|Title: Preparation, Spectroscopic of the new complexes with ligand 4,4'-Bis( 3- hydroxy phenol azo )- O-tolidine|
|Author(s): Ahmed Hussein Muhammed, Eman Hassan Sahap, Hawraa Mehdi Farhan, WaleedMuhsenSarhan|
|Pages: 1-8||Paper ID:130206-1401-7474-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract: new Fe(III), Co(III) metal complexes were synthesize with aryl azo 4,4'-Bis( 3- hydroxy phenol azo )- O-tolidine [BHPAT] derived from O-tolidine and resorcinol. The ligand and it’s complexes were characterized by H1NMR, FTIR, UV-Vis. spectra and conductivity measurements, The ligand behaves as bidentate (N,O) of the ligand forming chelates with (2:1) (metal:ligand). The molar conductance values of the Fe(III) and Co(III) complexes of the bidentate ligand indicate their non-ionic character, Octahedral environment is suggested for metal complexes.
|Keywords: Azo, O-tolidine , resorcinol, complex Fe(III) and complex Co(III).|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 1,096 KB|
|Title: Analysis on Clustering Method for HMM-Based Exon Controller of DNA Plasmodium falciparum for Performance Improvement|
|Author(s): Alfred Pakpahan, Suhartati Agoes, Binti Solihah|
|Pages: 9-14||Paper ID:140101-7575-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract: Improved performance of exon controller of Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid (DNA) Plasmodium falciparum based on Hidden Markov model (HMM) can be done with the application of clustering methods on data in the process of training and testing the HMM. Some Coding Sequence (CDS) data of DNA Plasmodium falciparum as the input data can be used during training to establish the model and the result of the formed model are tested by a sequence of data and the calculated level of familiarity to the data with a certain number of exons. Some amount of state models can be implemented on HMM structure to get the value of the model's performance is Correlation Coefficient (CC) is optimal. This research also identified the protein product similarity prediction results HMM models using the Open Reading Frame (ORF) and the identification of patterns of insertion and deletion of products associated with the predicted results of exon length. The simulation results indicate that increasing the number of states in the model is not linear to the increase in the value of the performance of the model compared to doing the clustering process HMM training and testing have increased the value of the CC with the simulation processing time is relatively short.
|Keywords: HMM, Plasmodium falciparum DNA, CDS, clustering, CC|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 300 KB|
|Title: Effect of Laser Annealing on the Dynamics of Defects in the Crystal Lattice of the Single Crystal|
|Author(s): A.G. Huseynov, V.M. Salmanov, L.G. Hasanova, R.M. Mamedov|
|Pages: 15-18||Paper ID:140701-9292-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract: In this paper the photoelectric properties of single crystal exposed to laser annealing at high temperature, as a result of which changes the dynamics of defects in the crystal lattice, have been investigated. Control of the physical properties of semiconductor materials, on the example of crystals with defect structure, by laser technology, empowers the manufacturing technology of various semiconductor devices. At high temperature of crystal, the effect of laser radiation results in a change of its physical properties. It is shown that the change in the mechanism of recombination of non-equilibrium charge carriers after laser annealing due to decrease of anion lattice vacancies because of the transfer of excess selenium atoms and ionized atoms of copper to these vacancies.
|Full Text (.pdf) | 545 KB|
|Title: Reconfigurable Compact Dual Mode Resonators UWB-BPF Using DGS and RF PIN Diodes|
|Author(s): Hesham. A. Mohamed, Heba B. El-Shaarawy, Esmat. A.F. Abdallah, Hadia El-Hennawy|
|Pages: 19-23||Paper ID:145301-8282-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract: High-selectivity microstrip wideband bandpass filter with two transmission zeros using DGS and PIN diode concepts is proposed. The bandwidth and locations of the transmission zeros can be adjusted by changing the characteristic impedance of open stub and coupling coefficients of the dual mode resonators. A prototype of planar wideband bandpass filter with 3-dB fractional bandwidth 63% (1.84 - 3.43 GHz) is designed and fabricated. The proposed filter topology employs RF PIN diodes as the switching device. RF PIN diodes are used to reject band from UWB by changing the location of diode. This filter can be adapted between a narrowband state with a 14% bandwidth and an ultra wideband state with a 63% bandwidth and compactness of up to 78% to be obtained compared to other filters. This filter achieves a passband reconfiguration ratio greater than 4:1. The measured and simulated results indicate good performances high selectivity and second harmonic suppression.
|Keywords: Dual mode resonators, Even mode, Odd mode, RF PIN diode, Defected Ground Structure (DGS), and Notched band.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 799 KB|
|Title: Preparation and Characterization of Gelatin-Hydroxyapatite Composite for Bone Tissue Engineering|
|Author(s): Md. Jakir Hossan, M. A Gafurb, M. R Kadir, Mohammad Mainul Karim|
|Pages: 24-32||Paper ID:145501-7272-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract: In biomedical research, fabrication of porous scaffolds from advanced biomaterial for healing bone defects represents a new approach for tissue engineering. Hydroxyapatite ceramics have been recognized as substitute material for bone and teeth in orthopeadic and dentistry field respectively due to their chemical and biological similarity to human hard tissue. In this study, to mimic the mineral and organic component of natural bone, hydroxyapatite (HAp) and gelatin (GEL) scaffolds were prepared. The raw material was first compounded and resulting composite were molded into the petridishes. Using Solvent casting process, it is possible to produce scaffolds with mechanical and structural properties close to natural trabecular bone. The chemical and thermal properties of composites were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA), Differential Thermal Analyzer (DTA) and Thermomechanical Analyzer (TMA). Crystallographic characterization by X-Ray diffraction and morphological characterization by SEM revealed the formation of a micro porous hydroxyapatite gelatin composite. It was observed that the pores in the scaffolds are interconnected and their sizes range from 80 to 400µm. Since one osteoblast occupies an area of approximately 700 µm, hence the pore size of 500 µm (diameter of a spherical pore) is compatible with osteoconduction, however the optimum pore size for osteoconduction is 150 µm. These results demonstrate that the prepared composite scaffold is a potential candidate for bone tissues engineering.
|Full Text (.pdf) | 887 KB|
|Title: The Powerful Alamouti Code in MIMO -OFDM Improvement for the Next Generation of Terrestrial Television Broadcasting Systems|
|Author(s): El Miloud Ar reyouchi, Kamal Ghoumid, Koutaiba Ameziane, Otman El Mrabet|
|Pages: 33-42||Paper ID:140801-7575-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract: This paper proposes and analyses an efficient wireless telecommunication system with multiple antennas to the emission and reception MIMO (multiple input multiple output) with space diversity in an OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Di vision Multiplex). The proposed system consists to add modified Alamouti encoder to the system OFDM to improve the performance of the destination by intimately collaborating with the antennas system. We analyse the performance of a DTT (Digital Terrestrial Television) broadcasting system that includes MIMO encoder, associate with OFDM techniques, which can improve the appreciation of the quality of transmission bit error rate (BER) in terms of (C/N) carrier-to-noise ratio. Different propagation channel models and configurations are considered for each diversity scheme. This study has been carried out in the context of MIMO -OFDM improvement for the next generation of Digital Terrestrial Television broadcasting systems.
|Keywords: MIMO, Next generation DVB, Alamouti Code.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 879 KB|
|Title: Efficiency Evaluation of the Municipal Management of Public Services of Water Supply, Sanitary Sewerage and Solid Waste|
|Author(s): Dirceu Scaratti, Alexandre Ströeher, Gidiane Scaratti|
|Pages: 43-57||Paper ID:142001-9393-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the municipal management of the three basic sanitation services (water supply, sanitary sewerage and solid waste) using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The study was applied in municipalities with a population between 20,000 and 50,000 inhabitants using DEA measures non-radial (additive) interval [0, 1]. Were evaluated 39 municipalities that provide all three services from 50 performance indicators used in the management of economic-financial processes, customer, market and conformity of products. In the study, the municipalities that achieved efficiencies in providing services (index = 1) are: 12.8% in water supply, 5.1% in sanitary sewerage, 20.5% in solid waste, when evaluated individually. However, when all three services (water supply, sanitation and solid waste) were evaluated concomitantly, the efficiency was only 7.7% of the municipalities. The other municipalities in the sample had lower assessment, in other words, indices <1 and classification inefficient. It was found that in Brazil, municipalities provide better service in the management of solid waste, when evaluated in comparison with the other two types of services. The use of DEA in evaluating the efficiency of municipal sanitation demonstrated success when applied jointly in water supply, sanitary sewerage and solid waste. Results of this research enabled the Brazillian governments evaluated to know the efficiency of sanitation services provided and will provide strategies and actions aimed at improving them along the population.
|Keywords: Municipal management, efficiency, water supply, sanitary sewerage, solid waste.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 916 KB|
|Title: Performance Evaluation of 4G-LTE-SCFDMA Scheme under SUI and ITU Channel Models|
|Author(s): Raad Farhood Chisab|
|Pages: 58-69||Paper ID:142101-7474-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract: There is considerable interest in the use of Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) as the uplink transmission scheme in the Third-generation Partnership Project-Long Term Evolution 3GPP-LTE standard. This interest is justified by the inherent single carrier structure of SC-FDMA, which results in reduced sensitivity to phase noise and a lower Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) compared to Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access OFDMA. This consequently makes it more attractive for low cost devices with limited transmit power. In this paper the LTE and SCFDMA specifications will be explained in details and the performance of the system will be examined under two types of equalization method which are zero forcing ZF and minimum mean square error MMSE method. Also the system was tested under two types of subcarrier mapping which are localized and distributed mapping in two types of channel models which are International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and Stanford University Interim (SUI). The results show that the system gives better performance with localized distributed mode and also give good performance with the minimum mean square error MMSE method and the system will give different response through the different channel cases.
|Keywords: LTE, SCFDMA, PAPR, ZF, MMSE, ITU channel, SUI channel|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 1,207 KB|
|Title: Low SAR, Planar Monopole Antenna with Three Branch Lines for DVB, Mobile, and WLAN|
|Author(s): K. S. Sultan, H. H. Abdullah, E. A. Abdallah, E. A. Hashish|
|Pages: 70-74||Paper ID:142601-3737-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract: In this paper, an open slot antenna fed by a U-shaped monopole is introduced. The slot antenna radiates in the range from 1.6 to 3.44 GHz and from 3.8 to 5.7 GHz. The slot is formed by an open ring of quarter wavelength at 900 MHz. Thus, the ring acts both as a monopole at 900 MHz and as a wideband slot radiator in the high frequency range. In order to serve the LTE 700 MHz band, another monopole ring is added to the antenna to cover DVB-H and T-DMB for mobile broadcasting. The antenna size is 28×38×1.5 mm3. A prototype of the antenna was fabricated using FR4 substrate. This paper proposes a new mobile handset antenna structure with low SAR and covers most of the mobile operating bands and other wireless applications. The covered bands are the DVB-H, T-DMB, GSM 900, DCS 1800, PCS 1900, UMTS 2100, and most of the LTE bands including the LTE 700 band. Furthermore, it covers the ISM, WIMAX and the WLAN bands. The SAR calculations are done using the CST 2012 commercial package. It is worth mentioning that the antenna has compact size, multiband operation including the low frequency bands, and low SAR radiation. The simulation results are compared to the experimental measurements and a good agreement is observed.
|Keywords: Monopole, Digital Video Broadcasting Handheld (DVB-H), Terrestrial Digital multimedia Broadcasting (T-DMB), Long Term Evolution (LTE), Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM), Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), Specific Absorption Rate (SAR).|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 769 KB|
|Title: Human System Modeling for Optimum Labor Utilization and Man-Machine Configuration|
|Author(s): Rohana Abdullah, Md Nizam Abd Rahman, Siti Nurhaida Khalil|
|Pages: 75-79||Paper ID:143101-5959-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract: Manufacturing organization with increased in the organizational complexity, is facing difficulty in measuring its performance. Various factors could affect manufacturing performance such as equipment performance, material planning and human resources. In this paper, focus was given primarily on the human resource which was considered as an important factor of the simulation model development to achieve optimum utilization and ensure efficient operator allocation to the machines. Static modeling was performed to capture all the critical factors contributing to the work such as the operator activity sequence, the time value for each activity and also the machine process time for each batch of product. A dynamic model was then developed to enable quantitative analysis in the optimization of human system performance. This paper illustrates the application of different modeling approaches to demonstrate advantages gained in the process of evaluating human system performance.
|Keywords: Human System Modeling, Simulation Modeling, Man-machine Configuration .|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 374 KB|
|Title: Singularities Treatment in Solving Volume Electric Field Integral Equation over Tetrahedron Meshing|
|Author(s): Haythem H. Abdullah, Ahmed Sayed|
|Pages: 80-87||Paper ID:143501-2626-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract: The method of moment solution of the volume integral equation suffers from singular volume integrals. When applying the gradient-gradient operator on the green’s function, it allows the choice of piecewise constant function for the expansion and testing functions. But it results in strong singularities of order 1/( R^3 ). In this paper, robust and accurate technique based on the use of Raw, Wilton and Glisson, RWG, basis functions on tetrahedrons is applied. The RWG function is used both as a testing and as a basis functions. The proposed approach divides the integrals into two parts, one slowly varying nonsingular part which can be integrated numerically over the volume of the tetrahedrons and a singular part which will be converted into surface integrals of integrands R and ?R that has analytical solutions. Also, a proposed fast and accurate numerical approach is presented to solve the nonsingular integral part. Validation of the proposed technique is presented. Very good results are obtained.
|Keywords: Volume Integral Equation, Method of Moments, Singular Integrals.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 950 KB|
|Title: Effect of Temperature On Ba(1-x) SrxFe11.4Ti(0.3)Mn(0.3)O19 (x = 0.3, 0.7) Against Crystallite Size Characterization and Properties of Soft Magnetic|
|Author(s): Novizal, A. Manaf, Muhamad Hikam|
|Pages: 88-92||Paper ID:144001-9292-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract: In this paper, we report our investigation of influence of temperature on crystallite size characterization and properties of magnetic Ba(1-x) SrxFe11.4Ti (0.3)Mn (0.3)O19 with x = 0.3, 0.7 alloy system prepared by a mechanical alloying process to promote soft magnetic properties.
|Keywords: Particle size analysis, remanence, coercive field, the maximum density of magnetic energy.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 491 KB|
|Title: Designing Robust Parameters for Injection-compression Molding Light-guided Plates Based on Desirability Function and Regression Model|
|Author(s): Tsung-Yen Lin, Ming-Shyan Huang|
|Pages: 93-107||Paper ID:146601-4949-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract: This work describes a robust injection compression molding parameter design method that uses linear regression model and desirability function to reduce the effect of environmental noise on injection molded parts quality. The design objective was to achieve a uniform geometry and dimensions of light-guided plate (LGP) after injection molding. In this study, an experimental 2.5-inch LGP injection compression molding was performed to test the feasibility of the desirability function, regarding its construction of a composite quality indicator that represents the quality-loss function of multiple qualities. Firstly, the experimental design and ANOVA methods were employed to select parameters that affect part qualities and adjustment factors. Secondly, a two-level, statistically-designed experiment using least squared error method was performed to generate a regression model between part quality and adjustment factors. The mathematical model was then used to optimize process parameters. The experimental findings show that the robust process parameters generated by the proposed method yield a better uniform production quality than the initial and thus improved and uniform production quality, which validates its feasibility.
|Keywords: Desirability function; injection molding; light-guided plate; regression model.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 795 KB|
|Title: Appraisal of Timber as Structural Members for Residential Buildings in Nigeria|
|Author(s): Anthony Nkem Ede, Joshua Omoruyi Okundaye|
|Pages: 108-112||Paper ID:147801-6565-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract: Concrete and sand crate blocks are the most common construction materials adopted for residential buildings in Nigeria. They are used in the form of reinforced concrete frames and sand crate block walls. These heavy weight materials are mostly assembled on site by bricklayers or masons. The high demand for these construction materials and the intensive labour required for site placement have led to high cost of these materials and consequently to general high cost of construction in Nigeria. These facts contribute to making the access to good housing by common man very difficult. It therefore becomes very obvious that alternative means of construction should be explored and implemented in order for the average and below average Nigerian citizen to have a decent roof over their heads. Based on the rapid advances in the construction materials technology over the recent years, civil engineers have been enabled to produce new solutions of built structures to serve the common needs of society. In that line, this research work seeks to provide an alternative solution in timber as a load bearing member for affordable residential buildings in Nigeria. A case study of 5-bedroom duplex is presented. A concrete design with Orion R16 software and a manual timber design are produced for the building with the corresponding bill of quantities. The comparative studies show that the application of timber as a structural members will help to drive down the cost of residential buildings in Nigeria and make them affordable to common man.
|Keywords: Timber, Concrete, Structural Elements, Affordable Homes.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 325 KB|
|Title: Assessment of the efficiency of mixtures of sodium molybdate, thiourea, N-allylthiourea and N, N' diethylalthiourea in protecting CA-50 steel in a 1.0 M HCL solution|
|Author(s): Djalma R. Silva, Almir Mirapalheta, Carlos A. Martinez-Huitle, Josealdo Tonholo|
|Pages: 113-118||Paper ID:148001-4949-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract: The present study assessed the effect of sodium molybdate combined with organic compounds as a corrosion inhibitor for CA-50 steel in a 1.0 M aqueous solution of HCl at a temperature of 27±1ºC. The organic compounds used were thiourea, N-allylthiourea and N,N'- diethylthiourea. Electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were applied to investigate the electrochemical behavior of steel. The action mechanism of inhibitors in protecting metallic surfaces was examined and respective Kads and ΔGºads values for each electrolyte composition were estimated. Faradaic impedance spectra and Tafel voltammograms showed that the sodium molybdate / N,N' diethylthiourea mixture exhibited greater efficiency and the same behavior as a mixed inhibitor. Optical photomicrographs show improved conditions on the surface of the metal after addition of the mixture. There are prospective environmental benefits due to the reduced inhibitor levels of the mixtures, without compromising efficiency. It was found that the adsorption of inhibitor mixtures on the metallic surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.
|Keywords: Corrosion, sodium molybdate, thiourea, N,N’-diethylthiourea, N-allylthiourea, adsorption isotherms.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 602 KB|
|Title: An Analysis of the Structural and Physical Stability of Quenched Ribbons Pb-Sn-Sb-Ca Alloys for Electrowinning|
|Author(s): Mustafa Kamal, Shalabia Badr, Nermin Ali Abdelhakim|
|Pages: 119-129||Paper ID:149001-3535-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract: The object of the present work is to investigate the effect of rapid cooling from melt on structure ,electrical and mechanical properties of Pb-5%Sn , Pb-5%Sn-2%Sb , Pb-5%Sn-2%Sb-0.5%Ca , Pb-5%Sn-2%Sb-1%Ca , Pb-5%Sn-2%Sb-1.5%Ca , Pb-5%Sn-2%Sb-2%Ca , Pb-5%Sn-2%Sb-2.5%Ca (in wt%) ,melt spun ribbons for electrowinning. For this purpose the structure, resistivity, elastic moduli, Debye temperature and hardness tests were examined by x-ray diffraction, double bridge circuit, dynamic resonance technique, and Vickers microhardeness tester respectively. Experimental results have shown that the total resistivity pronounced minima at composition of Pb-5wt%Sn-2wt%Sb-1wt%Ca . This correspond to formation of ordered alloys.
|Keywords: Quenched ribbons, Electrowinning, Resistivity, Elastic moduli, Debye temperature, Spalling and Microhardness.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 1,212 KB|
|Title: Physiological Bone Loading in the Human Head and Prosthesis Size Estimation|
|Author(s): José Eduardo MAY, Thais de Paula BUSQUIM, Carlos Nelson ELIAS, Bruno José Silva de OLIVEIRA|
|Pages: 130-134||Paper ID:143001-7979-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract: Medical device manufacturers are supposed to establish and maintain procedures to control the design of the devices in order to ensure that specific requirements are met. The essential aspects and the regulatory requirements, such as safety, performance, and biocompatibility of a product are established during the design and development phases. Inadequate design can be a major cause of failure of medical devices. Despite a large number of reports on medical device failures, there are no authoritative guidelines for the management of orthopedic fracture fixation. A lack of consensus exists among orthopedic trauma surgeons and manufacturers in the management of these fractures. The design must ensure that devices conform to user needs and intended uses and include testing of production units under actual or simulated conditions of use. For the development of any medical device, the manufacturer needs information about the level of physiological loading. In the case of orthopedic fracture fixation, the values of loading fracture fixation devices not clearly defined in the literature and technical standards. The purpose of this paper is to provide the necessary data of physiological bone loading in the human head (mandible, maxilla, teeth, skull and middle third of the face) for the development of products used in fracture fixation.
|Keywords: Bone loading; physiological loading; prosthesis size estimation.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 1,277 KB|
|Title: Synergic Effect of a combined use of two Chemical Blowing Agents on the Foaming Efficiency of an Extruded Rigid PVC Compound|
|Author(s): Abdelmalek DOUIBI, Djafer BENACHOUR, Abdelhak HELLATI|
|Pages: 135-141||Paper ID:148501-7676-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract: This work deals with the effect of the addition of a combination of two chemical Blowing Agents (BA); AzoBisFormAmide (ABFA) and/or Sodium BiCarbonate (SBC) , on the foaming efficiency and cell structure of a rigid Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC), using a laboratory scale extruder and optical microscope. It was found that the foaming efficiency increased with BA loading to an optimum value, which is characterized by a Critical Concentration (CC) of BA . This CC was noticed to be higher in the case of SBC. On the other hand, the foaming efficiency (expressed in term of diameter of foamed extrudates) showed a synergistic effect according to some mixing ratio of the two BA, which were based on their CC.
|Keywords: Poly(vinyl chloride), azobisformamide, sodium bicarbonate, cell structure, expansion, extrusion, decomposition, foaming efficiency, coalescence and synergism.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 462 KB|
|Title: Innovative Adsorption and Self-flotation Hybrid Op-eration for Crude Oil Water Emulsion Processing|
|Author(s): Jônatas A. DE LACERDA JÚNIOR., Djalma R. DA SILVA, Juscelino de F. MARIBONDO, Cícero da R. SOUTO, Diego D. S. DINIZ|
|Pages: 142-150||Paper ID:147601-3838-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract: A vibrational prototype self-floater actuated electromechanically is presented and evaluated. The patent is claimed by processes, (PI BR 10 2012 023580 3) and (PI BR 10 2013 024672 7) and trademark registration, No. 907094856. The technical principle is the disturbance of the fluid content for air bubbles generation (self-flotation) and collision promotion between oil droplets and adsorbent labyrinth. The technique has the advantage of avoiding usual addition of acid, emulsifier or coagulant because it is also polluting elements. It is by introducing promising adsorption technique applying hydrophilic recoverable adsorbent metal, high permeability (97 %), current use and low cost. Relevant aspects in other unit operation techniques are addressed. Prototype, experimental apparatus and methodology are illustrated and described. Results are evaluated according to the efficiency of oil removing energy expenditure flow rate and the prospect of dispense using floaters. Further, besides requiring relatively little installation area under the test conditions, using low polluting energy and arises as an alternative to space problem of offshore platforms. Keeping to restriction of test condition, good results were obtained indicating good technique trend. Incipient research does not allow scale extrapolation although the prospect of industrial scale application is favorable in view of vibrational science and industrial technology for large-scale transportation being widely consolidated.
|Keywords: Adsorption, continuous flow system, mechanical vibration, natural flotation, separation of oil emulsion, crude oil production water, performance analysis.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 943 KB|
|Title: Implementation of Efficient Multilayer Perceptron ANN Neurons on Field Programmable Gate Array Chip|
|Author(s): Emmanuel ADETIBA, F. A. IBIKUNLE, S. A. DARAMOLA, A. T. OLAJIDE|
|Pages: 151-159||Paper ID:149301-7575-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract: Artificial Neural Network is widely used to learn data from systems for different types of applications. The capability of different types of Integrated Circuit (IC) based ANN structures also depends on the hardware backbone used for their implementation. In this work, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Network (MLP-ANN) neuron is developed. Experiments were carried out to demonstrate the hardware realization of the artificial neuron using FPGA. Two different activation functions (i.e. tan-sigmoid and log-sigmoid) were tested for the implementation of the proposed neuron. Simulation result shows that tan-sigmoid with a high index (i.e. k >= 40) is a better choice of sigmoid activation function for the harware implemetation of a MLP-ANN neuron.
|Keywords: ANN, ASIC, DSP, FPGA, MLP.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 360 KB|
|Title: Criteria for the Determination of a Basic Clark’s Flow Time Distribution Function in Network Planning|
|Author(s): Dusko Letic, Branko Davidovic, Nikola Gogic|
|Pages: 160-165||Paper ID:134603-1401-7575-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract: In the work are presented the results of the theoretical - experimental researches of the quantification for the superposed flow time of the two local - autonomous flows in the net on the basic Clark’s equations. The computer-based solving of this basic variant of the general flow model through the net is performed through methods of numerical simulation Monte Carlo. The numerical experiment is realized using the program tool Mathcad Professional.
|Keywords: Mathematical model, Clark’s equations, Simulation Monte Carlo|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 447 KB|
|Title: Tracking System using Fixed Beamwidth Electronics Scanning|
|Author(s): Haythem H. Abdullah, Hala A. Elsadek, Hesham Eldeeb|
|Pages: 166-171||Paper ID:146901-7575-IJET-IJENS||Published: February, 2014|
Abstract: In several applications for tracking systems, the scanning rate is considered a critical factor. The mechanical steering appears to be impractical for its slow rate and space consumption so the need for electronics scanning appears clearly. But unfortunately, the electronic scanning suffer from beamwidth broadening and gain variations with steering angles. In this paper, a fixed beamwidth electronic scanning algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm is based on synthesizing sets of excitation coefficients to direct the main beam at some scanning angles. The synthesis takes into consideration the fixation of the beamwidth at these angles. The main concept is to enlarge the antenna array aperture size to a predefined optimum value to get a fixed beam in all the scanning angles. The synthesis of the excitation coefficients is done using a scheme based on the method of moments due to its accuracy in solving such problems. The optimum spacing between elements is determined using the genetic algorithm. One of the main advantages of the proposed algorithm is the applicability of synthesizing multibeam antenna array of fixed beamwidths using the superposition principle. The system is already built and tested with conventional microstrip antenna array elements where good tracking results are observed.
|Keywords: Genatic alagorithm, Method of Moments, Electronic scanning.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 1,308 KB|