|Title: Reversible Photo-Switching of Interface Magnetism in Azobenzene-coated CdSe Nanoparticles|
|Author(s): Anastasia Wheni Indrianingsih, Aya Ikegami, Masayuki Suda, Yasuaki Einaga|
|Pages: 1-10||Paper ID: 130502-2929-IJET-IJENS||Published: April, 2013|
Abstract: Reversible phototuning of magnetism in a magnetic semiconductor will have a great potential for new electronic devices. We have observed a photo-controllable ferromagnetism at the interface of a dilute magnetic semiconductor based on CdSe nanoparticles coated with azobenzene derivative ligand (CdSe-AZ NPs). This photochromic ligand have an important role for the appearance of ferromagnetism properties as well as a photo-function agent at the interface of CdSe-AZ NPs, since both of CdSe and AZ compound are diamagnetic material. We proposed that these photoinduced changes in the magnetization due to a photoisomerization behavior of AZ compound. UV light irradiation induce the photoisomerization of azo derivative ligand from more stable trans form to cis form, while visible light irradiation induce the reverse. We believe that this kind of photoisomerization accompanied by alterations in the LUMO level of the ligand affecting the surface states of CdSe NPs that have a correlation with the alteration of magnetic properties in CdSe-AZ NPs.
|Keywords: CdSe NPs, azobenzene-derivative ligand, photo-switching, interface magnetism.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 582 KB|
|Title: Design and Application of Service Robots in Assisting Patients and Rehabilitation of Patients|
|Author(s): Isak Karabegovic, Mehmed Felic, Milena Ðukanovic|
|Pages: 11-17||Paper ID: 131102-8282-IJET-IJENS||Published: April, 2013|
Abstract: Service robotics design, as well as robotics itself, has been faced with a challenge and opportunity to find solutions that will satisfy population from the aspect of their health with regard to social and health care and provide them with complete help and support. Design is one the main factors in developing service robotics as well as the identified trends of the elderly. Globally, there is an increased number of retired and the elderly. This paper shows the examples of service robots and robotized systems that assist patients and the handicapped in performing their daily activities and supporting their rehabilitation. Goal of robotic technology is to develop service robots of such a design that will provide an interactive communication with a patient, give them support in performing their daily activities, making their life a more quality-based one, more eventful and stress-free, so that the design can make the users happy.
|Keywords: design, robot, rehabilitation, patient care, assisting a patient, service robot.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 871 KB|
|Title: Multilevel Inverter with Less Number of Isolated dc Bus Voltages|
|Author(s): Mahrous E. Ahmed, Hatim Ghazi M. Zaini|
|Pages: 18-22||Paper ID: 134201-1302-5656-IJET-IJENS||Published: April, 2013|
Abstract: This paper proposes a three-phase 7 levels voltage source inverter employing space vector modulation (SVM) control scheme and with natural dc bus voltages balancing. The proposed inverter is a modular type that can increase its level by adding more cells to each arm. A high frequency transformer (HFT) is proposed in this paper to generate the dc bus voltage of the auxiliary cell from the main cell dc bus voltage. As a result of that the number of isolated dc bus voltages required is reduced by half. In addition, a natural balancing between the main and auxiliary cell dc bus voltages of each arm will be attained due to the HFT turns ratio which result in simplifying the overall control of the whole system. In order to reduce the size of the HFT a judicious modulation index (MI) will be chosen. The proposed system has been simulated using induction motor load. Analyses and simulation have been provided to validate the proposed system.
|Keywords: MLI, Isolated DC bus sources, HFT, SVM, DC sources balancing.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 437 KB|
|Title: Hydrocarbon Fuel Analysis by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometer with Hexane Solvent|
|Author(s): Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid|
|Pages: 23-32||Paper ID: 130202-8585-IJET-IJENS||Published: April, 2013|
Abstract: Waste plastic (HDPE) to fuel production and product fuel was analysis with hexane solvent by using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS). Liquid fuel sample was mixture with hexane solvent in ratio fuel 1 ml: solvent 5 ml on the other hand fuel 5 ml: solvent 1 ml. Two types of liquid sample was analysis by GC/MS one was liquid fuel 1 ml and hexane solvent was 5 ml, 2nd sample was liquid fuel 5 ml and hexane solvent was 1 ml. GC/MS analysis chromatogram result showed 1 ml fuel and 5 ml hexane solvent mixture to carbon compounds range C6 to C27, on the other hand 5 ml fuel and 1 ml hexane solvent mixture to carbon compounds chain range showed C6 to C24.
|Keywords: Fuel, hydrocarbon, hexane solvent, gas chromatography, mass spectrometer.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 320 KB|
|Title: Terahertz Imaging System for Biomedical Applications: Current Status|
|Author(s): A. K. Panwar, Abhisek Singh, Anuj Kumar, Hiesik Kim|
|Pages: 33-39||Paper ID: 131502-5757-IJET-IJENS||Published: April, 2013|
Abstract: Terahertz (THz) radiation lies between the infrared and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The THz technology has important opened up many opportunities in the area of medical. Advances in THz medical imaging field are immature. In this paper presents a review of the status of the THz imaging system and application in area of biomedical such as breast and colon cancer tissue. We give the main focus of this study of mapping margins of tumors in earlier stage based on terahertz imaging system such as terahertz pulse imaging, terahertz time domain spectroscopy, continuous wave terahertz, and THz generation with schottky diode and without beam stop.
|Keywords: Terahertz radiation, biomedical imaging system, breast and colon cancer, THz-TDS, Terahertz pulse imaging.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 315 KB|
|Title: Indirect Evaporative Cooling Availability and Thermal Effectiveness Characteristics in Air-Water Systems of Hot and Dry Climates|
|Author(s): Waleed A. Abdel-Fadeel|
|Pages: 40-52||Paper ID: 132002-8181-IJET-IJENS||Published: April, 2013|
Abstract: The success of evaporative cooling technology as a significant means of a cooling in modern application is the ability to generate cooling water, in an indirect circuit, at a temperature which closely approaches the ambient adiabatic saturation (AST). Evaporative cooling, can be used to provide effective cooling in building by means of contemporary water based sensible cooling system, such as fan coil systems and ceiling cooling convertors (chilled beams). In this research a diurnal variation for May, June, and July was measured .A comparison between measured and calculated cooling water temperatures result from evaporative cooling was done. Also a comparison between previous work and present study carried out which gave the same trend. Finally this research quantifies evaporative cooling availability and thermal effectiveness in depth for southern Egypt (Aswan city) which has hot and dry climates that suitable for evaporative cooling. The results of this research confirm a major potential for the generation of cooling water by evaporative means. Where Cooling water could be generated at range of (20 – 22) oC during months May, June, and July, and at range of (15 – 18) oC in March and April months for 87% availability during these months.
|Keywords: Evaporative cooling ; Cooling tower ; Indirect evaporative; Hot and dry climate; Availability; Thermal effectiveness.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 1,052 KB|
|Title: A Review: Development of Polymeric Blend Membrane For Removal of CO2 From Natural Gas|
|Author(s): Asim Mushtaq, Hilmi Bin Mukhtar, Azmi Mohd Shariff, Hafiz Abdul Mannan|
|Pages: 53-60||Paper ID: 135902-7272-IJET-IJENS||Published: April, 2013|
Abstract: In this paper, natural gas also referred to as, “Princess of Hydrocarbon”. As it is a fastest growing energy source, gas separation membranes are extensively used for the separation of CO2 from natural gas. Polymeric membranes have mechanical strength, reproducibility and economical processing capacity. However they suffer from upper bound tradeoff between permeability and selectivity. Inorganic membranes have high selectivity, robustness, thermal and chemical stability but these membranes are economically unfavorable due to high capital and maintance cost. In mixed matrix membrane (MMM) superior gas separation properties of inorganic membranes and economical processes ability of polymeric membranes are exploited by combining the inorganic particles in polymer matrix. In case of glassy polymer, poor distributions of dispersed phase in polymer matrix and week contact of particles in polymer matrix are the challenges in MMM. For rubbery polymers, poor selectivity of MMM is the core problem. Blending of a glassy and a rubbery polymer with amines is suggested to develop a polymeric blend membrane by coating the polymer blend with different amines of high selectivity and permeability. The developed membrane will be characterized and its performance will be evaluated for the separation of CO2 from natural gas in terms of selectivity and permeability.
|Keywords: Natural Gas, Carbon Dioxide, Polymeric Blend Membrane, Selectivity, Permeability.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 603 KB|
|Title: Mineral Evaluation of Black Shale of Chimiari region of Khyber Pakthunkhawa, Pakistan by Size Analysis|
|Author(s): Muhammad Tariq, Muhammad Shafiq, Abdul Aziz, Muhammad Mansoor Iqbal|
|Pages: 61-68||Paper ID: 138302-6464-IJET-IJENS||Published: April, 2013|
Abstract: The black shale of Chimiari region of Khyber Pakthunkhawa Pakistan is sieved for its mineral evaluation of various fractions. Disc Pulverizer made by Mine and Smelter Supply Co. Denver USA used for grinding and Tyler series for sieving to get the required range of fractions. Study showed a gradual decrease in concentration of SiO2, Al2O3, K2O, V2O5 and TiO2 from higher fraction size to lower fraction size and similarly a gradual increase in concentrations of Fe2O3, CaO, SO3, and MnO2 from higher fractional size to lower fraction size. MgO attained more or less the same value in all fractions. Using water as suspension media and further microscopic studies reveals that 83.65 % of suspended particles are equal to or less than 10.53 µm size.
|Keywords: Black shale, chimiari, minerals, sizing, upgradation.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 208 KB|
|Title: Performance Comparison of MIMO Systems over AWGN and Rayleigh Channels using OSTBC4 with Zero Forcing Receivers|
|Author(s): Navjot Kaur, Lavish Kansal|
|Pages: 69-76||Paper ID: 138402-9292-IJET-IJENS||Published: April, 2013|
Abstract: MIMO (Multiple-input multiple-output) is an antenna technology for wireless communications in which multiple antennas are used at both the transmitter and the receiver. The antennas used at each end of the communications circuit are combined to optimize data speed within the limited radio frequency spectrum. The performance analysis of MIMO system over AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels using OSTBC4 as space time block coding with Zero Forcing (ZF) receiver is presented. The performance can be improved by using different antenna selection at transmitter and receiver sides. In this paper, OSTBC4 is used as space time coding in which the number of transmitting antennas is 4 whereas the receiving antennas are being varied from 1 to 4. So in this way, MIMO systems take advantage of spatial diversity. The Bit Error Rate (BER) analysis for M-PSK modulation using OSTBC4 over AWGN and Rayleigh channels is presented.
|Keywords: MIMO, AWGN, Rayleigh, OSTBC4, spatial diversity, Zero Forcing, BER, M-PSK.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 598 KB|
|Title: The Effects of CNTs Types on The Structural and Electrical Properties of CNTs/PMMA Nanocomposite Films|
|Author(s): J. Al-Osaimi, N. Alhosiny, Ali Badawi, S. Abdallah|
|Pages: 77-79||Paper ID: 1310302-7676-IJET-IJENS||Published: April, 2013|
Abstract: The structural and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) of different types (SWCNT, DWCNT and MWCNT) / poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) composites films have been investigated. The composite were prepared in the form of films by the solution casting technique. Their structural properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD revealed that CNTs are well immersed in the polymer chains. The dc electrical conductivity measurements of CNTs/PMMA films show that there is one order of magnitude enhancement relative to plain PMMA film.
|Keywords: CNTs/PMMA composite, dc electrical properties ,structural properties|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 542 KB|
|Title: Toward an Automatic Annotation Approach Based on Ontological Enrichment for Advanced Research|
|Author(s): Yassine Ayadi, Ikram Amous, Faiez Gargouri|
|Pages: 80-89||Paper ID: 138102-9797-IJET-IJENS||Published: April, 2013|
Abstract: In this paper, we present a new approach for image semantic annotation to facilitate the retrieval of the image. It discusses works in progress of our approach, which comprises the extension of ontology by the semantic rules to facilitate and optimize research. This comprises the development of the domain ontology used for annotation, the functionality for annotating image with an underlying ontology and search features based on these annotations. Our approach is based on the definition and the generation of semantic rules presented via the logic of predicates. Then, we proposed the classification of these rules by a method of clustering Fuzzy C-means. For this, we used the method of co-citation to calculate the similarity measure between images. This classification has grouped thematically these images with the aim to facilitate research and annotation. We also describe a method for automatic enrichment query SPARQL language using new properties that we defined.
|Keywords: Automatic annotation, Classification, Enrichment ontology, Enrichment query, Hierarchical organization, Image, Semantic rules, SPARQL.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 1,084 KB|
|Title: Determining the Realization Risk of Network Structured Material Flows in Machine Building Industry Production Processes|
|Author(s): Dusko Letic, Branko Davidovic, Dragan Z. Zivkovic|
|Pages: 90-93||Paper ID: 135002-9898-IJET-IJENS||Published: April, 2013|
Abstract: In the paper are presented the results of the theoretical researches of the quantification of superposing flow rate periods of complex activity flows and occurrences in network structures for designs according to the PERT model in mechanical engineering. Expanding Clark’s researches we generalize the flow models of parallel and ordinal activities and events of preferentially their critical flows. The computer solving of the selected variants of activity flows models through the network in addition to the Clark’s equations. The numerical test is realized by Mathcad Professional program package.
|Keywords: Flow rate periods of production, Mathematical model, Simulation Monte Carlo.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 494 KB|
|Title: Treated Coconut Shell Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites|
|Author(s): H. Salmah, M. Marliza, P. L. Teh|
|Pages: 94-103||Paper ID: 1310202-8383-IJET-IJENS||Published: April, 2013|
Abstract: The effect of untreated and treated Coconut Shell (CS) reinforced Unsaturated Polyester (USP) composites were studied. Coconut shell was treated with 1% sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The results showed that the addition of CS content have increased the tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, flexural strength, flexural modulus and thermal stability whereas elongation at break of USP/CS composites decreased. The treated USP/CS composites have higher tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, flexural strength, flexural modulus and thermal stability of treated USP/CS composites compared than untreated composites. The better filler dispersion and interaction between CS and USP with alkali treatments was proven by SEM study. The FTIR spectra show that the change of functional group of treated CS with alkali treatment.
|Keywords: Unsaturated polyester, coconut shell, treatment, composites.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 653 KB|
|Title: Application of a Methodology for Measuring Aerospace Parts by Ultrasonic Considering the Measurement Uncertainty through Analytical and Monte Carlo Simulation Method|
|Author(s): Silva, B. C. A;, Motta, M. S.; Oliveira, J. E. F.|
|Pages: 104-110||Paper ID: 1310402-9595-IJET-IJENS||Published: April, 2013|
Abstract: The purpose of this work is to present a methodology to ensure the metrological confidence during measurement of aerospace parts by ultrasonic, focusing the thickness measurement of an airplane wing skin. This methodology involves from the criteria used to perform the selection of a proper measurement system (ultrasonic) to the establishment of a conformity zones, using the Monte Carlo simulation for the uncertainty measurement determination. It will be shown, through experimental analysis, that minor variations in the steps of the proposed methodology could reflect in relevant quality loss of the measurement result and, in addition, by not to considering a realistic conformity zone, the aerospace industry will be subjected to two possible mistakes: the approval of wing skin thickness out of the allowable limits, compromising, therefore, the passengers, crew and airplane safety; or the rejection (repair requested) of a wing skin thickness within specification limits, mistakenly affecting in the maintenance costs. Based on the above mentioned context, the methodology proposed in this work objects to prevent that both situations may occur in the inspection practice, in realistic costs.
|Keywords: Ultrasonic measurement, measurement uncertainty, Monte Carlo simulation, aerospace industry.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 591 KB|
|Title: Preparation and Characterization of Sand Reinforced Polyester Composites|
|Author(s): Rajia Sultana, Rafia Akter, Md. Zahangir Alam, Md. Rakibul Qadir, M. H. Ara Begum, Md. Abdul Gafur|
|Pages: 111-118||Paper ID: 135202-4747-IJET-IJENS||Published: April, 2013|
Abstract: Sand reinforced polyester composites (SPCs) containing 10% to 60% sand with respect to the weight of unsaturated polyester resin have been prepared by compression molding. Different physico-mechanical properties such as water absorption, compressive strength, flexural strength, hardness and thermal conductivity of SPCs were investigated by standard methods. Fourier transformed infra-red (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the SPCs. The effects of amount of sand in SPCs on different mechanical and thermal properties of SPCs were studied in detail. The results indicated that amount of reinforcing agent plays a vital role in the properties of SPCs.
|Keywords: Composite, Sand, polyester resin, flexural strength, hardness.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 504 KB|
|Title: Flammability Behavior of tires material after adding flame retardant agent|
|Author(s): Ali I. Al-Mosawi, Haider K. Ammash, Mohammad H. Al-Maamori, Abbass Hashim|
|Pages: 119-121||Paper ID: 1311002-8585-IJET-IJENS||Published: April, 2013|
Abstract: This work reports the use of Magnesium hydroxide as flame retardant in aircrafts tires. Studies have been carried out to evaluate the fire-retardant properties aircrafts tires after adding magnesium hydroxide with (5%,10%) weight fracture to master batch of tire and then exposed the resulting material to a direct flame generated from gas flame (2000ºC) with flame exposure distance (10 mm). Method of measuring the surface temperature opposite to the flame was used to determine the heat transferred through tire material. The results was obtained from thermal erosion test shows improved flammability resistance for tire by added magnesium hydroxide and this resistance increased by increasing hydroxide Percentage .
|Keywords: Fire Behavior, Magnesium Hydroxide, Aircrafts Tires.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 381 KB|
|Title: Fabrication and Characterization of Woven Natural Fibre Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Resin Composites|
|Author(s): Rafia Akter, Rajia Sultana, Md. Zahangir Alam, Md. Rakibul Qadir, M. H. Ara Begum, Md. Abdul Gafur|
|Pages: 122-128||Paper ID: 136802-6060-IJET-IJENS||Published: April, 2013|
Abstract: Woven natural fibre reinforced polymer composites consisting of Pati bet also known as murta (Clinogyne dichotoma) reinforcement, unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) matrix and talc filler were fabricated by simple cold press molding. Thermosetting unsaturated polyester resin with 7.5% styrene monomer was used as matrix which form gel in 2-3 hours by using 1.5% methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) hardener. Double layer woven fibre mats were used. Talc was used as at different weight percentages (5%, 10% and 15%) to investigate its effects on different properties of composites. It was observed that flexural strength and modulus increased with an increase in talc content. Thermal stabilities of composites were also improved. X-ray diffraction was also used to characterize the composites.
|Keywords: Fibre reinforced polymer composite, unsaturated polyester resin, Clinogyne dichotoma, Talc, Flexural strength.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 355 KB|
|Title: Characteristic of AlN Layer Deposited by d.c. Magnetron Sputtering on AISI 410 Steel|
|Author(s): Gaguk Jatisukamto, Viktor Malau, M Noer Ilman, Priyo Tri Iswanto|
|Pages: 129-133||Paper ID: 1311102-8585-IJET-IJENS||Published: April, 2013|
Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of AlN sputtering with d.c. magnetron sputtering on surface roughness, specific wear and corrosion rate of the AISI 410 steel. AlN thin film was deposited on AISI 410 steel substrates using d.c. magnetron sputtering in discharging a mixture of N2 and Ar gas. The influence of deposition time on the surface roughness, hardness, specific wear for the obtained films was evaluated by means of surfcorder, microhardness testing, and wear testing. The investigations of the electrochemical corrosion behavior of the samples were carried out using EG&G 273 Potentiostat/Galvanostat in three electrodes chamber. As the result, the surface treatments with d.c. magnetron sputtering methods increase hardness, but decrease corrosion rate and specific wear rate. Changes in wear rate and corrosion rate could be related to the surface roughness.
|Keywords: AlN thin film, d.c. magnetron sputtering, corrosion rate, specific wear rate.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 303 KB|
|Title: Comparative Studies On Coag -flocculation Kinetics of Pharmaceutical Industry Effluent by Achatina Maginata Shell Biomass and Aluminum Sulphate|
|Author(s): Ugonabo, V. I, Menkiti, M .C, Atuanya, C.U., Onukwuli, D. O|
|Pages: 134-147||Paper ID: 1311202-7676-IJET-IJENS||Published: April, 2013|
Abstract: Comparative studies on coag-flocculation kinetics of pharmaceutical industry effluent by achatina maginata and aluminum sulphate is reported. To remove total suspended and dissolved particles (TS DP) from the effluent sample. The experiments were carried using standard nephelometric jar test method while AMS C production was based on method reported . Microkinetic data generated were fitted to specific models to evaluate interaction effects of coagulation factors (effluent medium pH, coagulant dosage, settling time) on the treatment efficiency. Results obtained indicates that the best performance for AMS C: 13, 0.2 X for pH and dosage and alum: 10, 0.1 x kg/m 3 for pH and dosage, were achieved at 2400S ec. settling time respectively. The optimum value recorded for both coag-flocculation activities is 93.26% removal effi ciency of TS DP at rate constant of 1.34E – 04m 3 /kg.S for alum. However, AMS C have proved to be good alternative for alum having achieved good performance even better in some cases for all pH and dosages studied.
|Keywords: Achatina Maginata, Aluminum S ulphate, Coagulation/Flocculation, Pharmaceutical Industry Effluent, Comparism.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 663 KB|
|Title: Photo-Oxidation of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells|
|Author(s): Saad Al-Sabbagh|
|Pages: 148-151||Paper ID: 1311502-7474-IJET-IJENS||Published: April, 2013|
Abstract: From different sources of carbon , propane have been chosen to get a wider band gap amorphous silicon alloy . After analyzing the conductivity and optical gap variation with the doping ratio , the best were used to fabricate 5x5 cm2 solar cells . Those cells are connected to form 75 x 75 cm2 panels. Photo-oxidation were carried out using different sources as an accelerated method to study the metastable illumination effect in a-Si:H , this process have improved solar cells efficiency by 5.5% ,to get a total efficiency of more than 16 %.
|Keywords: Amorphous Silicon , Solar Cells , Photo-Oxidation .|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 330 KB|
|Title: Approaches of Vector Control of a Linear Induction Motor Considering End Effects|
|Author(s): Hajji Mansour, Barhoumi El Manâa, Ben Salah Boujemâa|
|Pages: 152-159||Paper ID: 1212805-1302-4545-IJET-IJENS||Published: April, 2013|
Abstract: In this work, the idea consists to minimize and compensate the end effects in a linear induction machine. To minimize these effects a new order is developed. This control consists in imposing a primary flux so as to have minimal losses. For compensation, the variations due to the end effects are calculated by a neural network. The use of these variations makes it possible to operate the vector control to overcome these effects. The developed strategies of vector control are sensitive to the secondary parameters variation. To cure this insufficiency, another approach will be developed.
|Keywords: Linear Induction Motor, End Effects, Vector Control, Minimization, Compensation.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 818 KB|
|Title: Effect of Refrigeration Temperature, Sugar Concentrations and Different Chemicals Preservatives on the Storage Stability of Strawberry Juice|
|Author(s): Shakoor Wisal, Javid Ullah, Alam Zeb, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan|
|Pages: 160-168||Paper ID: 1311602-8383-IJET-IJENS||Published: April, 2013|
Abstract: This research was carried out to investigate the effect of sugar concentrations, chemical preservatives, and refrigeration temperature (4-10oC) on the physicochemical and sensory attributes of strawberry juice stored for one year. The samples were numbered as, TR24=Strawberry juice (7.5°brix) - no preservatives (control), TR25=Strawberry juice (7.5°brix) with 0.1% sodium benzoate, TR26=Strawberry juice (7.5°brix) with 0.1% potassium sorbate, TR27=Strawberry juice (7.5°brix) with 0.05% sodium benzoate+0.05% potassium sorbate, TR28=Strawberry juice (20.5°brix) - no preservatives (control), TR29=Strawberry juice (20.5°brix) with 0.1% sodium benzoate, TR30=Strawberry juice (20.5°brix) with 0.1% potassium sorbate, TR31=Strawberry juice (20.5°brix) with 0.05% sodium benzoate +0.05% potassium sorbate, TR32=Strawberry juice (30.5°brix) - no preservatives (control), TR33=Strawberry juice (30.5°brix) with 0.1% sodium benzoate, TR34=Strawberry juice (30.5°brix) with 0.1% potassium sorbate, TR35=Strawberry juice (30.5°brix) with 0.05% sodium benzoate +0.05% potassium sorbate. Maximum increase in total soluble solids (TSS) content occurred in TR25 and TR26 (20.00%) while minimum increase was recorded in TR35 (6.55%) during storage. Maximum decrease in pH content occurred in TR24 (19.65%) followed by TR32 (16.30%) while minimum decrease was observed in TR35 (9.51%). Maximum increase in titratable acidity occurred in TR24 (145.92%) followed by TR32 (124.69%) while minimum increase occurred in TR35 (95.06%). Maximum ascorbic acid decreased in TR24 (88.81%) followed by TR32 (79.55%) while minimum decreased was observed in TR35 (64.53%) followed by TR33 (67.46%). Maximum increase in reducing sugar content was recorded in TR34 (30.70%) while minimum increase occurred in TR27 (19.65%). Maximum decrease in non reducing sugar occurred in TR32 (93.65%) followed by TR24 (83.09%) while minimum decrease occurred in TR27 (26.76%). Maximum decrease in color was recorded for TR24 (37.50%) followed by TR32 (31.25%). Flavor deterioration occurred in control samples and maximum decrease was observed in TR24 (87.50) followed by TR32 (62.50%) while concentrated samples showed less loss in flavor during storage. Comparatively better consistency was recorded by sweetened juice. After one year storage, the samples were acceptable to the consumer on the basis of color, flavor, consistency and overall acceptability. Among all the treatments TR24 and TR32 were rejected during storage while TR35 was found most effective followed by TR33 than other samples.
|Keywords: Strawberry juice, benzoate, sorbate, sucrose, refrigeration temperature.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 399 KB|