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Title: A Direct Method for Voltage Stability Prediction on Power Networks using Supervised Learning Algorithm in Smart Grid Scenario
Author(s): G. Saha, K. Chakraborty, P. Das
Pages: 1-8 Paper ID:171204-6363 IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2017
Abstract: The Neural Network based technique has become a most imaginably assertable, a very appealing and an accrual beneficial trend in the recent development of the power system. The objective of this paper is to predict the secure or the insecure state of the power system network using a hybrid technique which is a combination of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and voltage stability indexes. A Transference Index (TI) has been formulated from the equivalent two-bus network of a multi-bus power system network, which has been tested on a standard IEEE 30-bus system and the result is validated with a standard Fast Voltage Stability Index (FVSI). FACTS devices in the critical bus have been considered for the improvement of the voltage stability of the system. An ANN based supervised learning algorithm has been conferred in this paper alongside Contingency Analysis (CA) for the prediction of voltage security in an IEEE 30 - bus power system network which is very essential from the viewpoint of a power system operator. The proposed scheme can be easily embedded in the master computer of Energy Control Centre (ECC) to predict the current operating condition of the network in terms of voltage security.
Keywords: Feed forward neural networks, load flow, power system stability, static VAr compensators, Smart grids.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 618 KB
Title: Hydrogeochemical Geometry of Subsurface Layers in Odo-Oba Town, Southwestern Nigeria
Author(s): Adewoye, A. Olufunmi , Olayinka, A. I, Abimbola, A. F.
Pages: 9-24 Paper ID:174003-1704-1919-IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2017
Abstract: Groundwater occurrence and its chemical features inbasement aquifers are often products of localized geological controls and structure. This study was aimed at delineating zones of groundwater occurrence in Odo-Oba near Ogbomoso as well as ascertaining its chemical features. Four Horizontal Resistivity Profiling (HRP) traverses were studied within Odo-Oba town and two control sites; 500m and 1000m away. These were followed by twelve Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES). The dipole-dipole and Schlumberger arrays were adopted forthe HRP and VES, respectively.The VES data were filtered and inverted for correct depth matching using appropriate computer application software. Three to four subsurface geoelectric layers were identified. The resistivity and thickness of the topsoil ranged from 46.0 to 661.0 Ωm, and 0.5 to 1.2m, respectively. The weathered bedrock with resistivity and thickness which ranged from 16.0 – 156.0 Ωm and 1.5 – 26.0 m, respectively, were underlain by the fresh basement rock with resistivity of 124.0 Ωm - ∞ and undeterminable thicknesses. These delineated unconfined and fractured basement aquifers. Low resistivity values (< 20.0 Ωm) were recorded in stations close to the dumpsites, in contrast to high resistivity values (> 50.0 Ωm) and (>80.0 Ωm) obtained in VES stations sited within the town and at control sites respectively. Unconfined and fractured basement aquifers were delineated in Odo-Oba town. In conclusion, it was detected that distance is a major factor responsible for the seepage of the pollutants from the study area.The hand-dug wells that are closer to the waste dump site are vulnerable to pollution from the waste dump and this has caused both environmental and health risks among the populace.Hence,the need for identifying flaws in siting,design and construction of household’s wells and on-site waste disposal systems should be minimized with provisions of technical information by environmental protection establishment at the planning stage.Also continuous monitoring should be enforced to prevent an outbreak.
Keywords: Aquifer, Resistivity, Dumpsite, Health risks,Odo-obaTown.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 809 KB
Title: Production of Bio-Oil from Cistus Ladanifer Shell by Fixed-Bed Pyrolysis
Author(s): Hammadi El Farissi, Rajae Lakhmiri, Hamza El Fargani, Abdallah Albourine, Mohamed Safi
Pages: 25-30 Paper ID:173104-5050-IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2017
Abstract: Corsica is rich in aromatic and pharmaceutical plants that could be used in various areas (energy, pharmacy, perfumery, cosmetics, and food) for their physicochemical properties that can be used as a source of bio-oil, bio-energy or bio-fuels. This study aims at valorizing a new forest waste in the Mediterranean region which is never studied by pyrolysis. Slow pyrolysis of cistus ladanifer shells, available as a natural forest waste product, was carried out in a fixed bed reactor to determine the effect of temperature, heating rate and the particle size on the process performance. Pyrolysis experiments were thus carried out at different temperatures, ranging from 300 to 500°C, with heating rates varying from 10 to 70°C.min-1. Samples with particle size from 0.3 to 0.6 mm, 0.6 to 0.9 mm, 1 to 2 mm, 2 to 3 mm and 3 to 3.5 mm were examined. The highest yield of liquid products (53.31%) was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 450 °C, with particle size of 2 to 3 mm and heating rate of 40 °C.min-1. The functional groups and chemical compound present in the bio-oil obtained under optimal conditions were identified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. The calorific value of bio-oil was equal to 37.05 MJ.kg-1. The results obtained show that the bio-oil issued from pyrolysis of Cistus shells could be used as a renewable fuel or a source of pharmaceutical and chemical feedstock.
Keywords: Cistus ladanifer -Shell - Bio-oil - Renewable energy - Fixed bed reactor - Slow Pyrolysis.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 477 KB
Title: Empirical Factors that Influence the Malaysian Owned Manufacturers to Undertake Technology Diversification at the Product Level
Author(s): Afzanil Md. Anuar, Norngainy Mohd. Tawil, Nizaroyani Saibani, Azry Khoiry
Pages: 31-38 Paper ID:173204-8585-IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2017
Abstract: Technology diversification at the product level is defined as a strategy and process in transitioning to new, related or unrelated technologies in new or diverse products which is applied to firms including manufacturing firms. Past studies have shown that there are many factors attributed to technology diversification in firms at the product level such as technological specialization, core competencies, technology capabilities, economies of scope, R&D expenditure, sales growth and absorptive capacity. The aim of this research is to identify the major factors of Malaysian owned manufacturing firms to technologically diversify at the product level. This research is based on 30 Malaysian owned manufacturing firms in Penang and Selangor on the sectors of Electrical and Electronics which have new or expansion projects from 2012-2016. The factors of technology diversification at the product level has been identified through literature and testimonials from interviews and testimonials and categorized under six main groups namely the capabilities required to diversify, customer demands, additional resources, support or partnerships, source of market and economies of scope. The identified factors were assessed using relative importance index (RII) and computed to rank each factors. The ranking of the factors by category of Malaysian owned manufacturing firms to technologically diversify their products were ranked as: (1) Economies of Scope; (2) Capabilities to transition/diversify; (3) Source of market potential; (4) Types of supports or partnerships required; (5) Additional resources; and (6) Types of customer demands.
Keywords: Technology diversification, relative importance index, Malaysian owned manufacturing firms, product level.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 301 KB
Title: Characterization of a Suspected Contaminant Plume in Sabo Market, Oyo Metropolis using Electrical Resistivity Methods
Author(s): A. O. Adewoye, A. A. Adegbola, P. I. Olasehinde
Pages: 39-46 Paper ID:174103-1704-6868-IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2017
Abstract: Pollution sources leading to plumes in commercial or urban settlements emerged mostly as a result of improper management capacity of waste and overpopulation, this has led to the deterioration of soil quality and rendered the associated aquifer unreliable and unfit for drinking purpose. The characterization of this suspected contaminant plume is carried out with the aim delineating the extent of contaminant plume .Res 2D and Very Low Frequency (VLF) Electromagnetic survey were conducted to unravel the localized nature and the fractures if any of the study area. Three profiles were studied across the waste disposal site while the one profile was used as control. The vertical electrical sounding results revealed the study area to be underlain by 2-5 geoelectric layers with the weathered and fractured layers as the dominant aquifers which are confined /unconfined.The VLF results revealed fractured/fault zones characterized with depth to the fractured/fault zones of about 25 m.The combine results of the electromagnetic very low frequency technique (VLF) and the 2-D resistivity structures delineated four subsurface geoelectric layers inferred to be geologic units: These are the topsoil, sandy-clay, weathered layer and the fractured/fresh basement rock. It was observed that the groundwater and the leachate are hosted in fractured/fault bedrock at depth below 10m as well as the thin porous overburden units overlying the fresh bedrock. Therefore, the fracture/fault zones mainly controls the migration of the leachate plume and thus may polluting the groundwater in the vicinity of the dumpsite.. The soil profile is lateritic with poor conductivity but a combination of fracturing and pollution has produced high conductivity in electromagnetic measurements can be used to delineate contaminating plumes around waste disposal sites. In conclusion, aquifers overlain by clay and sandy clay are not vulnerable or susceptible to contamination by leachates or potential pollutants while fractured /unconsolidated overburden capped by pervious materials are prone to near –surface pollutants.It is recommended that a well designed sanitary landfill integrated with solid wastes management scheme should be constructed by the regulators.
Keywords: Characterization, Contaminant plume , Resistivity Methods., Dumpsite, Sabo Oyo.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 674 KB