IJENS Publisher Indexed In SCOPUS


Author(s): Mervat El-Shafie
Pages: 1-7 Paper ID: 101904-8585-IJCEE-IJENS Published: August, 2010
Abstract: The Middle East region is under mega urban development plans. This era in the region’s history is vividly revealing the conceptual understanding of the conflicting views of urban development and construction projects in the developing countries. This paper takes Jeddah city, in Saudi Arabia, as a case study to highlight the conflicting views that rise from several world issues, which mark the current practices of urban development. Sustainability views the world as a source of renewable materials and hopes to keep the world green, while the new world order views economy as the source of empowerment and the hope to remedy human and environmental deterioration and to eradicate poverty. The paper aims to explore a framework that allows a holistic approach in practices’ methodology to urban development in developing countries. The main objective is to define a set of construction areas in which the use of green construction materials reduces demand for nonrenewable resources and the environmental degradation universally correlated with the mining of those resources. The paper hopes to raise awareness among developers for the use of sustainable construction materials versus the use of favored nonrenewable materials without neglect of the consequences of their impact on the urban development.
Keywords: Sustainable construction materials, Middle-East urban development, Jeddah development plan, green environment.
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Author(s): M. Cetin
Pages: 8-14 Paper ID: 102304-8585-IJCEE-IJENS Published: August, 2010
Abstract: Middle Eastern countries are suddenly confronted with the problem of a severe loss of architectural heritage, which is the material manifestation of their own cultural inheritance and thus that of their identity, particularly under conditions of a sudden, rapid, radical and haphazard way of transformation as imposed over a society and its cultural geography by global impacts. This paper aims to argue whether the conservation issues regarding earth architecture in Saudi Arabia are materially or culturally based with specific reference to Ibrahim Palace since it represents this conflict. The paper suggests that the problems regarding the architectural heritage conservation in Saudi Arabia are threefold; material, cultural and philosophical.
Keywords: Architectural Heritage, Ibrahim Palace
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Author(s): Abdel-moniem El-Shorbagy
Pages: 15-20 Paper ID: 104104-3838-IJCEE-IJENS Published: August, 2010
Abstract: Houses represent the background or framework for human existence. The Islamic-Arab house with its structural clarity and beauty can be conceived as being generated from the plan, which gave form and order to the space within as well as measured and scaled by the human body and its experience. The Islamic-Arab house was also established and based on a series of sustainable-oriented principles. The design concept of the Islamic-Arab house, problems, and solutions can be traced in many of the existing traditional Arab architecture, in which forms and spaces were dictated by habits and traditions. The aim of this paper is to examine the architectural vocabulary which governed the design concept of the Arab house and highlights their distinctive characteristics. It also explores the essential design problems, which affected the shape and the plan form of all traditional Muslim houses, in relation to the physical environment. A discussion of the way that tradition, culture, and religion formed the basis of the Arab house design approach and the continual reinvention of the plan will also be included. However, the main objective of this research is to identify the idealized spatial system of the Islamic-Arab house, which became a methodological and conceptual tool to constitute the basic vocabulary and syntax of its design.
Keywords: Islamic-Arab House, Tradition, Sustainability, Eco-Architecture, Syntax
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Author(s): Mervat El-Shafie
Pages: 21-29 Paper ID: 106604-3131-IJCEE-IJENS Published: August, 2010
Abstract: The phenomenal effect of the “placelessness” of modern humans has resulted from the impacts of modernity and globalization upon the quality of built environment. This phenomenon increasingly constitutes a source of subtle destruction. Evidence of this is clear in the West and the East, the rich North and the poor South. My interest, as an architect, is how to interpret the phenomenon of “placelessness” within modern built environment, and what this interpretation means for traditional communities seeking to retain a sense of “dwelling” under the impact of globalization. This paper aims to delve into the phenomenal relationship between people and their land, in order to interpret the integration of human-environment interactions. It takes the analysis of the Siwan experience to explore the characteristics and significance of these interactions. The paper proposes that the phenomenological relationships between people and nature are manifested in the interaction with the natural resources. It focuses on the characterization of these relationships as revealed in the socio-cultural rituals, myth and realities within the “natural space”. The paper investigates this proposition within the context of the Siwan community and explores the ways in which people create a cultural landscape in order to form their place in-the-world.
Keywords: Cultural Landscape, Human-Environment Interactions, Phenomenology of Place, Siwa
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Author(s): M. Cetin
Pages: 30-34 Paper ID: 102704-3939-IJCEE-IJENS Published: August, 2010
Abstract: The paper analyzes the ongoing urban transformation and delineates an underlying rationale which enables the comprehension of the current dual character of the Arab city with particular reference to the case of Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The re-reading of city form is mainly based on the critical interpretation of the mechanisms of urban morphology in relation to both global economic impacts and associated building boom as well as to the means of perception of urban space particularly by different strata of the urban realm. Thus, urban morphology of Arab city is analyzed as a medium which manifests a gradually increasing discrepancy between the social structure and the physical container of the public realm. Emergent urban scene seems to depict impressions of fragmentation and segregation, whereas the society itself claims to have intrinsic unity, integrity and synchronization. Thus, the paper proposes judicious and critical planning policy instead of the direct import of global urban-architectural typologies.
Keywords: Urban Transformation, Arab City
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Author(s): Kashif Mahmud, Md. Rashadul Islam, Md. Al-Amin
Pages: 35-40 Paper ID: 108504-2727-IJCEE-IJENS Published: August, 2010
Abstract: In the building construction, framed structures are frequently used due to ease of construction and rapid progress of work. Masonry infill panels have been widely used as interior and exterior partition walls for aesthetic reasons and functional needs. When infill walls are omitted in a particular storey, a soft storey is formed compared to much stiffer other stories. The masonry infill has been modeled by equivalent struts. Normally in structural analysis it is considered that the Equivalent Static Analysis is more conservative against ground shaking for regular structures or structures of smaller height. In this paper the behavior of reinforced concrete (R.C.) frames with brick masonry infill for various parametric changes have been studied to observe their influences in deformation patterns of the frame. The present study is also aimed at findings out the effect of soft storey on frame structures due to horizontal loading. In both cases of wind and earthquake loads, if number of bay increases, then the deflection eventually decreases. As the story level of a building frame increases, deflection due to lateral loads naturally increases due to additional lateral loads. Deflection increases linearly if the span of bay increases linearly because of linearly increased loads. Deflection for a soft storey building frame is 1.4 to 2.0 times greater than that observed excluding the soft storey effect. Deflection for R.C. frames with 5 inch wall thickness is observed 10 to 20% higher than that for frames with 10 inch wall thickness. As the beam and column size increases, deflection pattern decreases with increased stiffness. Two different theories for modeling the equivalent struts (Mainstone and Saneinejad theory) have used in this work and these two different theories of Equivalent Strut Method have little bearing on the variations of results.
Keywords: Infill, soft story, Equivalent Static Analysis, equivalent struts, Saneinejad Theory, Mainstone Theory.
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Author(s): Mohammad Iqbal Khan
Pages: 41-46 Paper ID: 108304-9191-IJCEE-IJENS Published: August, 2010
Abstract: In Reinforced concrete structures chloride ion penetration is considered to be a major cause of corrosion of reinforcing bars. Conventional concretes fail to prevent the intrusion of moisture and aggressive ions adequately. The use supplementary cementing composite materials have been reported to increase the resistance of concrete to deterioration by aggressive chemicals such as chlorides. In this investigation various combinations of pulverised fuel ash and silica fume were incorporated as partial cement replacements for composite systems. To establish the resistance of these concrete types to chloride ion penetration ASTM C1202 chloride permeability test was used. Prediction models were developed, based on the experimentally obtained results, which enabled the establishment of isoresponse contours showing the interaction between the various parameters investigated.
Keywords: Chloride Resistant; Chloride Ion Penetration; High Performance Concrete.
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Author(s): Ruzitah Supinyeh, Siti Hawa Hamzah
Pages: 47-62 Paper ID: 101703-4-9292-IJCEE-IJENS Published: August, 2010
Abstract: Recently reinforced concrete walls have gained greater acceptance from many countries in conjunction with the Industrialized Building System (IBS). Essentially, the system gives an advantage in reducing the dependency of foreign labour and a better investment in technologies, techniques and processes of construction. Steel fabric reinforced concrete wall panel has been used in Malaysia in the past few years and can still be considered as a new construction method. This type of wall may require sequential analysis in making an effective product that gives advantages in all aspects and gives better performance. This research involved laboratory experimental work and model by using a finite element computer program as comparison of the results. Laboratory works tested eight wall samples with size of 1.0m x 1.5m and 0.75m thick. (Length:Height:Width). The wall samples reinforced with double layer steel fabric size B7 and concrete Grade 30. The wall panel tested under axial load with the eccentric t/6 or 12.5mm of wall thickness. Variations of support condition include of t/6 with pinned or fixed imposed at the top and bottom of the wall panel. Experimental result shows due to eccentric loading that all of the wall panels failed in compression shear which the wall panels shown a single curvature pattern where it bends towards the rear side. There are no cracks seen on both front and rear surfaces of the wall panel unless it crushed at top and base of the wall. It is observed that the ultimate eccentric loads (Pult) of 991.45 kN and maximum deflection 9.67mm obtained from the experimental works. The computer analysis shows that the wall panel failed by compression. Higher stress concentration appears at the upper and bottom corner of the wall panel. The deflection obtained over by 18.3% compared with the experimental results. Comparison with the experimental and the computer analysis results were found in good agreement.
Keywords: Concrete wall panel, steel fabric, eccentric
Full Text (.pdf) | 584 KB