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Title: A New DNA-Based S-Box
Author(s): Auday H. Al-Wattar, Ramlan Mahmod , Zuriati Ahmad Zukarnain, Nur Izura Udzir
Pages: 1-9 Paper ID:150204-7373-IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2015
Abstract: Recently, many scholars have tried to design new security methods inspired by biological techniques, as DNA, Some of which are in the domains of cryptography and steganography. In this article, a new DNA-based S-Box was designed inspired by biology DNA techniques to be used for SPN symmetric block ciphers. The new DNA-base S-Box is used in order to reduce the calculations process in addition to make use of the unknown randomness of DNA bases in creating the S-box. This article uses the new DNA-based S-Box within the AES (Advanced Encryption Standard). The Encryption Standard).The S-Box testing criteria were performed to assess the security of the new S-Box. The National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) tests have been used to test the cipher which uses this new DNA based S-Box. The outcome of the tests shows that proposed S-box has good security, as well as it is passed all the randomness tests.
Keywords: Cryptography algorithm, block cipher, DNA, AES, S-Box, randomness, state.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 820 KB
Title: Phase Effects at third-Harmonic Generation in ZnO/PMMA Nanocomposite Films
Author(s): Rena J. Kasumova, Sh. A. Shamilova
Pages: 10-21 Paper ID:150704-8686-IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2015
Abstract: Theoretical investigation of frequency conversion in ZnO/PMMA structures with account for phase effects has been developed. For this the constant-intensity approximation of fundamental radiation is applied. The given approximation permits to take into account simultaneously an influence of phase mismatch and losses in medium on proceeding of nonlinear process. The numerical calculation of the efficacy, obtained in the constant-intensity approximation, confirms the next fact that at higher concentrations of ZnO, the films generate stronger third harmonic signal due to the larger interaction length of the nonlinear medium. It is shown that at the chosen pump intensity of laser radiation, it is possible to calculate the coherent length of a crystal converter as well. The analytical method also permits to estimate the expected conversion efficiency on different wavelengths of laser radiation. Method of analysis of third-harmonic generation in ZnO/PMMA structures, developed in the present work, may be used for investigation of other nanocomposite films.
Keywords: Nanocomposite film; polymethylmethacrylate; third-harmonic generation; constant-intensity approximation; frequency conversion.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 621 KB
Title: Maintainability Model with Object-Oriented Software Metrics
Author(s): N. V. Syma Kumar Dasari, Satya Prasad Raavi
Pages: 22-28 Paper ID:151104-9292-IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2015
Abstract: Software maintainability is an effective measure for the system quality in the stage of software development. Understandability, modifiability and analyzability are the important factors of the software maintainability that can judge the maintainability of the system. These three factors depend mainly on the 3 size and 8 structural metrics of various UML specifications. We proposed the different models to measure the maintainability and its important three factors in this paper. In the process of developing the models we used exponential non-linear representation. We utilized regression approach along with two-tailed t-test to find out the significance of the variables. The proposed methods are compared to the other non-linear models also made in this research paper.
Keywords: Analyzability Model, Modifiability Model, Maintainability model, Software Quality, t-test. Understandability Model.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 277 KB
Title: Unconfined Compression Behavior of Cement Treated Non-Plastic Soil Reinforced with Small Diameter Steel Bars
Author(s): Randy P. Asturias, Glen A. Lorenzo
Pages: 29-34 Paper ID:152104-6868-IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2015
Abstract: Series of unconfined compression tests were performed to evaluate the strength and deformation behavior of cement-treated non-plastic soil with small diameter spiral steel reinforcement. The tests included48 unreinforced and 81 reinforced cylindrical specimens,150mm diameter and 300 mm high. The parameters investigated in the unreinforced specimens were the remolding water contents, cement contents and after-curing parameters. Results of unconfined compression tests on unreinforced specimens revealed that the ratio of optimum total mixing water content to the natural water content (Cm/?o) increases with the increasing cement content. The parameters investigated in the reinforced specimens were the pitch of the spiral reinforcement, number of longitudinal reinforcements and cement contents. Results of this study indicated that the use of steel reinforcement could lead to an increased load carrying capacity and a more ductile behaviour.
Keywords: Deep mixing method, unconfined compression, cement-admixed soil, non-plastic soil.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 533 KB
Title: Cost Overrun in Construction Projects in Saudi Arabia: Contractors’ Perspective
Author(s): Abdulaziz Alghonamy
Pages: 35-42 Paper ID:152904-6868-IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2015
Abstract: Cost performance of a project is usually a particularly important consideration for the construction parties. Often, Cost overrun is one of the most recurring problems in the construction industry and it has an adverse impact on project success in terms of time, cost, quality and safety. This study is conducted to investigate the cost overrun in construction projects in Saudi Arabia in order to identify the causes of cost overrun and their importance according to contractors through a questionnaire survey. A questionnaire survey was undertaken of 43 contractors working on construction projects in the Northern Province of Saudi Arabia. 34 cost overrun causes were identified through literature review. The study concluded that the top cost overrun causes in construction projects in Saudi Arabia from contractors’ perspective are: bid award for lowest price, frequent changes in design, improper planning, long period between design and time of implementation, and payments delay.
Keywords: Cost overrun, construction, contractors, contributors, risk matrix.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 472 KB
Title: Direct Recycling of Aluminium 6061 ChipThrough Cold Compression
Author(s): B. L. Chan, M. A. Lajis
Pages: 43-47 Paper ID:153704-9292-IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2015
Abstract: Aluminium is globally used in many different ways, from beverages cans to a large aircraft. This is due to aluminium’s remarkable mechanical properties as the same time having a low density. The high usage of aluminium in the everyday life, encourage higher production of aluminium where high energy consumption manufacturing process such as melting bauxite for primary material or melting recycled aluminium conventionally for secondary aluminium. So by directing recycling the aluminium chip through cold compression will reduce the energy consumption during the manufacturing process. In this process the aluminium chipwere compressed at maximum of 45 tons force with a set amount of holding time. The compressed specimens were then strengthening through sintering. Through sintering, the Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the specimen increased but at the same time micro-hardness and the density is sacrifice. On the other hand, the Elongation to failure (ETF) reduced due to the high compression force which exceeded the optimum. Further deformation process which involved shearing would be recommended to further improve the overall properties.
Keywords: Solid state recycling, Cold compression, aluminium chip.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 450 KB
Title: DYNAMIC Key-Depending S-boxes Inspired by Biological DNA
Author(s): Auday H. Al-Wattar
Pages: 48-53 Paper ID:156104-7373-IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2015
Abstract: The symmetric block cipher plays a great role in protecting data and information. The Advanced encryption Standard (AES) represents a realistic and vital example. The S-box of the AES cipher is the only nonlinear unit of this symmetric block cipher; it is static and is not variable for each round of the cipher. Making the S-box variable for each round will enhance the security and cryptographic power of the cipher. The real biology DNA system has become a very promising area in inspiring techniques for computer and Internet security. In this paper, a novel algorithm inspired by DNA techniques had designed to generate dynamic S-boxes using the cipher key. The paper describes the adopted mechanism that is used in designing and generating the dynamic S-box, and, lastly, analyzes the results and experiments.
Keywords: Symmetric block cipher, DNA, Central dogma, Transcription, AES, Dynamic S-box.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,335 KB
Title: An Image Retrieval Approach Using Content-Based Query
Author(s): Mohamed M. Fouad
Pages: 54-60 Paper ID:155504-8383-IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2015
Abstract: In this paper, a content-based image retrieval approach is presented for effective searching. The proposed approach uses two or more types of query for accessing images, textual annotation associated with images and visual appearance, such as color, texture and positional features of objects in sample images. One can first place a keyword-based query, and then the desired images are retrieved by visual content-based query. The proposed retrieval approach shows clear improvements over competing approaches in terms of retrieval accuracy and visual inspection using Corel gallery and WWW images.
Keywords: Content-based, image retrieval and query, text search.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 570 KB
Title: Fresh Characteristic and Mechanical Compressive Strength Development of Self-Compacting Concrete Integrating Coal Bottom Ash as Partial Fine Aggregates Replacement
Author(s): Ahmad Farhan Hamzah, Mohd Haziman Wan Ibrahim, Norwati Jamaluddin, Ramadhansyah Putra Jaya, Mohd Fadzil Arshad, Norul Ernida Zainal Abidin
Pages: 61-67 Paper ID:156804-7171-IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2015
Abstract: This paper presents the experimental works to study the effect of use of coal bottom ash as a partial replacement of fine aggregates in self-compacing concrete (SCC). The compressive strength properties studied instead of fresh characteristic of mixtures. The SCC mixtures were produced by three different water cement ratios (0.35, 0.40 and 0.45) and coal bottom ash as a replacement of ?ne aggregates in varying percentages of 0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%. The fresh properties were investigated by slump flow, T500 spread time, sieve segregation and L-box test in order to evaluate its self-compatibility. It can be concluding that the filling and passing ability of SCC mixture decreased when the amount of coal bottom ash content increased. The compressive strength development for various percentages replacement of fine aggregates with coal bottom ash was conducted at 28, 90 and 180 days. It is clearly noticeable the progress of compressive strength on intensification of water cement ratio at different curing ages. The increase of water cement ratio decreased the compressive strength for all percentages of coal bottom ash at all ages
Keywords: Self-compacting concrete, coal bottom ash, compressive strength.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 570 KB
Title: A Lossless Image Compression Using Integer Wavelet Transform With a Simplified Median-edge Detector Algorithm
Author(s): Mohamed M. Fouad
Pages: 68-73 Paper ID:155604-7373-IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2015
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a lossless (LS) image compression technique integrating a the integer wavelet transform with a prediction step that is a simplified version of the median edge detector algorithm used with JPEG-LS. First, the image is transformed using the prediction step and a difference image is obtained. The difference image goes through an integer wavelet transform and the transform coefficients are used in the lossless codeword assignment. The algorithm is simple and test results show that it yields higher compression ratios than competing techniques. Computational cost is also kept close to competing techniques.
Keywords: Lossless image compression, integer wavelet transform, median edge detector, Joint Photographic Experts Group.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 466 KB
Title: MP3 Steganalysis Based on Neural Networks
Author(s): Ala Alarood, Azizh Abdulmanaf, Subariah Ibrahim, Mohammed J. Alhaddad.
Pages: 74-78 Paper ID:152404-7373-IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2015
Abstract: Information secrecy is one of the largest concerns of the researchers these days. Steganography technique used to hide a massage into an object (Text file, Audio file ’Wave, MP3’ or Video). Steganography was improved and developed using computer systems because of multimedia rising in the modern world. In this paper we developed a technique to reveal the MP3 Steganography message using Artificial Neural Network ANN. This technique is used an MP3 file that already has hide a message using LSB. The result was promising.
Keywords: Steganography, MP3, ANN, LSB, stego file.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 413 KB
Title: The Impact of Varying Physical parameters on Performance of Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors
Author(s): Rebiha Marki, Chérifa Azizi, Mourad Zaabat, Mounir Azizi
Pages: 79-82 Paper ID:156004-9292-IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2015
Abstract: To overcome the present challenges related to the end of Moore law, other solutions involve using new materials and technologies to replace the existing silicon MOSFETs. Carbon nanotubes have a promising potential to aid in scaling because of their unique properties such as excellent thermal conductivity and high current handling capability. In this work, we have presented a compact model for the I-V characteristics of CNTFET which features the main physical effects governing the operation of this device. the impact of varying the temperature on performance of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) is investigated and presented. We have studied the influence of some other physical parameters like the nanotube diameter and the chirality. The simulated results obtained using this model are in close agreement with numerical calculation results.
Keywords: Simulation, Carbon nanotube, CNTFET.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 344 KB