|Title: A Novel Photobiodegradation Technology for Hydrocarbon Wastewater Treatment|
|Author(s): Agung Sri Hendarsa, Heri Hermansyah, Slamet|
|Pages: 1-6||Paper ID: 130301-2525-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2013|
Abstract: A pilot plant study to treat hydrocarbon wastewater treatment was carried out in sequential photocatalytic and membrane bio reactor. It was called a novel photobiodegradation technology to reduce phenol, ammonia (NH3-N) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the water body. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 P25 Degussa) was suspended into reactor as photocatalyst. Consortium Acinetobacter was introduced into membrane bio reactor as aerob biocatalyst. From this study, the results showed that the removal rates for chemical oxygen demand (COD) was stable and averaged 90%. The average removal rates for NH3-N were shown to be 98%. The removal rates for phenol were shown to be greater than 98%. This demonstrated that photobiodegradation had superior treatment effect on the above contaminants.
|Keywords: Aerob, photocatalyst, biocatalyst, hydrocarbon wastewater, photobiodegradation.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 454 KB|
|Title: The Use Of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer As a External Confinement In a Circular Column|
|Author(s): Ayuddin, H. Parung, M.W.Tjaronge, R. Djamaluddin|
|Pages: 7-13||Paper ID: 132501-7474-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2013|
Abstract: The column is an important structural component for supporting axial load, bending moment and shear force. Damage caused by shear failure is seen as the most dangerous because the damage can cause structural collapse suddenly. Therefore the columns of a building that has inadequate shear strength so that needs to be strengthened with appropriate methods. One method that is appropriate to maintain the stability of structural elements of the column is a confinement. In this study, the materials to be used as a confinement of the CFRP material therefore has a a high tensile strength light weight, and it’s easy in implementation. The method used in this study is a method of confinement with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) with model testing of concentric loading. In this study, the specimen will be used 9 specimens of the circular columns with models of variation is 3 specimens of RC circular columns without the use of CFRP, 3 specimens of RC circular columns using transverse and longitudinal reinforcement, and 3 specimens of RC circular columns using transverse and longitudinal reinforcement and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) as an external confinement. The Circular column with a diameter of 130 mm, height 700 mm with reinforcement longitudinal 6 Ø 10 and spiral reinforcement for the transverse reinforcement is Ø 8-50 mm. The experimental results show an increase in the capacity of a circular column, for transverse and longitudinal reinforcement confinement happen a increasing the strength of 60 % if it's compared with no use of CFRP confinement and the circular column capacity that use a confinement of transverse and longitudinal reinforcement and also using CFRP as external confinement has increased by 80 % if it’s compared with no use of CFRP confinement and the circular column capacity of transverse and longitudinal reinforcement confinement to confinement of transverse and longitudinal reinforcement and also using CFRP as external confinement have a increasing the strength of 12.5 %.
|Keywords: CFRP, circular column, strength increase, confinement.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 634 KB|
|Title: Ultrasonic Testing Of Carbon Epoxy Laminate Ply Drop|
|Author(s): R.Sultan, S. Guirguis, M. Younes, E. El-Soaly|
|Pages: 14-18||Paper ID: 130101-7474-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2013|
Abstract: Composite materials are widely used in a number of industrial sectors from aviation, space, to boat building, automotive, and sports goods. Ultrasonic C-scans are used frequently to detect defects in composite materials caused during fabrication and damage resulting from service conditions. Evaluation and characterization of defects and damage require experience and good understanding of the composites. Under low-velocity impact loading delamination was observed. Impacts simulating practical conditions like tool-drop and runway debris induce defects such as delaminations, which are sub-surface in nature and are barely visible on the surface. Hence detection, evaluation and characterization of these delaminations are of major concern in aerospace industries as the life of the component depends on the size and shape of the delamination. In present paper, the results of extensive experimental ultrasonic C-scans using the pulse-echo immersion method on carbon epoxy laminate ply drop specimens impacted by low-velocity impact test were introduced to detect the invisible delamination. The capability of C-scan testing to detect the delamination was investigated. Also an attempt was done to solve the problem of sound wave lack at ply drop zone.
|Keywords: Ultrasonic test, C-scan, Carbon epoxy laminate ply drop, Delamination.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 320 KB|
|Title: Study on Surface Roughness and Chip Formation During Milling Operation of Mild Steel Using Vegetable Based Oil as a Lubricant|
|Author(s): S. A. Adam, N.A. Shuaib, M.R.M. Hafiezal, S. N. Suhaili|
|Pages: 19-23||Paper ID: 135001-8787-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2013|
Abstract: The purpose of this project research is focused on the study of surface roughness and chip formation during milling operation of Mild Steel using vegetable based oil as a lubricant. Experimental set up designed by using milling machine. Taguchi Method of Orthogonal Array with factorial design of experiments used to analysis the response. Surface roughness and chip formation predicting models was developed by using experimental data and analysis of the present lubricant and vegetables based oil. In the development of predictive models, cutting parameters of cutting velocity, feed rate, and depth of cut were considered as model variables. Further, the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique was used to analyze the influence of process parameters and their interaction during machining. From the analysis, it is observed that cutting speed is the most significant factor on the surface roughness followed by depth of cut and feed rate. While Sunflower Oil gives the lowest surface roughness by setting of the best combination parameter. Besides, the most influenced factor that contributes to larger chip formation is depth of cut. Even the lower cutting speed and smaller feed rate had been used, the size still become larger when it comes to the increasing of depth of cut.
|Keywords: Chip Formation, Lubricants, Machining, Surface Roughness, Taguchi Method of Orthogonal Array.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 296 KB|
|Title: Efficient Numerical Scheme of the Dynamics of Nonisothermal Thin Film Flow|
|Author(s): Moustafa A. Soliman, Khalid Alhumaizi|
|Pages: 24-39||Paper ID: 138301-7272-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2013|
Abstract: In this work we use Lubrication type method, based on the possibility of the separation of longitudinal and transversal length scales to simplify the analysis of thin film dynamics. We study the dynamics of evaporating thin liquid films on an inclined plane, where the effect of van der Waal forces is significant. The numerical solution of the evolution equation is carried out using the method of orthogonal collocation and is used for the study of the instabilities of evaporating thin film to identify conditions for efficient operation. For symmetric cases where the plane is horizontal, a two spline collocation second order formulation method that makes use of the symmetry seems most appropriate. For inclined plane, a spline collocation first order formulation method is most efficient.
|Keywords: Thin film flow, lubrication theory , orthogonal collocation.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 576 KB|
|Title: Removal of Cu(II) from Water by Adsorption on Chicken Eggshell|
|Author(s): Nurul Aimi binti Rohaizar, Norhafizah binti Abd. Hadi, Wong Chee Sien|
|Pages: 40-45||Paper ID: 139201-4646-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2013|
Abstract: The use of chicken eggshell as adsorbent for the removal of copper (II) from water was investigated in the present study. The effects of different parameters such as pH of the solution, agitation rate and contact time on the adsorption process were studied. The optimum conditions for Cu(II) adsorption by chicken eggshell were found to be at pH 7 with the agitation rate of 350 rpm. Equilibrium data were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and the data were fitted well to Freundlich isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics data were evaluated by the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The data were well correlated with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, which indicated that chemisorption processes could be the rate-limiting step in the adsorption process. The results show that chicken eggshell has the potential to be used as biosorbent for adsorption of copper (II) from water.
|Keywords: Copper, chicken eggshell, adsorption isotherm, kinetic model.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 205 KB|
|Title: Parametric Study on a Solar Still Located in Aswan, Egypt of Hot and Dry Climate|
|Author(s): Soubhi A. Hassanein, M. Attalla|
|Pages: 46-51||Paper ID: 135701-8282-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2013|
Abstract: All over the world access to potable water to the people are narrowing down day by day. Most of the human diseases are due to polluted or non purified water resources. Solar distillation proves to be both economical and eco-friendly technique particularly in rural areas. So a parametric study on a solar still located in Aswan, Egypt, is presented in this research. Solar Stills operate on the same principles that produce rainfall. The Sun is allowed into and trapped in the Still. The high temperatures produced destroy all pathogens. The water evaporates, and condense on the glass. The glass is sloped to the south, and the condensed water runs down the glass and is collected in a trough. The water is allowed out of the collector through tubing, and is collected in glasses. Static solar technologies as well as one axis sun tracking were compared. In addition to the effect of some parameters such as unit orientation, cooling water rate, radiation and convection loss was studied in detail. The results show that The highest water productivities per unit area are obtained by using combining of both FPC and PTC , cooling condensing surface ,and directed in south orientation.
|Keywords: Parametric Study; Solar Distillation; Solar Thermal Collector; Water Productivity .|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 429 KB|
|Title: Polarisation-Diverse MIMO System Performance for Mobile Phones Wlan Application|
|Author(s): Muhammad Usman|
|Pages: 52-57||Paper ID: 137001-8282-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2013|
Abstract: A triple dual-band inverted F antenna system is presented, intended for MIMO applications in mobile handsets accessing high-speed wireless local area networks (IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n standards). A comprehensive study was carried out in order to understand the enhancement of channel capacity and the effect of polarisation diversity. Means of achieving minimum coupling between the three antennas were investigated over the 2.45 GHz and 5.2 GHz bands. The antennas are placed in a geometry configuration appropriate to implement the desired field and polarisation diversities. All of the three polarised antennas in the system are resonant at 2.4 GHz and 5.2 GHz, with the return loss and coupling less than -12dB. The overall volumetric dimensions of each antenna were 30x15x8 mm. Each antenna contains two parts: a PIFA resonant at 2.4 GHz and an inverted-L behaving as a capacitive load and responsible for the resonance at 5.2 GHz The results has been calculated for the 3x3MIMO system without and with human hand around it.
|Keywords: Multiple Input Multiple Output communications (MIMO), Planar Inverted F Antenna, Channel capacity, Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN).|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 682 KB|
|Title: Aeroelastic Sensitivity Analysis of Airliner Wing|
|Author(s): Jiri Cecrdle, Ondrej Vich|
|Pages: 58-63||Paper ID: 137501-9494-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2013|
Abstract: This paper describes the airliner wing flutter sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity coefficients defines the influence of the structural parameters changes to the structure eigenvalue and flutter stability characteristics. Evaluated structural parameters represent the possible changes of the structure due to the installation of the smart high-lift devices at the leading and trailing edge region. In general, we can suppose the increasing of the mass and mass moment of inertia around the elastic axis and decreasing of the stiffness. Described effects are ordinarily considered destabilizing regarding the flutter. The main aim of the presented work is to evaluate the impact of components to the stability and to define the most critical regions or parameters.
|Keywords: Aeroelasticity, flutter, eigenvalue, sensitivity.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 813 KB|
|Title: Modelling Approach for Discrete Event Systems Through Petri Nets and Timed Automata|
|Author(s): Mhamdi.L, Dhouibi.H, SIMEU-ABAZI.Z, Liouane.N|
|Pages: 64-69||Paper ID: 138201-6565-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2013|
Abstract: In this paper we propose a new modeling approach. The proposed approach is based on hybrid model which combines Interval Constrained Petri Nets (ICPN) and Timed Automata. These tools allow us to evaluate, respectively, the quality variations and to manage the flow type disturbance. An example analysis illustrates our approach.
|Keywords: Modeling, Petri Nets, Timed Automata, Interval Constraint Petri Nets, Robustness.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 398 KB|
|Title: Development Of CO Gas Sensing Based SnO2 Thin Film|
|Author(s): I Dewa Putu Hermida, Yuyu R. Tayubi, Rani Nopriyanti|
|Pages: 70-74||Paper ID: 137401-3838-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2013|
Abstract: This research, have done design and fabrication CO gas sensing based on SnO2 thin film by sol gel method. For component of gas sensing such as electrode was made of gold by sputtering and heater was made of PdAg by screen printing. So that, sensor is expected to yields high sensitivity. Tests on sensors is conducted to determine the effect of temperature on the resistance of the sensor and the sensitivity of the sensor with a given flow rate of 10 ppm CO gas. The effect that occur in the sensor gas that when the temperature that given to sensor is enlarged then the sensitivity will increase as well, but when the temperature is given to sensor through its operational temperature sensor, the sensitivity of sensor value will decrease. It also conducted tests using SEM and EDS to determine the morphology and composition of the constituent sensor. Thus shown that the coating formed sensor has 21.21% C atoms, 22.43% O atoms, 14.98% Si atoms, 0.34% Cr atoms, 1.16% Ag atoms, 1.78% Sn atoms, and 38.11% Au atoms. Operational temperature owned by this sensor is 95° C with the highest sensitivity value of this sensor is 16.59.
|Keywords: SnO2, CO gas sensing, sensitivity, sputtering.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 745 KB|
|Title: A Soil Gas Radon Survey to Determine Fault at Southern Part of Rajabasa Geothermal Field, Lampung Indonesia|
|Author(s): Nandi Haerudin, Wahyudi, Suprajitno Munadi, Wiwit Suryanto|
|Pages: 75-81||Paper ID: 138501-2929-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2013|
Abstract: A soil gas survey for radon was carry out at the southern part of Rajabasa geothermal field, Lampung Indonesia. Survey area included 5.25 km2 and choosed 56 measurement point that was range 250 - 350 m spacing distance. The Radon concentration was measured by Scintrex Radon detector RDA 200. The result of radon soil gas survey performed high radon concentration in the three manifestations wich was included survey area; those are 123 cpm in Gunung Botak hot spring, 145 cpm Kunjir fumarole and 76 cpm Bulakan (Cugung) fumarole. Three manifestation connected by two fault that were the fist went from Gunung Botak tended west-southwest to east-northeast direction through Kunjir and the other went from south-southwest to north-northeast accros the fist line to Bulakan fumarole.
|Keywords: Geothermal field, Radon, soil gas survey.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 717 KB|
|Title: Comparison of Surface Flows Derived from Different Resolution DEM|
|Author(s): Bashir Rokni Deilami, Malik Rashid Abbas Al-Saffar, Afsaneh Sheikhi, Muhammad Isa Bala, Dermayana Arsal|
|Pages: 82-85||Paper ID: 139801-6464-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2013|
Abstract: This paper presents the comparison of two digital elevation model (Dem) at different spatial resolution in Scania (Sweden). Dem as being digital representation of landscape topography consists of elevation values in an array; landscape features such as slope, aspect, drainage areas and channel network can be rapidly extracted using specialized numerical algorithms.Two elevation datasets have been used in this study: Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 90m resolution and GSD-Höjddata 50 m spatial resolution. The Study area is Skåne County also known as Scania County in English. It is the southernmost administrative county, of Sweden with an area of 11300 km2 (55°59'43?N 13°26'30?E). Arcgis software was used in this paper for analysis. The method has four subdivisions: data harmonization, investigating and filling sinks, modelling the surface flows and comparing the surface flows with a settled evaluation test. First, flow direction was extracted from DEM (D8 method) and sink areas were inspected and filled, and then flow accumulation and stream network were produced. Finally, streams were derived from both DEMs and compared with river vector data (reality). The result shows that the streams derived from GSD-Höjddata 50m resolution fits better to river data (reality) in comparison with streams extracted from resampled SRTM 90m resolution DEM.
|Keywords: DEM, GIS, Spatial resolution, Sweden.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 392 KB|
|Title: Elevated Temperature Low Cycle Fatigue Properties of Martensitic Cast Steel|
|Author(s): Stanislaw Mrozinski, Grzegorz Golanski|
|Pages: 86-91||Paper ID: 1310001-9898-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2013|
Abstract: This work investigated the elevated temperature low cycle fatigue (LCF) properties of GX12CrMoVNbN9–1 (GP91) cast steel. Fatigue tests were performed for five levels of total strain amplitude ξac and temperature of 400, 550 and 600oC. In addition, the preliminary results from tensile test were presented. Strong cyclic softening was observed in all fatigue tests at elevated temperatures without stabilization period of loop parameters. The plastic strain amplitudes during cyclic strain loading were measured and correlated with the fatigue lifetime using Coffin – Mason – Basquin plots at each test temperature. The fatigue lifetime decreased as the temperature test increased. The temperature effect on lifetime was more pronounced at low strain amplitudes.
|Keywords: Fatigue, Mechanical properties, Lifetime estimation, Cast.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 695 KB|
|Title: Micro-Structure Characterization of Composite Wind Turbine Blade Following Structural Testing|
|Author(s): Caslav Mitrovic, Nebojša Petrovic, Dragoljub Bekric, Aleksandar Bengin, Branislav Rakicevic|
|Pages: 92-98||Paper ID: 1310101-7474-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2013|
Abstract: This paper presents the results of research of the microstructure of the composite blade W55RBVS for the wind turbine of up to 6kW power after structural testing up to failure. The first part of the testing consists of the static testing of the structure up to the moment of the blade failure. The aim of the first part of the test was to define rigidity of the blade W55RBVS, to determine the maximum force which leads to faliure and the relative span of the blade failure. Blade testing is performed in the Aerotechnics Laboratory of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade University. The second part of the testing consists of comparing the critically loaded part with sub-critically loaded part. This test was carried out by atomic force microscopy (Eng. Atomic Force Microscopy-AFM). All the results and analysis are presented in this paper. The test result will be used to redesign the blades.
|Keywords: Structural Testing, Small Wind Turbine, Composite Blade, Blade Testing, Microstructure, Atomic Force Microscopy.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 858 KB|
|Title: Gas Cooling Through Galaxy Formations|
|Author(s): Mariwan A. Rasheed , Mohamad A. Brza|
|Pages: 99-102||Paper ID: 1312701-8484-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2013|
Abstract: Gas cooling was studied in two different boxes of sizes ?(70 Mpc h^(-1))?^3 and ?(120 Mpc h^(-1))?^3 by simulation at same redshifts. The gas cooling is shown in four different redshifts (z=1.15, 0.5, 0.1 and 0). In the simulation the positions of the clumps of cooled gas were studied with slices of the two volumes and also the density of cooled gas of the two volumes shown in the simulation. From the process of gas cooling it is clear that this process gives different results in the two cases.
|Keywords: Gas Cooling, Simulation, galaxy Formation.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 510 KB|
|Title: Physical Properties of Sunflower Seeds Components Related to Kernel Pneumatic Separation|
|Author(s): Gamal Rashad Gamea|
|Pages: 103-114||Paper ID: 1312401-4747-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2013|
Abstract: The first part of the present study deals with some physical properties for sunflower seeds components (seeds, hulls and kernels) related to pneumatic separation which are evaluated as a function of change in moisture content from 8% to 14% (d.b.). Simple linear empirical equations were developed to predict sunflower seeds components properties according to moisture content. All dimensions, mass, angle of repose, coefficient of fraction, and terminal velocity increased linearly with the moisture content increased up to 14 %, while the bulk density decreased linearly with the moisture content increased. The second part was carried out on a series of experiments to specify the optimum conditions of separating operation which ensure the highest grade of separation efficiency with minimum kernel losses. Pneumatic separation equipment was tested under different combinations of the following factors: air stream velocity, feed rate, broken kernels percentage and moisture content by using indices separation efficiency and kernel losses. The combination of air velocity , feed rate, broken kernels % and moisture content affected significantly the separation efficiency and kernel losses. Air stream velocity of 3.5 m/s combined with 30 kg/h feed rate, 10% broken kernels and (10 – 12%) moisture content can be considered the most favorable combination values.
|Keywords: Sunflower kernels, pneumatic separation, terminal velocity, kernel losses|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 609 KB|
|Title: Using of a Compatibilizer to Improve Morphological, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Biodegradable Plastic From Thermoplastic Starch/LLDPE Blends|
|Author(s): Waryat, M. Romli, A. Suryani, I. Yuliasih, S. Johan|
|Pages: 115-122||Paper ID: 1312901-7272-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2013|
Abstract: Problems encountered in the manufacture of biodegradable plastic are not compatible between hydrophilic/polar and hydrophobic/non-polar materials. To improve the compatibility between the two material blend were added materials such as compatibilizer. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of compatibilizer on the physical and mechanical properties of biodegradable plastics made from thermoplastic starch (TPS) and LLDPE blend. This study is divided three steps, that is preparation of thermoplastic starch, preperation of compatibilizer (LLDPE/HDPE-g-MA), and preperation of biodegradable plastic. The parameters observed morphological structure, functional group, Melt Flow Rate and mechanical properties. morphological structure of biodegradable plastic become compatible and homogeneous with the using of compatibilizer with the marked spread of TPS into the polymer matrix. Compatibilizer is able to mediate between two materials which have characteristics different that is LLDPE (hydrophobic) and TPS (hydrophilic). C = O stretching was resulted from ester group formation between TPS and MA-g_LLDPE with the wavelength absorption of 1639.89 cm -1, 1632.47 cm -1 and 1649.18 cm -1. Using of a compatibilizer made biodegradable plastic more compatible, homogeneous and good mechanical properties. Compatibilizer can improve surface adhesivitas between LLDPE and TPS blend. The presence of MA-g-LLDPE resulted greater physical and mechanical properties of biodegrdabel plastic than without compatibilizer.
|Keywords: Compatibilizer, TPS, LLDPE, biodegradable plastic|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 499 KB|