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Title: Investigation into the Use of Vegetable Oil as Industrial Fluid-Automatic Transmission Fluid
Author(s): Abere, Julius O., Oluwadare, Benjamin S., Oladokun Taiwo O., Akindele David O, Olanipekun, Kolade A
Pages: 1-09 Paper ID: 141003-8282-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract: This research provides the possibility of using local vegetable oils for the production of industrial fluid (Automatic Transmission Fluid). Vegetable oil samples were sourced from the open market in Lagos State, Nigeria. The oil samples are; Coconut oil (CCO), Soya beans oil (SBO), Groundnut oil (GNO), Palm oil (PO), and Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF). Physical tests (Colour, Water Content, Specific Gravity, Viscosity, Flash Point, Pour Point and Crackle Test) were carried out on the oil samples. The results obtained from the experiments were compared with the standard industrial fluid (ATF). The results showed that groundnut oil has the highest viscosity. Also, the results showed that the local vegetable oils (VOs) consist mainly of glycerol and esters. The presence of glycerol and esters in vegetable oils make them oily in nature and resistance to friction. From the experimental results, the specific gravity of each of the oils was given as; Coconut oil - 0.9247, Soya bean oil – 0.9236, groundnut oil – 0.9188, Palm oil – 0.9140, and ATF – 0.8769. The results obtained from the experiments are still within the range of values required for most industrial fluids. Therefore, some vegetable oils could be used for the production of automatic transmission fluid (ATF).
Keywords:Automatic Transmission Fluid, Friction, Specific Gravity, Vegetable Oils, Viscosity.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 763 KB
Title: An Accelerated Hardware Software in The Loop Technique for Control Units
Author(s): Mossaad Ben Ayed, Faouzi Bouchhima, Lilia Zouari, Mohamed Abid
Pages: 10-21 Paper ID: 141203-8484-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract: Due to the complexity and heterogeneity of systems, design and verification environments are widely requested. Such systems combine into continuous and discrete models. The main problem is the difference of algorithms between continuous and discrete simulators. The industrial tool Matlab/Simulink is widely used in modeling systems. The main advantage of this tool is its ability to model in a common formalism the software and its physical environment. Unfortunately, Matlab/Simulink still suffers from many limits in modeling and verification. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of advanced systems and to overcome these limits in modeling and verification, several tools based on combined language are adopted. This paper describes a novel verification technique for Control Units. A synchronization model between Matlab/Simulink and a real board is presented. Three different applications are used to improve the important reduction of the time simulation.
Keywords:HIL, Co-design, Simulator, Emulator, Verification, Simulink.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 808 KB
Title: Partly Coupled Fluid Structure Interaction Analysis of an Aircraft Wing at Subsonic Speeds
Author(s): Bruce Ralphin Rose J, Jinu G. R, Manivel M
Pages: 22-29 Paper ID: 142303-5858-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract: The interaction between a semi- rigid structure and the surrounding fluid environment is a sober issue in the stability investigation of aircraft wings and design of turbo machinery. To Study about these types of phenomena, it requires the modelling of both fluid and structural domains. A flexible high aspect-ratio wing in flight will experience large nonlinear geometrical deformations. The nonlinear aeroelastic analysis for such kind of a wing is done by using a coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) / Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD) method. The coupled approach treats the fluid and structure as two separate modules and updates the CFD and CSD variables separately by transferring the variables at the fluid–structure interface. In this article, the deformations exist in a rectangular wing model caused by the aeroelastic effects are determined using a partially coupled CFD /CSD method. The partially coupled analysis is carried out with the help of a Finite Element tool at various speeds in sub sonic Mach number range. The resulting structural deformations of the wing, induced by the moving fluid are fully studied and verified with the numerical analysis.
Keywords:Fluid-Structure Interaction, Semi CSD/CFD coupling, Aeroelasticity, Finite Element Analysis.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 722 KB
Title: Assessment of Mechanical Properties of Ni-coated ABS Plastics using FDM Process
Author(s): S. Kannan, D. Senthilkumaran
Pages: 30-35 Paper ID: 144703-7272-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract: The mechanical properties of impact resistance and hardness are the two most important properties for component designers to consider, and the most difficult to enumerate. Impact resistance of a material or a product is considered to be an important area for the product safety and accountability. This paper aims to understand the influence of electroplating on the impact and hardness properties of ABS plastics developed by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). The impact test has been carried out on a specifically designed drop impact tester. The drop weight impact tests are carried on the normal and electroplated specimens (60 µm, 70 µm and 80 µm) at different drop weights of 0.89 kg, 1.395 kg and 2.33 kgs and a drop height of 400 mm. Impact dimension under the above said conditions for the electroplated specimens (70 µm and 80 µm) indicate that the electroplating leads to a considerable improvement in the impact strength of the ABS. The Hardness test that was conducted based on the Rockwell hardness, shows an enhancement in hardness values of electroplated specimens.
Keywords:Impact, Hardness, FDM, ABS, Electroplating, Nickel.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 464 KB
Title: Robust Chattering Free Backstepping Sliding Mode Control Strategy for Autonomous Quadrotor Helicopter
Author(s): Mohd Ariffanan Mohd Basri, Abdul Rashid Husain, Kumeresan A. Danapalasingam
Pages: 36-44 Paper ID: 144803-1919-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract: In this paper a robust chattering free backstepping sliding mode controller is developed for the attitude stabilization and trajectory tracking control of quadrotor helicopter with external disturbances. The control scheme is developed based on backstepping technique and a sliding surface is introduced in the final stage of the algorithm. To attenuate the chattering problem caused by a discontinuous switching function, a simple fuzzy system is used. The asymptotical stability of the system can be guaranteed since the control law is derived based on Lyapunov theorem. Simulation results of the developed controller which applied for a highly nonlinear quadrotor helicopter are presented. From the simulation results, it is shown that the developed control system not only achieves satisfactory control performance, but also eliminates the chattering phenomena in the control effort.
Keywords:Quadrotor helicopter, backstepping control, sliding mode control, chattering free.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 647 KB
Title: Performance Evaluation of Water Jet Pump for Nozzle to Throat Area Ratios on Suction Lift
Author(s): Md. Mizanur Rahman, Md. Assad-Uz-zaman, Mohammad Mashud
Pages: 45-47 Paper ID: 145303-0606-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract: The experiment was about to study of water jet pumps with different diameters and nozzle-to-throat area ratios. Most experimental studies on water jet pumps mainly carried out to assess the maximum efficiency. But maximum efficiency occurs when the suction lift is relatively small for a given head loss through the pump, which implies, when the suction flow rate is maximum. However, suction lift is inversely proportional to flow rate. But in the field of application there are many cases (such as drainage, dredging, well-pumping and other systems) where suction lift is more important factor than any other for water jet pumps, which gives importance to the assessment of depending factor of suction lift of water jet pumps. Six different jet pumps of two different nominal diameter each of three different nozzle to throat area ratio were made to carry out this experiment. The results revealed that the nozzle-to-throat area ratio was an important parameter to characterize the suction lift of the jet pumps, but nominal diameter had a negligible play role.
Keywords:Jet Pump, Nominal Dia, Suction lift and Throat area.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 324 KB
Title: Experimental Studies in Machining Duplex Stainless Steel using Response Surface Methodology
Author(s): M. Thiyagu, L. Karunamoorthy, N. Arunkumar
Pages: 48-61 Paper ID: 145803-4949-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract: Duplex stainless steel (DSS) comes under hard to machine material owing to its inherent properties. In this experimental study an attempt has made in turning DSS UNS 31803 (2205) with the objective of minimizing surface roughness and cutting force. The design of experiments and optimization were done using Box–Behnken design (BBD) and Response surface methodology (RSM). The factors and levels considered for experimentation includes cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, and tool nose radius in three levels. A second-order response surface models developed for surface roughness and cutting force were used in predicting the response in the design space. The Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and R-Squared value reveals the developed models were significant. The experimental results obtained indicate that feed rate and cutting speed were the more influential factors for surface roughness. Surface roughness increases with increase in the feed rate and cutting speed. For cutting force feed rate and nose radius are the significant factors. In addition the models adequacy was validated using confirmation experiments. The prediction error accounts from -4.07 to 0.55% for surface roughness and -2.47 to 2.52% for cutting force.
Keywords:Cutting Force, Duplex Stainless Steel, Response Surface Methodology, Surface Roughness.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 941 KB
Title: A Comparison of Controllers for Balancing Two Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Robot
Author(s): Amir A. Bature, Salinda Buyamin, Mohamed. N. Ahmad, Mustapha Muhammad
Pages: 62-68 Paper ID:146003-8383-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract: One of the challenging tasks concerning two wheeled inverted pendulum (TWIP) mobile robot is balancing its tilt to upright position, this is due to its inherently open loop instability. This paper presents an experimental comparison between model based controller and non-model based controllers in balancing the TWIP mobile robot. A Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) which is a non-model based controller and a Linear Quadratic Controller (LQR) which is a model-based controller, and the conventional controller, Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) were implemented and compared on a real time TWIP mobile robot. The FLC controller performance has given superior result as compared to LQR and PID in terms of speed response but consumes higher energy.
Keywords:Two Wheeled Inverted Pendulum (TWIP), Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC), Linear Quadratic Controller (LQR), Euler Lagrange equations.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 581 KB
Title: Analysis of Environmental Impact Reduction on Pump Components Using CML Methodologies
Author(s): P. Prathap, D. Senthilkumaran
Pages: 69-75 Paper ID:146803-1919-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract: The system in many countries has been undergoing some promising challenges due to various environmental threats and other adverse effect of them. This research paper deals with the application of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) on casting components (i.e suction flange, delivery flange and back cover) of the 0.5hp monoblock self-priming pump. Evaluation of environmental impacts like global warming potential (CO2), Acidification potential (SO2), Eutrophication potential (PO4), Abiotic depletion fossil (MJ) and Human toxicity potential (DCB) was done for the reference and alternate scenario of the casting components by LCA tool Centrum VoorMilieukunde Leiden (CML) methodologies. The investigation proved that there was a reduction in pollutant emission and environmental impact.
Keywords:LCA, Pump industry, Environmental impacts, CML methodologies.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 332 KB
Title: Evaluation Of Factors Affecting PCD Tool Wear Behavior Of Al-Fly ash Metal Matrix Composites by Using Design Of Experiments
Author(s): R. Elangovan, M. M. Ravikumar
Pages: 76-86 Paper ID:1410102-1403-6565-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract: Aluminum Flyash Silicon Carbide MMCs are increasingly utilized in Aerospace, Marine and Automobile Engineering. Such applications require materials offering light weight, high strength to weight ratio with required mechanical properties such as strength, toughness, stiffness, resistance to wear, and withstanding high temperature. The applications of Al-Flyash-SiC MMCs are limited due to their poor machinability. In order to overcome the machining difficulty, Hybrid Al-Flyash- SiC metal matrix composites are fabricated. The present study deals with the machining characteristics of Hybrid Al-Flyash-SiC MMC of different volume fractions (5%, 10% & 15%) by weight. The flyash is added in gradual manner and it is evident that the machinability of the Hybrid Al-Flyash- SiC metal improved significantly which was verified using Fuzzy Logic (FL) and Radial basis function (RBF).
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 489 KB
Title: LabVIEW Based Modeling of Dynamic System
Author(s): S. Rajendran, S. Palani
Pages: 87-92 Paper ID:149103-6565-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract: This paper describes a LabVIEW based data acquisition and measurement for modeling of nonlinear system. LabVIEW is gaining its popularity as a graphical programming language especially for data acquisition and measurement. This is due to the vast array of data acquisition cards and measurement systems, which can be supported by the LabVIEW as well as the relatively easy by which advanced software can be programmed. One area of application of LabVIEW is the measurement of process data for modeling of nonlinear system. From the process data, system modeling is obtained for the nonlinear system by the principle of Sundaresan and Krishnaswamy method
Keywords:Dynamic system, differential pressure transducer , signal conditioning , current to pressure converter, data acquisition card , virtual instrumentation
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 438 KB
Title: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Characteristics Study for In-Line Tube Bank in Cross-Flow
Author(s): Igbinosa Ikpotokin, Christian Okechukwu Osueke
Pages: 93-105 Paper ID:144303-8282-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract: This research investigates the heat transfer coefficient as a function of tube position and pressure drop, for in-line tube bank in cross-flow. Experimentation was essentially used to generate log-mean temperature curves and pressure heads upstream and down stream of the test section. The heat transfer and flow parameters such as Nusselt number, Reynolds number, and pressure drop across the bank were calculated. In addition, heat transfer correlations, Nusselt number (Nu) were obtained by power-law curve fitting for each position of the tube in the tube bank. FEMLAB 3.0 was use for numerical simulation and the results obtained compared favourably with that of the experimental results. Numerical results also reveal the important aspects of the local heat transfer and flow features within the tube bank. These characteristics include boundary layer developments between tubes, formation of vortices, local variations of the velocity and temperature distribution.
Keywords:In-line tube bank, cross-flow, flow characteristics.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 915 KB
Title: Axial Vibration Mode of Coupled Liquid-Structure-Gas System in a Rigid Cylindrical Container
Author(s): M. H. Zainulabidin, D. G. Gorman
Pages: 106-113 Paper ID:149203-7474-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract: This paper describes the axial vibration analysis of a closed ends rigid cylindrical container containing liquid and gas which separated by a thin circular plate at their interface. The liquid depths inside the container were varied and then the mode of vibration and the natural frequencies were analyzed. The natural frequencies obtained experimentally were compared favorably with those of commercial finite element analysis software, ANSYS. The vibration mode of the liquid-structure interaction of the tank system can be visualized from the software post processing animation/plot. The visualized modes are also consistent with the measurement by the respective experimental transducers. It was found that strong coupling predominantly occur between liquid and structure. In weak coupling conditions, the modes are predominantly gas mode.
Keywords:Acoustic-structure interaction, fluid-structure interaction, vibroacoustic.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 397 KB
Title: ANN Modelling and Optimization of Ra with corresponding MRR on HSS T42 Steel using WEDM Process
Author(s): U. K. Vates, N. K. Singh, C. R. V. Singh
Pages: 114-128 Paper ID:1410501-1403-6767-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract: Present work aims to investigate experimental process and optimize Ra (surface roughness) of HSS T42 using Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) process. Fractional factorial design of experiment to conducted experiments and Tan-sigmoid and pureline transfer functional based four layered Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network (BPANN) approach have been applied to develop suitable model which affect Ra at the optimum MRR (Material Removal Rate) by WEDM process parameters i.e., gap voltage (Vg), flush rate (Fr), Pulse on time (Ton), pulse off time (Toff), wire feed (Wf) and wire tension (Wt). The effect of parameters has been statistically analyzed by training data of the best model using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The adequacy of the model S1 has been found satisfactory as correlation coefficient (R2) of the training data and adjusted R2adj statistic are found to be 0.972 and 0.971 respectively. The optimization of Ra of HSS T42 has also been done using root mean square error (RMSE) approach.
Keywords:WEDC, Ra, HSS T42, BPANN, ANOVA, RMSE1.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 993 KB
Title: Forward Kinematic Analysis of Tip-Tilt-Piston Parallel Manipulator using Secant-Bootstrap Method
Author(s): A. Majidian, A. Amani, M. Golipour, A. Amraei
Pages: 129-134 Paper ID:143403-6969-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract: This paper, deals with application of the Secant-Bootstrap Method (SBM) to solve the Closed-form forward kinematics of a new three degree-of-freedom (DOF) parallel manipulator with inextensible limbs and base-mounted actuators. The manipulator has higher resolution and precision than the existing three DOF mechanisms with extensible limbs. This methodology has been utilized to achieve approximate solutions for nonlinear equations of kinematic of Tip-Tilt-Piston (T.T.P) Parallel Manipulator. The SBM is a novel methodology which moderate disadvantage of the traditional numerical techniques. The excellent agreement of the Secant-Homotopy Continuation solutions with the traditional numerical methods such as the Newton–Raphson method could be established without aberration. SBM for the forward kinematic of T.T.P Parallel Manipulator leads to 16 solutions that are eight pairs of reflected configurations with respect to the base plane.
Keywords:Forward Kinematic, Tip-Tilt-Piston, Parallel Manipulator, Secant-Bootstrap Method.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 394 KB
Title: An Hybrid Method of Modeling Maintenance Cost Based on Analytical and UVA Approach
Author(s): Amine Rechiche, Driss Bouami
Pages: 135-141 Paper ID:1411403-5757-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract: In This paper we will present a new methodology for modeling and optimization of maintenance costs, in a different and innovate way, and highlights, management methods based on the process approach, as recommended by the ISO 9000, mainly, this new method get their strategy from the Unity of Value Added (UVA). An application of this hybrid method to calculate maintenance costs is detailed. However, methods of calculating the cost of maintenance by the companies are still in most cases classicals and approximates, our approach can give a new solution and more precise, effectives and operational than others. Actually to be competitive, surely goes by improving the quality of the product or service rendered with rationalizing budgets and expenses allocated to the maintenance function.
Keywords:Cost of maintenance, analytical method, process approach, UVA method.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 298 KB
Title: Real-Time Adaptive Predictive Control for Hybrid Thermoelectric Refrigerator System
Author(s): M. Saifizi, Sazali Yaacob, M. S. Mohamad
Pages: 142-148 Paper ID:142803-7272-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract: This paper reports on control studies for Hybrid Thermoelectric Refrigerator (H-TER) system. The system is highly non-linear and exhibits varying model parameters and dead-time, hence the objective of the study is to investigate control strategies that are not based on detailed advance plant knowledge but allow for continuous adaptation of the controller to changing system dynamics. Using the generalized predictive controller (GPC), it is observed that the H-TER system is always stable even in the presence of randomly varying or step disturbance as well as dynamics model. The use of tuning parameters serve to improve system performance and to limit the controller from producing undesirable and unrealistically large, fast varying control signals. An interesting outcome from these studies is that controller design using GPC provides a more systematic approach is choosing the design parameters to achieve the desire performance specifications. However, it is also noted that the effects of non-linearity and varying time delay has not been investigated for this system. Under such situations, the design must involve the choice of prediction and control horizon, assumed to be fixed in this study. Then, it would mean more computation as the matrices involved would considerably increase in dimension.
Keywords:Black box, adaptive, control, self-tuning, thermoelectric, refrigerator.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 535 KB
Title: Prediction of Performance a Direct Injection Engine Fueled with Natural gas–Hydrogen Blends
Author(s): JavadZareei, Faizal Wan Mahmood, Shahrir Abdullah, Yusoff Ali, Taib Iskandar Mohamad
Pages: 149-156 Paper ID:144802-1403-7979-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract: With increasing concerns about energy shortages and environmental protection, research on improving engine fuel economy and reducing exhaust emissions has become a major research focus in combustion and engine development. Also, with conversion a conventional port fuel injection engine to direct injection (DI) and using alternative fuels, air/fuel mixture can be controlled and the engine is allowed to operate with very lean condition. With appropriate control of the air to fuel ratio gradient, the combustion process allows clean and controlled combustion, resulting in future improvement in fuel economy and emission control. In this study, the effects of mixtures of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG) on a spark ignition engine are numerically considered. This article presents the results of a direct-injection engine using methane–hydrogen mixtures containing H2 between 0% and 30% by volume. The result shows that the percentage of hydrogen in the CNG increases the burning velocity of CNG and reduces the optimal ignition timing to obtain the maximum peak pressure of an engine running with a blend of hydrogen and CNG. With hydrogen addition to natural gas, the peak heat release rates increase. For 20% hydrogen, the maximum values at crank angles (CAs) for in-cylinder temperature and heat release rate are achieved at 6° CA, and the maximum temperature is approximately 150 K. also it can be seen that torque and power was increased with adding hydrogen to natural gas and it is about 3%. Port injection gasoline is converted into direct injection by CNG fuel in this engine.
Keywords:Compressed natural gas, hydrogen, spark ignition engine, direct injection.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 588 KB