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Title: Probability of Failure for the Thermal Fatigue Life of Solder Joints in BGA Packaging using FORM and MCS Methods
Author(s): Zakaria EL HADDAD, Othmane BENDAOU, Larbi EL BAKKALI
Pages: 1-6 Paper ID: 170404-3535-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2017
Abstract: Nowadays, microelectronics plays a key role in our daily lives, such as communication, transportation, embedded systems, medicine etc, so we need to make sure that we can rely on microelectronics systems, while considering the thermal and vibratory fatigue, to make sure of that a lot of methods and simulation were introduced into the process of manufacturing. The reliability and fatigue life prediction of a system is an important problem in product design field, These problems are caused by the fatal flaw of the microelectronic packaging which contain solder joints, their reliability has a great impact on the reliability of the entire packaging structure. The cause of the fatigue failure of solder joints is usually caused by the accumulation of thermo-mechanical damages due to the operating conditions of thermal and mechanical shock. To predict the fatigue life of solder joints in ball grid array (BGA) packaging, finite element analysis methods are mostly used but this tool is not enough since they are based on a deterministic approach; the variability of the input parameters are neglected by this approach, which has an impact on the output of the model. Thus, we need to use a probabilistic approach. In this paper, we focused on the major factor of failure for solder joints as known as thermal fatigue. A finite element analysis using ANSYS 15.0.1 APDL was used to predict the fatigue life of the most critical solder joint under thermal cycle loading. The failure probability of the most critical solder joint of the microelectronic packaging is defined using two methods of numerical study of probabilistic methods which are: The First Order Reliability Method (FORM) and Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS).
Keywords: Microelectronics; reliability; fatigue life prediction solder joints; thermo-mechanical damages; BGA packaging; thermal cycle loading; failure probability; FORM; MCS.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 635 KB
Title: Warping Deformation of Desktop 3D Printed Parts Manufactured by Open Source Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) System
Author(s): Mohammad S. Alsoufi, Abdulrhman E. Elsayed
Pages: 7-16 Paper ID: 170504-9393-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2017
Abstract: The past few years have observed a fast increase in the popularity of 3D printing technology, e.g., for rapid prototyping. Additive manufacturing (AM) represents a spectrum of technology producing 3D printed parts layer-by-layer or even path-by-path. The aim of this paper is to study and minimize the warping deformation of open source FDM 3D prints focusing on the different process parameters. More precisely, this paper tackles the influence of the different nozzle temperatures ranging from 180°C to 220°C and printing speeds ranging from 5 mm/s to 20 mm/s on the FDM 3D components during the printing process. The process involved FDM 3D solid modeling as regards design, FDM 3D printing with PLA+ filament material with flat 45°/-45° build orientation, warping deformation measurement and statistical analysis. The experiment produced the minimum result of warping deformation value that can be achieved when the nozzle temperature was 220°C by reaching 2.0% error at corner 1 (starting point) and 4.55% overall error for FDM 3D printed part 1 (15 mm/s printing speed) when using coated thermos adhesive applied to the printing platform. It also shows that less than 1% error can be reached when 20 mm/s printing speed and 220°C nozzle temperature is selected.
Keywords: Warping Deformation, 3D Prints, FDM.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,004 KB
Title: Effect of Gelatin Starch on Mechanical, Morphology, Structure and Rheological Properties of Natural Rubber
Author(s): Ismaeel M. Alwaan, Sabreen Jabber Fayez Alftalawy, Hassan Hadi Ali
Pages: 17-26 Paper ID: 171104-3939-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2017
Abstract: In this work, natural rubber (NR) composites filled with gelatin starch (GS) were successfully prepared through compression molding using tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (TMTD) as a catalyst. The FTIR results revealed that the reaction of GS with NR surface occurred to confirm the GS grafting NR. The peaks of −OH bending in the range of 1369–1459 cm−1 disappeared in GS. The SEM of B1, B2, B3 and B4 blends showed weak adhesion between NR and GS interface. The tensile strength and elongation at break gradually reduced with adding of GS while the tensile modulus at 100%, 200%, and 300% elongations increased up to optimum loading (50 phr GS). The delta-torque, maximum torque, cure rate index and scorch time increased at loading of GS while the curing times (t90) decreased with the increase of GS loading. It was concluded the GS behaves as a co-agent of TMTD accelerator for curing process.
Keywords: Natural Rubber, Gelatin Starch, Mechanical Properties, Morphology, Rheological properties.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 865 KB
Title: Handling Improvement of a Four-Wheeled Vehicle Using a New Control System
Author(s): M. A. Saeedi, M. Mirzaee
Pages: 27-36 Paper ID: 171604-2828-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2017
Abstract: In this paper to increase the maneuverability and lateral stability of a vehicle a new control system is proposed. First a fourteen-degrees-of-freedom nonlinear dynamic model of a four-wheeled vehicle is developed. Then the vehicle model is validated using real test data and ADAMS CAR software during different maneuvers. Next to improve the vehicle dynamic performance, a new control system designed based on a simplified dynamic model. Also, the control system performance is evaluated at different velocities. Simulation results show that the controller improves the vehicle’s handling, especially during severe slalom maneuver in which intense instability occurs. Moreover, the proposed control system is robust against variations in the parameters and in the velocity of the vehicle.
Keywords: Lateral Stability, control system, nonlinear dynamic model, dynamic performance.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 965 KB
Title: An Experimental Investigation on the Thermophysical Properties of a Composite Basis of Natural Fibers of Alfa
Author(s): A. LACHHEB, M. ELMARHOUNE, R. SAADANI, R. AGOUNOUN, M. RAHMOUNE, K. SBAI
Pages: 37-42 Paper ID: 170804-5959-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2017
Abstract: Energy efficiency in buildings and the thermal insulation of the envelopes are a field of research is very important and have experienced a great development in recent years. In addition, several research are very interested in the use of new biobased materials to improve the thermal insulation in the building. The plant fibers are more and more used as reinforcement in the construction materials while maintaining levels of mechanical performance sufficient. Among these fibers; the fibers of alfa (Stipa tenacissima L) who is a member of the GRASS family (Macrochloa Tenacissima). The operation of this plant is an appropriate subject. It is in this perspective that fits our work. In effect, an experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of adding fiber of Alfa considered additive on the thermal properties of the plaster taken as the matrix. In a first time, experiments to determine the thermal properties by the method of the boxes using the device EI700 have been carried out after drying through the method of weight loss. Then, an individual house has been modeled under TRNSYS to determine the influence of our material on the charges for heating and air conditioning. The results obtained show that an increase in the percentage of alfa leads to a significant reduction in the thermal conductivity of the composite and then a reduction of up to 15% in the energy requirement of the building.
Keywords: Alfa, plaster, weight loss, thermal conductivity and diffusivity, method of the boxes, model TRNSYS.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 627 KB

 

 

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IJMME-IJENS Vol 17 Issue 04, BETA VERSION few more papers are coming.....