|Title: Fuzzy Logic Application for Odor Detection|
|Author(s): Azahar, T. M., Ratnawati, I., Shariffah Nur Rasyidah, S. H., NurAtiqah Nadiah, C. M. R.|
|Pages: 1-4||Paper ID: 132505-8787-IJET-IJENS||Published: October, 2013|
Abstract: Fuzzy logic is one of the techniques in Artificial Intelligent (AI) that widely used to control environmental factors. The effectiveness of fuzzy logic has been proven through a lot of creation of Intelligent System using fuzzy logic application. This paper presents the research segment of development of methodology for determining odor level using fuzzy logic based algorithm. Two different gas sensors are used which respond to carbon monoxide, methane, hydrogen, ethanol and chlorofluorocarbon. This study focused on evaluating the possibility of using gas sensor to detect odor level produced by coffee. Sensor fusion is achieved through processing the analog to digital converted values of sensor outputs using algorithm to determine the odor level of predetermined odors. Fuzzy logic algorithm is based on Zadeh-Mamdani type Fuzzy inference system approach. The result of this study will be displayed in form of percentage values and will be compared with the simulation result using Matlab.
|Keywords: Odor Detection, Gas Sensors, Fuzzy Logic.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 419 KB|
|Title: A Comparison of Characteristic-Based Split Algorithm and Multi-Grid method for Solution of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations|
|Author(s): T. M. Shah, N. Talat|
|Pages: 5-11||Paper ID: 132805-7474-IJET-IJENS||Published: October, 2013|
Abstract: The split follows the process initially introduced by Chorin [1,2] for incompressible flow problems in the finite difference context. Similar extensions of the split to finite element formulation for different applications of incompressible flows have carried out by many authors . The same split have also done by the author of this paper using multi-grid methods to incompressible flows . The characteristics-Based Split (CBS) Algorithm has first introduced by Zienkiewicz and Codina  to solve the fluid dynamics equations of both compressible and incompressible forms. This new form is applicable to fully compressible flows in both explicit and semi-implicit forms. In the case of real compressibility such as in gas flows, the computational advantages of the explicit form compare well with other currently used schemes and the additional cost due to splitting the operator is insignificant. Generally for an ideal case, results are considerably improved throughout a large range of aerodynamic problems. However, a further advantage is that both subsonic and supersonic problems can be solved by the same code . Similar, the case in Multi-Grid code developed in  can cope with large range of aerodynamic / hydrodynamic and subsonic / supersonic problems can be solved by the same code. This gives a true comparison between the two strategies. In the current paper, a comparative analysis of Multi-Grid solution and solution obtained by CBS algorithm for the incompressible flow problems is done. Results are obtained and presented for discussions.
|Keywords: CBS algorithm, Mesh Generation, Multi-Grid method, Finite element method, Navier-Stokes equations, Bench mark Problems.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 741 KB|
|Title: Influence Of Coag-Flocculation Operating Conditions In The Remediation Of Pharmaceutical Effluent Using Pleurotus Tuberregium Sclerotium Coagulant|
|Author(s): Ugonabo V. I., Menkiti M. C., Ajemba R. O., Onukwuli D. O.|
|Pages: 12-23||Paper ID: 134705-9494-IJET-IJENS||Published: October, 2013|
Abstract: The influence of coag-flocculation operating conditions on the performance of Pleurotus Tuberregium Sclerotium in Pharmaceutical effluent was investigated at room temperature. This was determined at varying coag-flocculation operating conditions such as time (2,4,6,10,20,30,40)x60 sec; dosage (0.1 – 0.7) x10-3kg/m3, and pH 1,3,5,7,10,13. Conventional nephelometric Jar test apparatus was employed to evaluate these effects while pleurotus tuberregium sclerotium was prepared according to the method described therein. The results obtained were used to evaluate the coag-flocculation kinetic parameters such as reaction rate (-r), ath order coag-flocculation constant k, coagulation period ?½, evaluated initial total dissolved solid particles Co, etc. The maximum pleurotus tuberregium sclerotium coagulant performance is recorded at K of 6E – 04 m3/kg.s, and Co of 1000 m3/kg while the minimum parametric performance is recorded at k of 9E – 06 m3/kg.s; dosages of (0.2, 0.3) x10-3 kg/m3 ;pH of 5, 3; ?½ of 120.77 sec, 120.77 sec and Co of 1000 m3/kg each. The maximum value of coag-flocculation efficiency E(%) recorded is 95.54%. The results have established at the conditions of the experiment that pleurotus tuberregium sclerotium coagulant can favorable be compared with alum at all pH .
|Keywords: Influence, coag-flocculation, operational conditions, pharmaceutical effluent, pleurotus tuberregium.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 692 KB|
|Title: Investigation on Performance and Emissions Characteristics of an Internal Combustion Engine Fuelled with Petroleum Gasoline and a Hybrid Methanol–Gasoline Fuel|
|Author(s): Ashraf Elfasakhany|
|Pages: 24-43||Paper ID: 138404-1305-9090-IJET-IJENS||Published: October, 2013|
Abstract: The objectives of this work are to study the characteristic performance and pollutant emissions of the internal combustion engine using gasoline fuel and hybrid methanol-gasoline-blends (0%vol, 3%vol, 7%vol and 10%vol methanol). A fully functioning internal combustion engine experiment is built up for that purpose. The experiment setup includes a single cylinder four-stroke spark-ignition engine, brake and drive unit (BDU) that functions as a dynamometer, and a combustion engine basic module (CEBM) that functions as a display and control panel. For monitoring pollutant emissions, exhaust gas analyser with hand held remote operating unit is used to examine the carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) levels in exhaust gases of the SI engine. The analyser applies an interference filter correlation procedure using an infrared energy. The infrared energy in the test bench is transmitted through the flow of exhaust gases to a filtered infrared detector. A rotating chopper wheel cyclically interrupts the infrared rays and produces a sequence of signals. The analysis of the measured signals is done automatically by a microprocessor. Experimental results of the analyser as well as engine performance declare that when methanol is added into gasoline, the fuel blend contains more oxygen, which improves performance and reduces CO and HC emissions. Low fraction of methanol in methanol/gasoline blend (e.g., 10%vol methanol) can be used in SI engines without need to modify the engines.
|Keywords: Engine, gasoline, methanol, performance, emissions|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 1,215 KB|
|Title: An Introduction to Creative Thinking in Architectural Design|
|Author(s): Omar Musa Amireh|
|Pages: 44-53||Paper ID: 138405-9292-IJET-IJENS||Published: October, 2013|
Abstract: Architecture in Jordan academia and professionalism considered as an engineering not an artistic practice. Architectural education in Jordan and in particular the University of Jordan, and in the last 15 years took a dramatic trend. Number of students accepted in the first year, Department of Architecture, rise from 50 to 210, (JU 2006-2007) while their artistic skills and abilities drop dramatically. Although, scientifically most of them are highly qualified, few of them have any clue of design, creativity, way of thinking, projects problem solving, and many manual and mental skills. On the other side, architectural schools, curriculum and courses did not catch with the students growing numbers, their scientific background and low arts knowledge. Also it did not catch up with the changing architectural trends and movements, or the rapidly emerging information technology, and above all new methods, developed internationally, in ways of teaching, tools and techniques, and ways of thinking patterns and concepts. All above changes widely contradict with the conventional teaching ways. Old ways depend heavily on developing student’s manual skills, mental perception, and natural intelligence, which all prove are time and effort consuming, which neither the students numbers, nor background and qualifications affords. Within these constraints and in order to handle the students variable potentials, abilities and contradictions, certain exercises in the basic architectural design courses were devised in ways that; reduces its dependency on learnable manual skills and conceptual thinking; uses teaching techniques that correlates and incorporates Arts, Architecture and Sciences as complementary topics; approaches and reaches creativity as a procedure not a gift; transfers and travels easily between complexities and simplicities, between natural and artificial intelligence, between abstract and relative thinking; employ geometries and design tools as the main structure of any composition; makes self evaluations of choices, decisions and variables easier. Taking Abstraction as a framework in solving the problem of the exercises gave answers and solution to many problems that was not easy solving under the conventional ways of design.
|Keywords: Abstract, Relative, Creative, Innovative, Thinking, Skills, Talents, Intelligence.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 665 KB|
|Title: Rational Approximation for the one-Dimensional Bratu Equation|
|Author(s): Moustafa Aly Soliman|
|Pages: 54-61||Paper ID: 1310705-9292-IJET-IJENS||Published: October, 2013|
Abstract: The solution of the one dimensional planar Bratu equation is characterized by having two branches. The two branches meet at a limit point that can be obtained through the solution of an eigen-relation. In this paper a transformation is introduced to transform this highly non-linear problem to a linear one. Rational expressions are given for the solution of the Bratu equation and the limit point. This is done using collocation and perturbation techniques.
|Keywords: Bratu problem, collocation, rational function, perturbation|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 397 KB|
|Title: Colloid-Chemical Approach to use of Polyacrilonitrile Derivatives Compositions with Surfactants|
|Author(s): B. Mutaliyeva, G. Madybekova, S. Aidarova, A. Duisebekova|
|Pages: 62-68||Paper ID: 139005-4747-IJET-IJENS||Published: October, 2013|
Abstract: In article are shown the colloidal-chemical principles of the creation and using of efficient deemulgators based on polyelectrolytes (PE) compositions with surfactants, promoting the optimum desalting and dehydration of water-oil emulsion from oil deposits. The water-soluble polymers show the weak deemulsifying properties, but addition the surfactants into polyelectrolytes solution appreciably change their surface activity and adsorbability on interface, that is very important for usage into processes, occurring on interface. It is shown, that formation the compositions are specified by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Between polyelectrolytes and surfactant are formed nonstoichiometric complexes because of electrostatic interaction between PE and surfactant micelles. Hydrophobization the macromolecule lead to increase their surface activity and decrease the standard free energy of macromolecules adsorption at complexing, that are very important for technological process such as deemulsification.
|Full Text (.pdf) | 513 KB|
|Title: Energy Detection Technique in Cognitive Radio System|
|Author(s): M. H Mohamad, Norairin Mahmat Sani|
|Pages: 69-73||Paper ID: 131605-8787-IJET-IJENS||Published: October, 2013|
Abstract: Energy detection is one of the spectrum sensing techniques in cognitive radio system that facilitate to detect vacancies in spectrum frequency. Energy detection also denoted as non-coherent detection is the signal detection mechanism employing a power detector to determine the availability or non-availability of signal in the band. In this paper, BPSK modulation signal is generated randomly as the input signal to the energy detector to analyze the spectrum frequency. Probability of detection is obtained throughout the detection process using various numbers of samples and SNR value.
|Keywords: Component; Cognitive radio; energy detector detection; BPSK signal.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 650 KB|
|Title: Design of Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Chart for Monitoring Standardized Process Variance|
|Author(s): Razmy, A. M., Peiris, T. S. G.|
|Pages: 74-78||Paper ID: 137205-6969-IJET-IJENS||Published: October, 2013|
Abstract: Control charts for monitoring of process variance are developed based on Shewhart, exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) and cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts for mean. In all these variance control charts, log transformation of the sample variance is used. The design procedure of this chart is complex and it is poorly understood by the industry. In this paper a EWMA chart for monitoring standardized variance is developed which is having several advantages over the existing charts such as sample number free design, use in the joint monitoring scheme of process mean and variance and fit to multivariate monitoring. In industrial application this chart can be used to monitor few variables in one display simultaneously.
|Keywords: Average run length, Control limits, Exponentially weighted moving average, Process variance, Shift in standard deviation.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 420 KB|
|Title: Determination of Shrinkage and Compressive Strength of Concrete with Construction and Demolition Wastes|
|Author(s): Santos, W. J., Mantilla, J. N. R., Barbosa, R. A., Manoel, T. P., Carrasco, E. V. M.|
|Pages: 79-85||Paper ID: 139705-8282-IJET-IJENS||Published: October, 2013|
Abstract: Civil construction in Brazil has undergone steady growth and this has led to a rise in demand for construction materials and more efficient techniques and practices. In this context, reinforced concrete construction stands out, especially in association with other elements, such as steel, creating high performance mixed structures. These elements should work together so that the loads and deformations are equal, thus avoiding premature rupture. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop two devices which allow evaluation of temperature variation and plastic shrinkage in drying of a concrete with aggregate of construction and demolition wastes (CDW). For purposes of this study, the materials were characterized and a concrete mixture ratio was defined in the proportion of 1.000:1.830:0.849:1.981:0.657 (cement: sand from CDW: gravel 0 from CDW: gravel 1 from CDW: water) in weight, with Slump Test in the value of 30 mm. Set up of the device for temperature measurement and shrinkage was immediately after molding of the test specimen, and remained for 7 days. During the concrete curing process, temperatures and displacements were registered, which allows understanding of existing events.
|Keywords: Concrete; construction and demolition wastes (CDW); shrinkage; ultrasound.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 658 KB|
|Title: Synthesis of Pencil Beam Linear Antenna Arrays using Simple FFT/CF/GA Based Technique|
|Author(s): B. Eldosouky, A. H. Hussein, H. H. Abdullah, S. Khamis|
|Pages: 86-90||Paper ID: 139805-7676-IJET-IJENS||Published: October, 2013|
Abstract: Many applications such as satellite communications and radar systems where the antenna array weight and size are limiting factors favor compact antenna arrays. In this paper, a new approach for the synthesis of linear arrays featuring a minimum number of antenna elements is presented. The method is based on the combination between Fourier transform technique, curve fitting technique, and the genetic algorithm to derive the optimum element spacing and elements excitations required to synthesize a prescribed array factor. The effectiveness and simplicity of the proposed algorithm will be demonstrated by comparison with other analytical and optimization techniques.
|Keywords: Antenna arrays, fast Fourier transform (FFT), curve fitting (CF), and genetic algorithm (GA).|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 592 KB|
|Title: Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions of an SI Engine Using Acetic Acid, Ethanol, and Gasoline Blended Fuel|
|Author(s): M. Attalla, A. M .A. Solimana, Mahmoud A. Torkyb|
|Pages: 91-97||Paper ID: 1310305-8989-IJET-IJENS||Published: October, 2013|
Abstract: This paper investigated experimentally the effect of using acetic aced-ethanol-gasoline blended fuel on SI engine performance and exhaust emissions. A two stroke, SI engine (non road - type Gunt CT-153) was used for conducting this study. The performance tests were conducted for fuel consumption, volumetric efficiency, brake power, engine torque and brake specific fuel consumption. The exhaust emissions were analyzed for carbon monoxide (CO), and unburned hydrocarbons (HC), using ethanol/acetic acid/gasoline blends with different percentages of fuel. The engine speed was varied from 2000 rmp to 6000 rmp with an increment of 500 rmp. During the experimentation the times for consumption of 75 m3 of fuel were recorded. The experimental outcomes were analyzed, and showed that the carbon monoxide CO and hydrocarbons HC emission concentration in the engine exhaust decreases.
|Keywords: Spark ignition engine; Alternative engine fuel; Acetic Acid-Ethanol-Gasoline fuel blends; Exhaust emissions.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 426 KB|