in the present work, it was found that at dry sliding soft rubber slid against ceramic tiles showed higher friction coefficient than hard one. The difference might be attributed to the extra deformation offered by soft rubber. The same trend was observed when sliding against ceramics wetted by water. The difference in friction coefficient displayed by hard and soft rubber significantly increased as the load increased. Soft rubber displayed lower friction than hard rubber when sliding against oil lubricated ceramic surfaces. In presence of oil/water dilution for soft rubber, friction coefficient showed no change with increasing applied load. The comparative performance of the tested flooring tiles showed that at dry sliding, epoxy displayed relatively lower friction than cement and marble, while ceramic showed reasonable friction values. Cement tiles gave the highest friction coefficient. In the presence of water on the sliding surface, marble displayed the highest friction coefficient followed by cement and parquet. Ceramic tiles showed the lowest friction among the tested floorings. Sliding of rubber against water/detergent wetted tiles caused drastic decrease of friction coefficient, where marble displayed the highest friction values followed by parquet and cement. PVC, epoxy and ceramic represented the lowest friction values. Hard oily floorings such as cement, marble and ceramic showed higher friction. Parquet, PVC and epoxy tiles showed relatively lower friction. Finally, parquet, epoxy and cement tiles displayed the highest friction, while ceramic, PVC and marble showed the lowest friction when rubber slid against water/oil diluted floorings.
|Keywords: Friction coefficient, rubber, ceramic tiles, dry, water, water/detergent dilution, oil and water/oil dilution, load.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 494 KB|