|Title: Characterization of Melt-Quenched SnSbBiAl Alloys Used in Fusible Elements of Low Voltage Fuses|
|Author(s): Mustafa Kamal, Abu-Bakr El-Bediwi, Soran Mohammed Rashid|
|Pages: 1-15||Paper ID:140304-6868-IJET-IJENS||Published:August, 2014|
Abstract: A series of tin-antimony-bismuth-aluminium alloys containing up to20wt.% aluminium were quenched from the melt to room temperature by Chill methods ( Spinning technique ). The resultant ribbons were studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope SEM techniques. From the differential thermal analysis DTA measurements, it is found that entropy change, enthalpy and specific heat decreases with increasing aluminium content. The electrical resistivities are reported for temperatures between 280 and 400K for all the melt-quenched ribbons of (Sn80-x-Sb10-Bi10-Alx) (where x= 0 , 1 , 2 , 10, 15 and 20 in wt.%) . The microhardness, elastic moduli, internal friction and thermal diffusivity were also measured from melt-quenched ribbons. Finally it is confirmed from our data that low melting alloy are functional components of low voltage high capacity blade-contact fuses.
|Keywords: Fusible element, Structural characterization, Microstructure analysis, Electrical Resistivity, Thermal parameters, Mechanical properties.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 1,267 KB|
|Title: Design and Development of a Wireless Multi-Sensor Node for Poultry Houses|
|Author(s): Alison Zille Lopes, Gilmar Barreto|
|Pages: 16-22||Paper ID:140404-5858-IJET-IJENS||Published:August, 2014|
Abstract: One of the main challenges faced in poultry farming is to ensure appropriate levels of comfort and thus maximize the productivity of the birds. Climate control systems are employed in order to minimize the variability of the thermal environment inside the houses. These systems depend on the collection of environmental data for the proper functioning of their control mechanisms. As the sensor has the main role on the data acquisition, we intend to present a Zibee multi-sensor node for application in poultry houses in this article. The main objective of this article is the application in climate control systems. The multi-sensor node was built with the purpose of sensing air temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and air velocity (AV), but without losing flexibility. In order to facilitate integration with other systems and understanding of the data transmitted, we introduced a type of subpackage in the development of the node software. Tests were conducted to verify the functionality of the sensor node, which performed correctly.
|Keywords: Zigbee, wireless sensor network, IEEE 802.15.4, climate control.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 451 KB|
|Title: Rapid Quenching of Liquid Aluminum-Indium-Bismuth Alloys|
|Author(s): Mustafa Kamal, Abu-Bakr El-Bediwi, Mohammed Majeed Hameed|
|Pages: 23-32||Paper ID:140504-1919-IJET-IJENS||Published:August, 2014|
Abstract: Chill-block melt spinning technique was used to examine the possibility of casting Al-In-Bi monotectic alloys with possible homogeneous microstructure. The resulting microstructure was analysed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrical resistivity, thermal parameters, internal friction, thermal diffusivity, elastic moduli and hardness of the melt-spun ribbons have been investigated as a function of composition. The results reveal that several combinations of strength, hardness, enthalpy, entropy change, resistivity and internal friction can be generated from the alloys to meet the needs of antifriction applications.
|Keywords: Melt-spin technique, monotectic alloys, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), elastic Moduli, internal friction, thermal diffusivity, hardness measurements, shear stress.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 750 KB|
|Title: I-V characteristics model for Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors|
|Author(s): Rebiha Marki, Chérifa Azizi and Mourad Zaabat|
|Pages: 33-37||Paper ID:141004-6969-IJET-IJENS||Published:August, 2014|
Abstract: The performance of carbon nanotube-based transistor is analyzed. The e?ect of geometrical parameters on the device performance is investigated as d tunnel. We have studied the influence of the material parameters, such as the height of the SB (FSB), and some other physical parameters like the nanotube chirality, the gate oxide thickness and the gate oxide dielectric permittivity Our results show clearly that device characteristics can be optimized by appropriately selecting geometrical and physical parameters.
|Keywords: CNTFET, Schottky barrier, modeling.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 427 KB|
|Title: Evaluation of the Agitation Effective Power in Aerated and Non-Aerated Systems for Yeast and Filamentous Fungus Suspensions|
|Author(s): Eliana M. Alhadeff1, Maria Antonieta P. Gimenes, NEI Pereira Jr.|
|Pages: 38-45||Paper ID:142004-6767-IJET-IJENS||Published:August, 2014|
Abstract: Many industrial processes involving microorganisms take place under aerobic conditions, usually with a combination of agitation and aeration of the medium. Apart from supplying the metabolic needs of the fermentation agent, aeration also reduces the power required by the impellers. The aim of this work is to study the influence of aeration on effective power consumption for different types of impellers. A mechanically aerated stirred system with baffles was used, containing different microbial suspensions in water. Data was collected for suspensions of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fungus Aspergillus niger, and correlations were drawn between the ratio of effective power applied to aerated systems (Pg) and non-aerated systems (Po¬) and the dimensionless aeration number (Na).
|Keywords: Fermentation processes; aerated and agitated systems; effective applied power.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 256 KB|
|Title: Optimal Control of the Complex Power System Model|
|Author(s): M. Kalimoldayev, M. Jenaliyev, A. Abdildayeva, Leila Kopbosyn|
|Pages: 46-49||Paper ID:146004-8383-IJET-IJENS||Published:August, 2014|
Abstract: The computational experiments which showed the suf?cient ef?cacy of the proposed procedure for constructing the Bellman-Krotov function and of the synthesing optimal control for the given power system were carried out on the basis of the theoretical results obtained in the work.
|Keywords: Bellman-Krotov function, control, electric power system, nonlinear system, phase system.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 380 KB|
|Title: Mean Stress Correction Effects On the Fatigue Life Behavior of Steel Alloys by Using Stress Life Approach Theories|
|Author(s): Qasim Bader, Emad Kadum|
|Pages: 50-58||Paper ID:143804-5656-IJET-IJENS||Published:August, 2014|
Abstract: This paper presents experimental and numerical study for fatigue life estimation of a cylindrical specimens made of Carbon Steel alloys with different content of carbon. The fatigue experiments were carried out at room temperature, applying a fully reversed cyclic load with the frequency of 50 Hz and mean stress equal to zero (R= -1), on a cantilever rotating-bending fatigue testing machine. The stress ratio was kept constant throughout the experiment. Stress Life method based on S-N curves (Stress–Cycle curves) is employed which deals with relatively high numbers of cycles and therefore addresses High Cycle Fatigue (HCF), greater than 106 cycles inclusive of infinite life .The S-N approach used to predict the fatigue lives of tested material showed reasonable correlation to the experimental data from the component tests. FEA method was conducted to show influence of the mean stress value (R ? -1) on fatigue strength of tested materials based on the mean stress correction theories (Goodman ,Soderberg ,Gerber and the Mean stress curves) .The main advantage of the proposed study is that the mean stress effect correction depends on the number of cycles to failure, what corresponds to the observed changes in experimental results presented in the literature at fully reversed rotating bending and the mechanical properties of tested materials.
|Keywords: Carbon Steel alloys ,Stress life approach ,Fatigue Life, Mean Stress Theories, FEA.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 879 KB|
|Title: On The Possible Role of Meteor Streams in Splitting of Cometary Nucleus|
|Author(s): A. S. Guliev, G. I. Kokhirova, U. J. Poladova|
|Pages: 59-61||Paper ID:145204-3838-IJET-IJENS||Published:August, 2014|
Abstract: We studied a particular splitting mechanism of comets within a recently proposed hypothesis. In doing so, the set of periodic, disappeared and long-period comets were employed. Various aspects of the hypothesis, in which the splitting process is assumed to originate form the passage of nuclei through meteor streams, are investigated. The arrangement of orbits of the split comets relative to the orbital plane of 68 meteoric streams, taken from the catalogue of Cook, is investigated. Moreover, the position of near and far nodes of the orbits relative to the plane of meteoric streams are determined.
|Keywords: Meteoric streams, comets, disintegration.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 203 KB|
|Title: Fracture, VUG and Intercrystalline Porosity and Permeability Analysis from Well Logs of LIRTIM Oil Field, Iraq|
|Author(s): Rotimi Oluwatosin John, Ojelola Kayode Olugboyega, Pshtiwan T. Jaf|
|Pages: 62-68||Paper ID:145904-6767-IJET-IJENS||Published:August, 2014|
Abstract: Carbonate reservoir unarguably contributes over 50% of presently produced crude oil in the world today especially from the middle-eastern part of the world with appreciable amount of reserve estimate yet unexplored. Deposition, sedimentation, diagenesis and other geological features of carbonate rocks has been studied leading their classification into: mudstone, wackestone, packstone, grainstone, boundstone and crystalline carbonate rocks. These are all characterised by various features such as fractures and vugs which influences its petro-physical behaviour. The study of the main features of carbonate reservoir using Archie’s cementation exponent “m” is an acceptable method of verifying the geological features in the reservoir which actually contribute to rock fluid properties and other production attributes of the reservoir. This was verified for some reservoir using well log values for Lirtim oil field in Iraq. The dominating geological features of the field were verified from a graphical representation of the different data from field reservoir. The reservoirs used as case studies in the research were also classified into different carbonate rocks using a graphical plot of their permeability against porosity values. This result gives a clue of the textural and grain size characteristics as well as the effective pore sizes of the reservoir. This method of analysis makes it easier to evaluate the post diagenetic strength of the reservoir rocks and fluid hosting capability in view of recovering hydrocarbon in the area.
|Keywords: Carbonate, reservoir, petro-physical, diagenesis, fractures, vugs, porosity, permeability.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 615 KB|
|Title: Heavy Metals Accumulation in Agricultural Soils Irrigated with Tin - Mine Water in B/Ladi, Plateau State, Nigeria|
|Author(s): Daniel V. N., Chundusu E. S., Chup J. A.|
|Pages: 69-74||Paper ID:141304-5858-IJET-IJENS||Published:August, 2014|
Abstract: Untreated Tin - mines waters have been used for irrigation in most parts of Plateau State, Nigeria. Mining and the related operations are said to be the most important anthropogenic sources of heavy metals that negatively influence the nearby environment and mankind. The quality of water for irrigation was determined by different analytical techniques and the levels of the metals in soil, sediment and plant collected in January to May 2010 were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emissions Spectrometry (ICP - OES).The results of the average temperature (oC), pH, total suspended solids (mg/kg), electrical conductivity (mmhos/cm), Total hardness (mg/kg) and Turbidity (NTU) determined were 27.5oC, 6.78, 571, 723, 317.27 and 5.98 respectively. The quality of water by these parameters was suitable for irrigation but long term irrigation will pose serious problem due to salinity. The total mean (±SD) concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in the soil were 3.51, 54.17, 105.5 and 46.7 mg/kg respectively. Cadmium was not detected in the sediment but the total mean (±SD) concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb in the sediment were 44.51, 14.33 and 29.35mg/kg respectively. The concentrations of the heavy metals in soil and sediment were within the FEPA and WHO limits. The concentrations of the different fractions expressed in percentages were low, indicating that the bulk of these metals were held in other fractions making it inert and pose no immediate risk to the ecosystem. Cabbage, however, accumulated appreciable quantities of Cr, Ni and Pb and therefore, the consumption of the vegetable from the area may pose a health risk due to the metals especially lead and chromium that exceeded their toxic levels. The paper recommends that Government should integrate reclamation into mining activities and should always monitor the levels of these toxic metals and other pollutants build up in the environment. The study also demonstrated the need of a multidisciplinary approach and the use of more sophisticated analytical equipment for the determination of the overall suitability of the water for irrigation.
|Keywords: Tin mine water, Irrigation, Agricultural soils and Plateau.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 615 KB|
|Title: A Fast Locking Digital Phase-Locked Loop using Frequency Difference Stage|
|Author(s): Mohamed A. Ahmed, Heba A. Shawkey, Hamed A. Elsemary, Abdelhalim A. Zekry|
|Pages: 75-80||Paper ID:147104-5656-IJET-IJENS||Published:August, 2014|
Abstract: A novel fast locking digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) has been proposed with simple control unit to improve locking time. A frequency difference stage (FDS) is added to produce a 3-bit code represents the difference between the input frequency and the output frequency of the PLL. This code is used to control a programmable charge pump (PCP) output current. As the difference between the two frequencies decreases, the PCP output current decreases to obtain smooth PLL locking. As locking is achieved, the PCP operates with its conventional current. The proposed DPLL is designed using 130nm CMOS process with a 1.2V power supply. It operates in the frequency range 250MHz – 1.75GHz. Over this frequency range, a locking time reduction in the range of 35.7% - 66.6% has been achieved compared with conventional DPLL.
|Keywords: Fast locking; Phase locked loop; Frequency difference stage; Programmable charge pump.|
|Full Text (.pdf) | 415 KB|